click links in text for more info

Hallstein Doctrine

The Hallstein Doctrine, named after Walter Hallstein, was a key principle in the foreign policy of the Federal Republic of Germany from 1955 to 1970. As presented, it prescribed that the Federal Republic would not establish or maintain diplomatic relations with any state that recognized the German Democratic Republic. In fact it was more nuanced. There was no public official text of the "doctrine", but its main architect, Wilhelm Grewe, explained it publicly in a radio interview. Konrad Adenauer, who served as Chancellor of Germany from 1949 to 1963, explained the outlines of the policy in a statement to the German parliament on 22 September 1955, it meant that the Federal German government would regard it as an unfriendly act if third countries were to recognize the "German Democratic Republic" or to maintain diplomatic relations with it – with the exception of the Soviet Union. The West German response to such could mean breaking off diplomatic relations, though this was not stated as an automatic response under the policy and in fact remained the ultima ratio.

The Federal Republic abandoned important aspects of the doctrine after 1970 when it became difficult to maintain, the Federal government changed its politics towards the German Democratic Republic. The Four Power Agreement on Berlin in 1971 and the signing of the Basic Treaty in 1972 brought an end to the doctrine, in accordance with the new strategy of Ostpolitik. Following Germany's defeat in World War II, the territory east of the Oder–Neisse line was under Soviet or Polish administration and had de facto been annexed; the rest of the territory west of, divided into four occupation zones controlled by the Allies, with the former capital, being divided into four sectors. The western zones controlled by France, the United Kingdom, the United States were merged, in May 1949, to form the Federal Republic of Germany, they were informally known as "West Germany" and "East Germany". However, prior to 1954, the Allies still retained responsibility for the whole of Germany and neither East Germany nor West Germany had regained their sovereignty.

The Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany, which came into effect in 1949, was written as a constitution for the whole of Germany, including West Germany and East Germany. It laid down German reunification as a goal and a requirement and was proclaimed in the name of the whole of the German people. On 23 March 1954, the Soviet Union declared that it would establish diplomatic relations with the German Democratic Republic; this was seen as giving the German Democratic Republic a degree of legitimacy as a separate state. The West German government in Bonn rejected this, claiming that the Federal Republic of Germany was the legitimate heir of the German Reich. After the ratification of the Paris Accords on 5 May 1955, the General Treaty, which restored German sovereignty, took effect; the government of the Federal Republic of Germany claimed to speak for the whole German people. In the New York Declaration of 18 September 1951, the western occupying powers had declared that they "regard the government of the Federal Republic of Germany as the only German government and legitimately constituted and therefore entitled to speak for the German nation in international affairs".

The Federal Republic of Germany did not recognize the German Democratic Republic and maintained diplomatic relations with neither the German Democratic Republic nor the other Communist states of Eastern Europe. In 1955 Konrad Adenauer visited Moscow, where agreement was reached that the Federal Republic of Germany and the Soviet Union would establish diplomatic relations; this was in the interest of the Federal Republic of Germany but—because the Soviet Union maintained diplomatic relations with the German Democratic Republic—it was inconsistent with the exclusive mandate policy, which insisted that other states should not maintain diplomatic relations with both German "states". There was therefore a need to publicly define the policy and reinforce the message that the Federal Republic would not accept any other states maintaining diplomatic relations with both the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic. Walter Hallstein and Wilhelm Grewe were members of the delegation that accompanied Adenauer to Moscow.

It was on the flight back from Moscow that the major elements of the policy were laid down, though elements of the policy had been devised and practised by the Foreign Office before. Hallstein referred to the establishment of diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union in spite of the latter's recognition of East Germany as a "singular act" because of the Soviet Union's privileged status as an occupying power. Adenauer talked of the policy in a press conference on 16 September 1955 and again in a government statement to the Parliament on 22 September 1955, warning other states that establishing diplomatic relations with the German Democratic Republic would be regarded as an unfriendly act. On 8 December 1955, there was a meeting of the heads of all major German embassies and the leadership of the Foreign Office; the policy of non-recognition of the German Democratic Republic was one of the main points on the agenda. The text of the speeches by Foreign Minister Brentano and Grewe were distributed to embassies worldwide.

