North Maluku is a province of Indonesia. It covers the northern part of the Maluku Islands; the provincial capital is Sofifi, on Halmahera, the largest population center is the island city of Ternate. The population of North Maluku was 1,038,087 at the 2010 Census making it one of the least-populous provinces in Indonesia; the movement of the regional economy in North Maluku is derived from the people's economy which relies on the agricultural sector and other types of marine products. The main commodities that support economic pulse in North Maluku include copra, cloves, fisheries and nickel. North Maluku's natural products include rice, roasted sweet potatoes, coconut, nutmeg and eucalyptus; the regional economy comes from the people's economy which relies on the agricultural sector and other types of marine products. This area was the former region of the four largest Islamic kingdoms in the eastern part of the archipelago known as the Moloku Kie Raha, they are the Bacan Sultanate, Jailolo Sultanate, Tidore Sultanate and the Ternate Sultanate respectively.
Europeans began arriving in the region at the beginning of the 16th century. North Maluku became the site of competition between the Portuguese and the Dutch to control the trade in the region. In the end, the Dutch emerged victorious; the Japanese invaded the region during World War II. In the era of Japanese occupation, Ternate became the center of the Japanese ruler's position for the Pacific region; the Japanese surrendered in 1945 returning the area to Dutch control, before being handed over to the Republic of Indonesia after a war between the Dutch and the Indonesians. The North Maluku province was created by the division of Maluku Province which separated on October 12, 1999; as one of the youngest provinces in 34 provinces in Indonesia, North Maluku was formed on October 4, 1999, through Republic of Indonesia Law Number 46 of 1999 and Republic of Indonesia Law Number 6 of 2003. Before becoming a province, North Maluku was part of Maluku Province, namely North Maluku Regency. At the beginning of its establishment, North Maluku, whose capital was Ternate, was located at the foot of Mount Gamalama, for 11 years.
Until August 4, 2010, after 11 years of transition and infrastructure preparation, the capital of North Maluku Province was moved to Sofifi, located on Halmahera Island, the largest island. The term Maluku referred to the four sultanate centers in North Maluku, namely Ternate, Tidore and Jailolo. A certain form of confederation of the four kingdoms which most emerged in the 14th century, was called Moloku Kie Raha or "Four Mountain Sultanates in Maluku". Although the four kingdoms expanded and covered the entire North Maluku region and parts of Sulawesi and New Guinea, the expansion area was not included in the term Maluku which only referred to the four sultanate centers of North Maluku; the etymology of the word Maluku is not clear, it has been a matter of debate for many experts. A common theory says that the term Maluku originates from the Arabic phrase Jaziratul Muluk, which means "Country of the Kings", thus the Ambon archipelago and parts of the Banda archipelago at that time were not included in the original sense of the term.
The island of Ternate began to bustle in the early 13th century. Early Ternate residents were residents of the exodus from Halmahera. In Ternate there were 4 villages, each headed by a momole, it was they. The population of Ternate became heterogeneous with settlements of Arab, Javanese and Chinese traders; because of the busy trading activities were added with threats that came from pirates, the Momole Guna Tobona leaders held a conference to form a stronger organization and appoint a single leader as king. In 1257, Momole Ciko, Sampalu's leader was elected and appointed as the first kolano with the title Baab Mashur Malamo; the Kingdom of Gapi is centered in the village of Ternate, which in developments is getting bigger and more crowded so that the population is referred to as Gam Lamo or the big village. The greater and more popular Ternate, so that people would rather say Ternate kingdom than the kingdom of Gapi. Under the leadership of several generations of the next ruler, Ternate developed from a kingdom which only served a small island to become the most influential and largest empire in eastern Indonesia the Moluccas.
In the early days of Ternate people was led by the momole. After forming a kingdom, a leadership position was held by a king called Kolano. Starting in the mid-15th century, Islam was adopted by the kingdom and the application of Islamic law was put in place. Sultan Zainal Abidin replaced it with the title of Sultan; the scholars became important figures in the kingdom. Opposite of Ternate lies the island of the seat of the Kingdom of Tidore. According to the genealogies of the kings of Ternate and Tidore, the first King Tidore was Muhammad Naqil who ascended the throne in 1081, it was only at the end of the 14th century that Islam was made the official religion of the Kingdom of Tidore by 11th King Tidore, Sultan Djamaluddin, willing to enter Islam thanks to the preac
Patrícia Rehder Galvão, known by her pseudonym Pagu was a Brazilian writer, playwright and translator who had a large role in the Brazilian Modernist movement. Pagu was politically active, being associated to the Brazilian Communist Party during the 1930 decade. Born in a family of German descent, Galvão was an "advanced" woman for the moral and social standards of the time; when she was 15 years old, she collaborated with the Brás Jornal newspaper, using the pen name Patsy. She completed the course at the São Paulo Normal School in 1928, joined the Movimento Antropofágico, influenced by Oswald de Andrade and Tarsila do Amaral; the nickname "Pagu" was given to her by the poet Raul Bopp. In 1930, Pagu married Oswald de Andrade, who left Tarsila his wife. In the same year, Rudá de Andrade, her first and Andrade's second son is born. Both became militants of the Brazilian Communist Party. Pagu was arrested in 1931 by participating in a harbor workers' strike in Santos, the first in a series of 23 detentions in her life.
