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Halma is a strategy board game invented in 1883 or 1884 by George Howard Monks, a US thoracic surgeon at Harvard Medical School. His inspiration was the English game Hoppity, devised in 1854; the gameboard is divided into 16 × 16 squares. Pieces may be small checkers or counters, or wooden or plastic cones or men resembling small chess pawns. Piece colors are black and white for two-player games, various colors or other distinction in games for four players; the game is played by four players seated at opposing corners of the board. The game is won by being first to transfer all of one's pieces from one's own camp into the camp in the opposing corner. For four-player games played in teams, the winner is the first team to race both sets of pieces into opposing camps. On each turn, a player either moves a single piece to an adjacent open square, or jumps over one or more pieces in sequence; the board consists of a grid of 16×16 squares. Each player's camp consists of a cluster of adjacent squares in one corner of the board.

These camps are delineated on the board. For two-player games, each player's camp is a cluster of 19 squares; the camps are in opposite corners. For four-player games, each player's camp is a cluster of 13 squares; each of the four corners of the board is a camp. Each player has a set of pieces of the same number as squares in each camp; the game starts with each player's camp filled by pieces of their own color. Players randomly determine. Pieces can move in eight possible directions; each player's turn consists of moving a single piece of one's own color in one of the following plays: One move to an empty square: Place the piece in an empty adjacent square. This move ends the play. One or more jumps over adjacent pieces: An adjacent piece of any color can be jumped if there is an adjacent empty square on the directly opposite side of that piece. Place the piece in the empty square on the opposite side of the jumped piece; the piece, jumped over is unaffected and remains on the board. After any jump, one may end the play.

Once a piece has reached the opposing camp, a play cannot result in that piece leaving the camp. If the current play results in having every square of the opposing camp occupied by one's own pieces, the acting player wins. Otherwise, play proceeds clockwise around the board; the mechanic of jumping pieces is reminiscent of draughts but differs in that no opposing pieces are captured or otherwise withdrawn from the board nor is jumping compulsory. Chinese Checkers, a variant of Halma, was published in 1892 as Stern-Halma and renamed upon marketing to the United States to appear more exotic; the name is misleading, since the game has no historical connection with China, nor is it a checkers game. There are 8×8 and 10×10 board variations, either of, adequate for two players and they have 10 and 15 pieces per player, respectively. There are various online versions for two-player, turn-based play; some sites implement a rule variation stating that a player automatically loses if they still have a piece in their start region after a certain number of moves.

Fast-advancing players attempt to blockade an opposing piece, but this tactic can backfire if the other player is aware of it. In non-electronic versions, the number of moves is not counted. A game of Halma has three distinct phases; the beginning is a set-piece battle, with players setting up their favoured openings. The middle is characterised by opportunistic play. Players should set up for the endgame, avoiding stragglers; as with most board games, early control of the center is a key tactic, as it provides additional mobility. Pieces can form a two-layer blocking wall, deflecting the opponent from the center and forcing them into a longer trajectory, it is important to understand. This means that a player with a pair of "leapfrogging" pieces has an advantage over a player with two individual stragglers; the larger boards have more strategic combinations available than the smaller boards, the four player game offers more tactical intrigue than the two player game. Talking Halma pieces featured in the Rupert the Bear story "Rupert and the Jumping Men," Rupert Annual 1976.

In E. Nesbit's The Magic City, the land of Somnolentia is inhabited by Halma people. Mervyn Peake twice compares distant people in his novels Mr Pye and Titus Groan. Paul Jennings described the hilarious results of his attempt to decipher the rules of the game from a set of instructions in German in his article "How to Spiel Halma". Eleanor Farjeon talks about playing Halma in her autobiography A Nursery in the Nineties, about using black and red Halma pieces to enact a Christmas Eve ritual game in which imaginary characters try to climb a mountain made of Anchor Stone Blocks. In The Chalet School and Jo from the Chalet School series by Elinor Brent-Dyer, Halma is played by two of the characters. In Episode 9 of the original radio series, Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy by Douglas Adams, E

Hans Richter was an Austrian–Hungarian orchestral and operatic conductor. Richter was born in Kingdom of Hungary, Austro-Hungarian Empire, his father was a local composer and regens chori Anton Richter. His mother was opera-singer Jozefa Csazenszky, he studied at the Vienna Conservatory. He had a particular interest in the horn, developed his conducting career at several different opera houses in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, he became associated with Richard Wagner in the 1860s, played the solo trumpet part in the 1870 private premiere of the Siegfried Idyll. In 1876, he was chosen to conduct the first complete performance of Wagner's Der Ring des Nibelungen at the Bayreuth Festspielhaus. In 1877, he assisted the ailing composer as conductor of a major series of Wagner concerts in London, from onwards he became a familiar feature of English musical life, appearing at many choral festivals including as principal conductor of the Birmingham Triennial Music Festival and directing the Hallé Orchestra and the newly formed London Symphony Orchestra.