The Hallstein Doctrine was named after Walter Hallstein "state secretary" (the to

Chinese city wall

Chinese city walls refer to defensive systems used to protect towns and cities in China in pre-modern times. In addition to walls, city defenses included towers and gates; the most specific Chinese word for a city wall is chéngqiáng, which can be used in two senses in the modern Chinese language. It broadly refers to all defensive walls, including the Great Wall of China, as well as similar defensive structures in areas outside of China such as Hadrian's Wall. More Chengqiang refers to defensive walls built around a city or town. However, in classical Chinese, the character chéng denoted the defensive wall of the "inner city" which housed government buildings; the character guō denoted the defensive wall of the "outer city", housing residences. The phrase chángchéng "the long wall", refers to the Great Wall. Colloquially chéng referred to city so that both were synonymous with each other. A city was not a city without walls, however large it may be. There is no real city in Northern China without a surrounding wall, a condition which, indeed, is expressed by the fact that the Chinese use the same word Ch'eng for a city and a city wall: for there is no such thing as a city without a wall.

It is just as inconceivable as a house without a roof. It matters little how large and well ordered a settlement may be. Thus, for instance, the most important commercial centre of modern China, is, to the old-fashioned Chinaman, not a real city, only a settlement or a huge trading centre, grown out of a fishing village, and the same is true of several other comparatively modern commercial centres without encircling walls. The invention of the city wall is attributed to the semi-historical sage Gun of the Xia dynasty, father of Yu the Great; the traditional narrative tells that Gun built the inner wall to defend the prince and the outer wall to settle the people. An alternative narrative attributes the first city wall to the Yellow Emperor. A number of neolithic walls surrounding substantial settlements have been excavated in recent years; these include a wall at a Liangzhu culture site, a stone wall at Sanxingdui, several tamped earthen walls at the Longshan culture site. In 15th century BC the Shang dynasty constructed large walls around the site of Ao with dimensions of 20 meters in width at the base and enclosed an area of some 2,100 yards squared.

Walls of similar dimensions were found at the ancient capital of the state of Zhao, Handan with a width of 20 meters at the base, a height of 15 meters, a length of 1,530 yards along its two rectangular sides. Most settlements of significant size possessed a city wall from the Zhou dynasty onwards; the city wall of Pingyao wㄋ first constructed between 827 BC and 782 BC during the reign of King Xuan of Zhou. The city walls of Suzhou followed afterward under the same plan created by Wu Zixu in the 5th century BC. and lasted until their demolition in the 1960s and 1970s. Sieges of city walls were portrayed on bronze'hu' vessels dated to the Warring States, like those found in Chengdu, China in 1965; the walls of Han dynasty Chang'an were completed in 189 BC and covered a perimeter of 25.5 km while the Eastern Han capital of Luoyang measured 4.3 km by 3.7 km. By the end of the Eastern Han dynasty local gentry and villagers built more confined defensive structures in the form of square forts known as wū bì.

These were erected in remote countrysides and had high walls, cornered watchtowers, gates to the front and back. According to Stephen Turnbull, the wū bì are the closest approximation to the concept of a European castle that has existed in Chinese history. Under the Sui dynasty, the capital of Chang'an was renamed Da Xingcheng and its outer wall was expanded to cover a perimeter of 35 km. Under the Tang dynasty, the capital of Chang'an's outer walls measured 9.72 km east to west by 8.65 km north to south. Under the Jin dynasty the capital of Zhongdu had walls covering a perimeter of 24 km and reached a height of 12m. Chinese city walls tended to square in shape. Philosophical and feng shui considerations were adopted in siting gates and the city itself. Chinese cities were centered on a castle. Instead, the city's administrative center was spread over a large area, which may or may not have been surrounded by a second set of "inner" walls similar in shape and construction to the main outer wall.

Long-term strategic considerations meant that the walls of important cities enclosed an area much larger than existing urban areas in order to ensure excess capacity for growth, to secure resources such as timber and farmland in times of war. The city wall of Quanzhou in Fujian still contained one quarter vacant land by 1945; the city wall of Suzhou by the Republic of China era still enclosed large tracts of farmland. The City Wall of Nanjing, built during the Ming dynasty, enclosed an area large enough to house an airport, bamboo forests, lakes in modern times. Where allowed by geography, Chinese city walls are rectangular with four orthogonal walls; some wall systems are composed of a number of such rectangles, set adjacent to or concentrically within each other. For example, the city wall of Beijing is composed of four rectangles: a wider outer city to the south, a narrower

Robbins Park Historic District

The Robbins Park Historic District is a set of three hundred and sixty-eight buildings in Hinsdale, Illinois. Two hundred and thirty-two of these builds contribute to its historical value; the district was platted by William Robbins in the 1860s and 1870s following the completion of the Chicago and Quincy Railroad. Wealthy entrepreneurs moved to the district beginning in the 1890s due to its natural beauty and proximity to major golf resorts; the district was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 2008 and features two houses honored by the register. The Chicago and Quincy Railroad was opened in 1862 and added a station in modern-day Hinsdale, Illinois two years later. Before the station was built, real estate developer William Robbins purchased 700 acres, the first land in Hinsdale, including a lot for his own home, he platted the Town of Hinsdale in 1866 all of, south of the railroad tracks. Robbins advertised the land in Chicago newspapers and built cottages and a school to promote residential development.

