Iranian Azerbaijanis known as Iranian Azeris, Iranian Turks, Persian Turks, or Persian Azerbaijanis, are Iranians of Azeri ethnicity who may speak the Azerbaijani language as their first language. Iranian Azeris are a Turkic-speaking people which are culturally and genetically Iranian, they are the second largest ethnic group in the nation. Furthermore, the largest population of ethnic Azeris in the world live in Iran, far outnumbering those in the neighbouring Republic of Azerbaijan. Iranian Azeris are found in and are native to the Iranian Azerbaijan region including provinces of and in smaller numbers, in other provinces such as Kurdistan, Hamadan, Gilan and Kermanshah. Iranian Azeris constitute a significant minority in Tehran and other regions. Azeris comprise the largest minority ethnic group in Iran. Apart from Iranian Azerbaijan, indigenous Azeri populations are found in large numbers in four other provinces: Hamadan, Qazvin and Kurdistan. Azeri-populated parts of Markazi include Komijan, Saveh, Zarandieh and Farahan.
In Kurdistan, Azeris are found in villages around Qorveh. Azeris have immigrated and resettled in large numbers in Central Iran Tehran, where they constitute 25% — one-third of the population and Karaj Immigrant Azeri communities have been represented by people prominent not only among urban and industrial working classes but in commercial, political and intellectual circles. Sub-ethnic groups of the Azeris within the modern-day borders of Iran following the ceding of the Caucasus to Russia in the 19th century, include the Shahsevan, the Qarapapaqs, the Ayrums, the Bayat, the Qajars, the Qaradaghis, the Gharagozloo, the latter whom are the indigenous population of Central Iran. A comparative study on the complete mitochondrial DNA diversity in Iranians has indicated that Iranian Azeris are more related to the people of Georgia, than they are to other Iranians, as well as to Armenians; however the same multidimensional scaling plot shows that Azeris from the Caucasus, despite their supposed common origin with Iranian Azeris, cluster closer with other Iranians than they do with Iranian Azeris.
Other studies support that present day Iranian main genetic stock comes from the ancient autochthonous people and a genetic input from eastern people would be a minor one. Thus, Iranian Azeris have the closest genetic distance to Iranian Kurds and there is no significant difference between these two populations and other major ethnic groups of Iran. According to the scholar of historical geography, Xavier de Planhol: “Azeri material culture, a result of this multi-secular symbiosis, is thus a subtle combination of indigenous elements and nomadic contributions…, it is a Turkish language learned and spoken by Iranian peasants”. According to Richard Frye: "The Turkic speakers of Azerbaijan are descended from the earlier Iranian speakers, several pockets of whom still exist in the region.". According to Olivier Roy: "The mass of the Oghuz Turkic tribes who crossed the Amu Darya towards the west left the Iranian plateau, which remained Persian, established themselves more to the west, in Anatolia.
Here they divided into Ottomans, who were Sunni and settled, Turkmens, who were nomads and in part Shiite. The latter were to keep the name “Turkmen”for a long time: from the thirteenth century onwards they “Turkised” the Iranian populations of Azerbaijan, thus creating a new identity based on Shiism and the use of Oghuz Turkic; these are the people today known as Azeris.". According to Rybakov: "Speaking of the Azerbaijan culture originating at that time, in the XIV-XV cc. one must bear in mind, first of all and other parts of culture organically connected with the language. As for the material culture, it remained traditional after the Turkicization of the local population. However, the presence of a massive layer of Iranians that took part in the formation of the Azeri ethnos, have imposed its imprint on the lexicon of the Azeri language which contains a great number of Iranian and Arabic words; the latter entered both the Azeri and Turkish language through the Iranian intermediary. Having become independent, the Azeri culture retained close connections with the Iranian and Arab cultures.