After her arrest she published the novel Parque Industrial, under the pseudonym Mara Lobo. In 1935 she was arrested in Paris as a foreign communist using a false identity, was repatriated to Brazil, she broke up after many quarrels. Pagu resumed her journalistic activity, but was again arrested and tortured by the forces of the dictatorship of Getúlio Vargas, was jailed for five years. In those five years her son was raised by Andrade. Upon leaving prison in 1940, she broke away from the Communist Party, choosing to instead follow a socialism of Trotskyist line, she joined the newspaper A Vanguarda Socialista along with Geraldo Ferraz, art critic Mário Pedrosa, Hilcar Leite and Edmundo Moniz. She married Geraldo Ferraz and from this union her second son was born, Geraldo Galvão Ferraz, on June 18, 1941, she moved in with her husband. Around the same time she travelled to China, obtaining the first soybean seeds that were introduced in Brazil. In 1945 Pagu launched a new novel, A Famosa Revista, written with her husband Geraldo Ferraz.
She unsuccessfully attempted a run for state representative in the 1950 elections. In 1952 she attended the School of Dramatic Art in São Paulo. Linked to the avant-garde theater, they presented her translation of Ionesco's The Bald Singer, she translated and directed Fando et Lis by Fernando Arrabal, an amateur montage in which the young artist Plínio Marcos debuted. She translated poems by authors such as Guillaume Apollinaire. Known as a major cultural influence in Santos, Pagu encouraged young talents such as actor and playwright Plinio Marcos and composer Gilberto Mendes, she devoted herself to the stage in encouraging amateur groups. While still working as an art critic, she was stricken with cancer, she without positive results. Disappointed and sick, Pagu attempted suicide, but did not succeed. Of this episode, she wrote the pamphlet "Truth and Freedom": "A bullet got behind, between gauze pads and shattered memories." She died on December 12, 1962, due to the disease. Pagu published the novels Industrial Park, under the pseudonym Mara Lobo, considered the first Brazilian proletarian novel, A Famosa Revista, in collaboration with Geraldo Ferraz.
Industrial Park was published in the United States in translation of Kenneth David Jackson in 1994 by the University of Nebraska Press. She has written detective stories under the pseudonym King Shelter published in Detective magazine, directed by playwright Nelson Rodrigues, gathered in Safra Macabra. In her work, along with theater groups, she revealed and translated great authors hitherto unpublished in Brazil, such as James Joyce, Eugène Ionesco, Fernando Arrabal and Octavio Paz. In 1988, the life of Pagu was told in the film Eternamente Pagu, the first movie directed by Norma Bengell. Carla Camurati played the title role. A song called "Pagu" was composed by Rita Lee and Zélia Duncan
The Buginese people are an ethnic group—the most numerous of the three major linguistic and ethnic groups of South Sulawesi, in the southwestern province of Sulawesi, third largest island of Indonesia. The Austronesian ancestors of the Buginese people settled on Sulawesi around 2500 B. C. E. There is "historical linguistic evidence of some late Holocene immigration of Austronesian speakers to South Sulawesi from Taiwan"—which means that the Buginese have "possible ultimate ancestry in South China", that as a result of this immigration, "there was an infusion of an exogenous population from China or Taiwan." Migration from South China by some of the paternal ancestors of the Buginese is supported by studies of Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups. The Bugis in 1605 converted to Islam from Animism; some Buginese have retained their pre-Islamic belief called Tolotang, some Bugis converted to Christianity by means of marriage. Despite the population numbering only around 6 million, the Buginese are a powerful people and they have influenced the politics in the present day states of Malaysia and Singapore.