In Europe his work was chiefly based in Vienna, where he gave much attention to the works of Brahms himself, Anton Bruckner and Antonín Dvořák. In years, Richter became a whole-hearted admirer of Sir Edward Elgar, he came to accept Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky. On one occasion, he laid down his baton and allowed a London orchestra to play the whole second movement of Tchaikovsky's Pathétique Symphony itself. Never afraid to experiment on behalf of the music he loved, he lent his authority to an English-language production of The Ring at Covent Garden. In 1909 he delivered the British premiere shortly after the world premiere, in Boston, of Ignacy Jan Paderewski's Symphony in B minor "Polonia". Failing eyesight forced his retirement in 1911, he died at Bayreuth in 1916. Richter's approach to conducting was monumental rather than mercurial or dynamic, emphasising the overall structure of major works in preference to bringing out individual moments of beauty or passion; some observers regarded him as little more than a time-beater.

Hans Richter was first brought to England by Wagner in 1877 to conduct six operatic concerts in London. The impact made by Richter on the capital's orchestral players was enormous, they had never been rehearsed so nor with such discipline as that of a genuine musician rather than a showman. Intonation was scrutinised, details brought out, tempi rationalised, notes corrected, his practical knowledge proved no weak player felt secure. He conducted rehearsals and performances of orchestral concerts and operas from memory; the living composers whose works he introduced to British audiences were the greats in whose company he could be found, Brahms, Dvorak, Glazunov, Stanford and Elgar. For 20 years from 1879 he toured the breadth of Britain with his Richter Orchestra. A rebuke he is supposed to have made to a musician in the Covent Garden orchestra is still sometimes quoted: "Up with your damned nonsense will I put twice, or once, but sometimes always, by God, never." Wagner: Siegfried Wagner: Götterdämmerung Brahms: Symphony No. 2 Brahms: Tragic Overture Brahms: Concert No. 2 for Piano and Orchestra Tchaikovsky: Violin Concerto in D Bruckner: Symphony No. 4 Brahms: Symphony No. 3 Bruckner: Te Deum Bruckner: Symphony No. 8 Elgar: Enigma Variations Elgar: The Dream of Gerontius Elgar: Symphony No. 1 Hans Richter at AllMusic Chisholm, Hugh, ed..

"Richter, Hans". Encyclopædia Britannica. 23. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 312–313. Christopher Fifield. Foreword by Georg Solti. True Artist and True Friend: A Biography of Hans Richter. Oxford University Press, 1993. ISBN 0-19-816157-3

Adolphe-André Porée, known as Chanoine Porée, was a French archaeologist and historian. From Beaumont-en-Auge, his father, Adolphe Porée, ran a dyeing factory in Bernay. A religious individual, Porée embraced the priesthood at the age of twenty-three. In 1871, he became the curé of the collegiate church of Les Andelys. In 1875, he became the curé of Bournainville-Faverolles. Porée spent his nights studying archeology, with particular attention paid to the churches of Eure sold during the First Empire, local notables and the impact of the French Revolution. Porée, the diocesan archivist, from 1890 to 1892, an archaeological expedition through France, Germany and Italy. In 1882, he discovered, along with the abbé de La Balle and Gaston Le Breton, a lost statue by Pierre Puget on the old La Londe castle grounds at Biéville-Beuville; this statue of Hercules slaying the Hydra of Lerna, in the Château du Vaudreuil, is now at the Musée des Beaux-Arts de Rouen. A disciple of Auguste Le Prévost and Leopold Delisle, he was the director of the Société des Antiquaires de Normandie, a corresponding member of the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres and an Officer of Public Instruction.

He was awarded the Legion of Honor in 1926. Porée's Histoire de l'Abbaye. Several streets were named after him, in Bec-Hellouin, Bournainville-Faverolles, Pont-Audemer and Bernay. In 1964, a plaque honoring his memory was erected in the cemetery of Bournainville. In 2000, a local former rectory was converted into a Porée museum. Description du vitrail de Saint-Léger à Notre-Dame d'Andely. Tours: P. Bousrez. 1877. Guide historique et descriptif de l'étranger aux Andelys. Les Andelys: Caron. 1879. Notice sur la seigneurie et le château du Blanc-Buisson. Caen: F. Le Blanc-Hardel. 1884. Guillaume de La Tremblaye, sculpteur et architecte, 1644-1715. Caen: F. Le Blanc-Hardel. 1884. L'Hercule terrassant l'hydre de Lerne de Puget. Bernay: Vve A. Lefèvre. 1884. Un peintre bernayen: Michel Hubert-Descours, 1707-1775. Bernay: J. et A. Lefèvre. 1889. Histoire de l'abbaye du Bec. Évreux: Charles Herrissey. 1901. Note sur Auguste Le Prévost et Charles Nodier. Rouen: L. Gy. 1903. Bulletin de la Société des antiquaires de Normandie, vol.

46-47, Société des antiquaires de Normandie, Caen, 1939, p. 15 passim