He added land to the town in 1866 and in 1871. Horace W. S. Cleveland was hired to plat the 1871 addition, in the emerging curvilinear style instead of the predominant gridiron plan. Curvilinear plans spared maneuvering around large trees and hills; the Robbins Parks Addition was one of Cleveland's first ventures in the Midwest. The Great Chicago Fire caused many Chicago residents to reconsider a move to the suburbs, resulting in a population boom; the Highlands train station, just north of the Robbins Park district was added to the CB&Q in 1873. By this time, the population of Hinsdale was 1,500. Hinsdale issued bonds to improve its public works, resulting in running water, a sewage system for the town. Streets were paved with brick; the Hinsdale Golf Club, opened west of Hinsdale in 1899, prompted wealthy patrons to move near the club. Hinsdale's reputation grew as one of Chicago's most beautiful suburbs of Chicago, several publications heralded the architectural styling of the town. Local entrepreneurs flocked to the Robbins Park district.

William Whitney was a member of the Illinois House of Representatives and first proposed legislation to incorporate Hinsdale. His house is independently listed on the National Register of Historic Places. William Gibson Barfield was a local architect who designed the Hinsdale Theater and the Hinsdale State Bank, as well as many of the Robbins park residences. Howard George Hetzler was the President of the Metropolitan West Side Elevated Railroad and the Superintendent of the Chicago division of the CB&Q. Charles G. Root was a partner of the United States Gypsum Corporation. Orland P. Bassett, whose house is on the NRHP, was the first to commercially sell the American Beauty rose; the earliest homes in the district represent the Gothic Revival style, including Robbins' own. The most popular style of building in the district is Colonial Revival. Most structures are from the Late Victorian era, but there are a few examples of more modern American Craftsman and bungalow designs. Four contributing houses are of Italianate design and thirty-two are Queen Anne style.

The district is entirely residential, with the exception of four churches and two non-contributing businesses. The Boston, Massachusetts firm of Shepley and Coolidge designed the George H. and Carrie R. Mitchell House at 244 E. First Street in 1893. Eben Ezra Roberts designed the 1910 Prairie School Albert Wilson True House at 231 E. Third Street. Fellow Oak Park native John S. Van Bergen was the architect of the 1923 Harold Klock Residence at 306 S. County Line Road. Schmidt and Erickson was responsible for two Colonial residences, built in 1934 and 1937. Solon Spencer Beman, who designed the first company town of Pullman, Illinois designed the Church of Christ, Scientist building in the district in 1951. Downtown Hinsdale Historic District platted by William Robbins National Register of Historic Places Registration Form: Robbins Park Historic District Media related to Robbins Park Historic District at Wikimedia Commons

Giovanni Buscaglione

Giovanni Buscaglione was an Italian - Colombian architect and priest from Piedmont, Italy. He designed series of important projects of religious and educative architecture in Italy, Constantinople and Alexandria but was noted for his work in Colombia, a country where he spent his years and contributed a significant number of architectural works. Buscaglione spent two years of his childhood with San Juan Bosco, one of the great educators of the 19th century and founder of the congregations of San Francisco de Sales and of the Daughters of Helping Maria, both dedicated to the education and development of poor young people, he studied electronic engineering in the Albertina Academy of Turin, developed an interest in sketching ecclesiastical architecture with father Ernesto Vespignani, designer of several churches and schools in South America and he soon had a number of schools in Egypt and Turkey in which he would design in Istanbul and Alexandria. He was soon under contract to undertake architectural work in Colombia, arrived at Bogota, the Colombian capital in 1920.

Soon after his arrival he became co-assistant and first director of the office of engineering, was appointed in that same year at the Colegio Salesiano. Through this office, he was permitted to work as a priest and design a wide variety of religious buildings and schools in Colombia over a period of twenty years, until his death in 1941, he conducted surveys for reforms, constructing chapels, seminaries, agricultural farms and devised a project for a university in Medellín. He designed buildings across many departments of Colombia including Amazonas, Bolívar, Boyacá, Meta and Valle del Cauca, he focused in the education of young people from underprivileged backgrounds, carrying on the work in the country, which he had been involved in back in Italy and had once been taught under. The primary objective was to provide to religious and artistic education to Colombian boys in the Schools of Arts and he was responsible for training capable workers in graphical arts, carpentry and construction of buildings.