The sixth Prime Minister of Malaysia, Najib Razak and the current Vice President of Indonesia, Jusuf Kalla are both Buginese. Although many Buginese people live in the large port cities of Makassar and Parepare, the majority are farmers who grow wet rice on the lowland plains to the north and west of the town of Maros; the name Bugis is an exonym. The Buginese people speak a distinct regional language in addition to Indonesian, called Basa Ugi, Bugis or Buginese. In reality, there are several dialects, some of which are sufficiently different from others to be considered separate languages. Buginese language belongs to the South Sulawesi language group; the homeland of the Buginese is the area around Lake Tempe and Lake Sidenreng in the Walannae Depression in the southwest peninsula of Sulawesi. It was here that the ancestors of the present-day Bugis settled in the mid- to late second millennium BC; the area is rich in fish and wildlife and the annual fluctuation of Lake Tempe allows speculative planting of wet rice, while the hills can be farmed by swidden or shifting cultivation, wet rice and hunting.
Around AD 1200 the availability of prestigious imported goods including Chinese and Southeast Asian ceramics and Gujerati print-block textiles, coupled with newly discovered sources of iron ore in Luwu stimulated an agrarian revolution which expanded from the great lakes region into the lowland plains to the east and west of the Walennae depression. This led over the next 400 years to the development of the major kingdoms of South Sulawesi, the social transformation of chiefly societies into hierarchical proto-states; the conclusion in 1669 of a protracted civil war led to a diaspora of Bugis and their entry into the politics of the Malay Peninsula and Sumatra. The Bugis played an important role in defeating Jambi and had a huge influence in Sultanate of Johor. Apart from the Malays, another influential faction in Johor at that time was the Minangkabau. Both the Buginese and the Minangkabau realised how the death of Sultan Mahmud II had provided them with the chance to exert power in Johor.
Under the leadership of Daeng Parani, the descendants of two families settled on the Linggi and Selangor rivers and became the power behind the Johor throne, with the creation of the office of the Yang Dipertuan Muda, or Bugis underking. Long before European colonialists extended their influence into these waters, the Makassarese, the Bajau, the Buginese built elegant, ocean-going schooners in which they plied the trade routes. Intrepid and doughty, they travelled as far east as the Aru Islands, off New Guinea, where they traded in the skins of birds of paradise and medicinal masoya bark, to northern Australia, where they exchanged shells, birds'-nests and mother-of-pearl for knives and salt with Aboriginal tribes; the Buginese sailors left their mark and culture on an area of the northern Australian coast which stretches over two thousand kilometres from the Kimberley to the Gulf of Carpentaria. Throughout these parts of northern Australia, there is much evidence of a significant Bugis presence.
Each year, the Bugis sailors would sail down on the northwestern monsoon in their wooden pinisi. They would stay in Australian waters for several months to trade and take trepang before returning to Makassar on the dry season off shore winds; as Thomas Forrest wrote in A Voyage from Calcutta to the Mergui Archipelago, S.78 ff. “The Buggesses in general are a high-spirited people. They deserve the character given of Malays in general, by Monsieur Poivre, in his Travels of a Philosopher,'fond of adventures and capable of undertaking the most dangerous enterprizes'.” Most present-day Buginese now earn their living as traders or fishermen. Women help with the agricultural work in the homes. Most Buginese people live in stilted houses, sometimes three meters or more off the ground, with plank walls and floors. Many of the marriages are still arranged by parents and ideally take place between cousins. A newlywed couple lives with the wife's family for the first few years of their marriage; the Buginese' diet consists of rice, fish, vegetables and coffee.
On festive occasions, goat is served as a special dish. The Buginese people recognise five separate genders; these are makkunrai and oroané, which are similar to cisgender male and f
Sofifi is a non-autonomous town on the west coast of the Indonesian island of Halmahera, since 2010 has been the capital of the province of North Maluku. Ternate had been the capital. Tourism-wise, Sofifi is far from being a popular destination, it is a spread-out place connected by wide roads and interspersed with forlorn-looking government buildings, Sofifi serves travellers as a junction on the route to Tobelo
Mount Gamkonora is a stratovolcano on Halmahera island, Indonesia. With an elevation of 1,560 metres, it is the highest peak on the island, it has produced an elongated series of craters along the north-south rift. The largest eruption in 1673 was accompanied by a tsunami. Between 1564 and 1989 the volcano erupted twelve times; the volcano erupted again on July 10, 2007, with over 8,000 people reported to have fled their homes in the vicinity. List of volcanoes in Indonesia List of Ultras of Malay Archipelago
Galela, is a small town on the eastern Indonesian island of Halmahera. It is located in part of the province of North Maluku. Views of Mount Tarakani can be seen from the scenic coast. Galelarese constitutes an official ethnic group in North Halmhera and is a language, spoken in the Galela region, neighboring parts of Tobelo and Loloda districts, on the island of Morotai and in villages scattered in southern Halmahera as well as on Bacan and Obi, it is served by Gamar Malamo Airport. During 2015 Susi Air flies from Ternate every Thursday morning
The Maluku Islands or the Moluccas are an archipelago in eastern Indonesia. Tectonically they are located on the Halmahera Plate within the Molucca Sea Collision Zone. Geographically they are located east of Sulawesi, west of New Guinea, north and east of Timor; the islands were known as the Spice Islands due to the nutmeg and cloves that were exclusively found there, the presence of which sparked colonial interest from Europe in the sixteenth century. The Maluku Islands formed a single province from Indonesian independence until 1999, when it was split into two provinces. A new province, North Maluku, incorporates the area between Morotai and Sula, with the arc of islands from Buru and Seram to Wetar remaining within the existing Maluku Province. North Maluku is predominantly Muslim, its capital is Sofifi on Halmahera island. Maluku province has a larger Christian population, its capital is Ambon. Though Melanesian, many island populations in the Banda Islands, were massacred in the seventeenth century during the spice wars.
A second influx of immigrants from Java began in the early twentieth century under the Dutch and continues in the Indonesian era. Between 1999 and 2002, conflict between Muslims and Christians killed thousands and displaced half a million people; the name Maluku is thought to have been derived from the term used by Arab traders for the region, Jazirat al-Moluk, from the word malik. However, since the name itself has been mentioned in a fourteenth-century Majapahit eulogy, that predates the arrival of Islam in Maluku at the late fifteenth century, other sources claim that the name comes from a local language with the meaning "the head of a bull" or "the head of something large"; the Maluku Islands were a single province from Indonesian independence until 1999 when they were split into North Maluku and Maluku. North Maluku province includes Ternate, Tidore and Halmahera. Arab merchants began bringing Islam. Peaceful conversion to Islam occurred in many islands in the centres of trade, while aboriginal animism persisted in the hinterlands and more isolated islands.
Archaeological evidence here relies on the occurrence of pigs' teeth, as evidence of pork eating or abstinence therefrom. The most significant lasting effects of the Portuguese presence was the disruption and reorganization of the Southeast Asian trade, in eastern Indonesia—including Maluku—the introduction of Christianity; the Portuguese had conquered the city-state of Malacca in the early sixteenth century and their influence was most felt in Maluku and other parts of eastern Indonesia. After the Portuguese annexed Malacca in August 1511, one Portuguese diary noted'it is thirty years since they became Moors'. Afonso de Albuquerque learned of the route to the Banda Islands and other'Spice Islands', sent an exploratory expedition of three vessels under the command of António de Abreu, Simão Afonso Bisigudo and Francisco Serrão. On the return trip, Francisco Serrão was shipwrecked at Hitu island in 1512. There he established ties with the local ruler, impressed with his martial skills; the rulers of the competing island states of Ternate and Tidore sought Portuguese assistance and the newcomers were welcomed in the area as buyers of supplies and spices during a lull in the regional trade due to the temporary disruption of Javanese and Malay sailings to the area following the 1511 conflict in Malacca.
The spice trade soon revived but the Portuguese would not be able to monopolize nor disrupt this trade. Allying himself with Ternate's ruler, Serrão constructed a fortress on that tiny island and served as the head of a mercenary band of Portuguese seamen under the service of one of the two local feuding sultans who controlled most of the spice trade. Both Serrão and Ferdinand Magellan, perished before they could meet one another; the Portuguese first landed in Ambon in 1513, but it only became the new centre for their activities in Maluku following the expulsion from Ternate. European power in the region was weak and Ternate became an expanding, fiercely Islamic and anti-European state under the rule of Sultan Baab Ullah and his son Sultan Said. Following Portuguese missionary work, there have been large Christian communities in eastern Indonesia through to contemporary times, which has contributed to a sense of shared interest with Europeans among the Ambonese; the Dutch competed with the Portuguese in the area for trade.
With the declaration of a single republic of Indonesia in 1950 to replace the federal state, a Republic of South Maluku was declared and attempted to secede. And led by Chris Soumokil and supported by the Moluccan members of the Netherlands special troops; this movement was defeated by the Indonesian army and by special agreement with the Netherlands the troops were transferred to the Netherlands. Maluku is one of the first provinces of Indonesia, proclaimed in 1945 until 1999, when the Maluku Utara and Halmahera Tengah Regencies were split off as a separate province of North Maluku, its capital used to be Ternate, on a small island to the west of the large island of Halmahera, but has been moved to Sofifi on Halmahera itself. The capital of the remaining part of Maluku province remains at Ambon. Religious conflict erupted across the islands in January 1999; the subsequent 18 months were characterized by fighting between local groups of Muslims and Christians, the destruction of thousands of houses, the displacement of approximately