Buscaglione was able to provide his personal knowledge towards architectural education and taught the constructive details, the structural calculations and measurements red and how to create molds for the casting of columns and decorative bricks. Buscaglione's architectural style in Colombia was a stylistic expression influenced by his Italian roots but incorporated styles of Islamic architecture in the near east which he had become fond of during his time in Turkey and Egypt in Izmir and Alexandria; this was reflected in his works such as the Greater Seminary of Medellín – today a commercial center, the Colegio de León XIII and the Santuario Nacional de Nuestra Señora del Carmen in Bogota, considered his masterpiece. The Florentine Gothic style was prevalent in his work, he was under contract to construct more than thirty churches and chapels under the national reformation programme during which the Metropolitan Cathedral of Medellín was completed; the tower rises 57 meters above the vestibule, characterised by its ornate white facade.

It was declared National Monument of Colombia in 1993Buscaglione died in 1941

Elikem Kumordzie

Elikem Kumordzie known as Elikem The Tailor is a Ghanaian actor, fashion designer and master of ceremonies. In 2013 Kumordzie came third on the reality TV show Big Brother Africa, representing Ghana. Elikem was born in Accra, attended Kay Billie Klaer Academy and Englebert Junior High School. For his secondary education, he attended a secordary school in Accra, he proceeded to University of Ghana, where he obtained a BSc in Combined Psychology and Theater Arts. In 2013 Kumordzie appeared on the reality TV show Big Brother Africa, representing Ghana, he emerged third and first Ghanaian to make it at the grand finals. His breakthrough acting role was in 2013, he has acted in Silver Rain,Pauline's Diary, among others. In 2019, he was nominated as "Best Dressed Celebrity on the Red Carpet" at the Glitz Style Awards. Cheaters Prince of Brimah The Bachelors Happy Death Day Happy Death Day Silver Rain Princess Natasha The Joy of Natasha Utopia Pauline's Diary The King with No Culture 2016, Black and White 2018, Table of Men In June 2015, Elikem married Pokello.

The two hit it off. The couple had a son together. 2014 - Best Actor in a Leading Role, 2014 Ghana Movie Awards 2015 - Best Costume and Wardrobe Designer, I do, 2015 Ghana Movie Awards 2015 - Favourite Actor Award, Golden Movie Awards 2019 - Best Dressed Celebrity on the Red Carpet, Glitz Style Awards in Accra 2019 - Fashion Entrepreneur of the Year and Lifestyle Awards Elikem Kumordzie on IMDb Elikem Kumordzie at Television South Africa

William Harrison (poet)

William Harrison was an English poet and diplomat. He was admitted scholar of Winchester College in 1698, coming from the neighbouring parish of St. Cross, aged 13. In 1704, he was elected to a scholarship at New College and after two years of probation succeeded to a fellowship in 1706. Joseph Addison became his friend, obtained for him the post of governor to a son of the Duke of Queensberry at a salary of £40 a year. With this and his fellowship, which he retained for his life, Harrison plunged into London society. Harrison was recommended by Addison to Jonathan Swift, who took to him, by 1710; when Richard Steele discontinued The Tatler, a continuation by Harrison suggested itself to Henry St. John and Swift, however dubious; the first number came out 13 January 1711. Between these dates, Swift introduced Harrison to St. John, who obtained for him the post of secretary to Lord Raby, the ambassador extraordinary at The Hague to arrange the treaty with France. St. John gave him fifty guineas for the expenses of his journey, on 20 April 1711 he set off for Holland.

In time, but after some trouble with the previous holder of the office, he became queen's secretary to the embassy at Utrecht, in January 1713 returned to England with the barrier treaty. It turned out. Swift got thirty guineas for him, with an order on the treasury for £100, removed him to Knightsbridge. On 14 February 1713 Swift went to call on him. Harrison's major poem was Woodstock Park; the third ode of Horace, imitated by him as To the Yacht which carried the Duke of Marlborough to Holland, 1707, is included in William Duncombe's Horace, several of his poetical pieces are inserted in Steele's Poetical Miscellanies, 1714. Most of his poems, except Woodstock Park, were reprinted in John Nichols's Collection; the Tatler which he edited in 1711 was reprinted in duodecimo in 1712 and subsequent years as Steele's Tatler, vol. v. Some of the essays are reprinted in Nichols's edition of the Tatler, vol. vi. A long letter written by Harrison from Utrecht to Swift on 16 December 1712 is in the latter's works, 1883 ed. xvi.

14–18. "Harrison, William". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: "Harrison, William". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900. William Harrison at the Eighteenth-Century Poetry Archive