They were reinforced by common religion and common cultural-historical traditions.”. The Iranian origins of the Azeris derive from ancient Iranian tribes, such as the Medes in Iranian Azerbaijan, Scythian invaders who arrived during the 8th century BCE, it is believed that the Medes mixed with an indigenous population, the Mannai, a group related to the Urartians. Ancient written accounts, such as one written by Arab historian Abu al-Hasan Ali ibn al-Husayn al-Masudi, attest to an Iranian presence in the region: Scholars see cultural similarities between modern Persians and Azeris as evidence of an ancient Iranian influence. Archaeological evidence indicates that the Iranian religion of Zoroastrianism was prominent throughout the Caucasus before Christianity and Islam and that the influence of various Persian Empires added to the Iranian character of the area, it has been hypothesized that the population of Iranian Azerbaijan was predominantly Persian-speaking before the Oghuz arrived. This
Nahavand is a city and capital of Nahavand County, Hamadan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 72,218, in 19,419 families, it is located south of Hamadan, east of northwest of Borujerd. Nahavand is one of the oldest existing cities in Iran, it has been spelled differently in different books and sources: Nahavand, Nahawand, Nehavand, Nihavand or Nehavend called Mah-Nahavand, in antiquity Laodicea transliterated Laodiceia and Laodikeia, Laodicea in Media, Laodicea in Persis, Antiochia in Persis, Antiochia of Chosroes, Antiochia in Media and Niphaunda. Tepe Giyan is located in the area and consists of fine painted potteries from the 4th millennia BC; the city was founded by Darius I the Great, in Media along with the two other Achaemenid cities of Apamea and Xerxes. Pliny describes it as being in the extreme limits of Media, founded by Xerxes I; the city was a center of Chosroes I's empire. After military reverses following his sack of Syrian Antiochia in 538, he was forced to rename his capital "Antiochia".
It is the site of the Battle of Nihawand in 642 that completed the fall of the Sassanid Empire and the Islamic conquest of Iran. It was ruled by Ottomans between 1589 and 1603 and again between 1724 and 1730. Natives of Nahavand include Benjamin Nahawandi, a key figure in the development of Karaite Judaism in the Early Middle Ages, 8th-century astronomer Ahmad Nahavandi, who worked at the Academy of Gundishapur; the Persian hero Feroze Nahavandi was born here. In another case they call Nahavand the city of secrets because there are a lot of cities under the current city. Giyan Spring Giyan rivr and its springhead are among the most popular places in the region to spend time outside the city, it is located 22 km southwest on the northern valleys of Garrin mountains. Gamasiab Spring Faresban Spring Nahavand gives its name to the musical mode Nahwand in Arabic and Turkish music; this mode is known for its wide variety of Western sounding melodies. Richard Talbert, Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, Map 92.
This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith, William, ed.. "Laodiceia". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray. Hamedan Province Cultural Heritage Website Persian History Website Smith, William.
The Parthian Empire known as the Arsacid Empire, was a major Iranian political and cultural power in ancient Iran. Its latter name comes from Arsaces I of Parthia who, as leader of the Parni tribe, founded it in the mid-3rd century BC when he conquered the region of Parthia in Iran's northeast a satrapy under Andragoras, in rebellion against the Seleucid Empire. Mithridates I of Parthia expanded the empire by seizing Media and Mesopotamia from the Seleucids. At its height, the Parthian Empire stretched from the northern reaches of the Euphrates, in what is now central-eastern Turkey, to eastern Iran; the empire, located on the Silk Road trade route between the Roman Empire in the Mediterranean Basin and the Han dynasty of China, became a center of trade and commerce. The Parthians adopted the art, religious beliefs, royal insignia of their culturally heterogeneous empire, which encompassed Persian and regional cultures. For about the first half of its existence, the Arsacid court adopted elements of Greek culture, though it saw a gradual revival of Iranian traditions.
The Arsacid rulers were titled the "King of Kings", as a claim to be the heirs to the Achaemenid Empire. The court did appoint a small number of satraps outside Iran, but these satrapies were smaller and less powerful than the Achaemenid potentates. With the expansion of Arsacid power, the seat of central government shifted from Nisa to Ctesiphon along the Tigris, although several other sites served as capitals; the earliest enemies of the Parthians were the Scythians in the east. However, as Parthia expanded westward, they came into conflict with the Kingdom of Armenia, the late Roman Republic. Rome and Parthia competed with each other to establish the kings of Armenia as their subordinate clients; the Parthians soundly defeated Marcus Licinius Crassus at the Battle of Carrhae in 53 BC, in 40–39 BC, Parthian forces captured the whole of the Levant except Tyre from the Romans. However, Mark Antony led a counterattack against Parthia, although his successes were achieved in his absence, under the leadership of his lieutenant Ventidius.
Various Roman emperors or their appointed generals invaded Mesopotamia in the course of the ensuing Roman–Parthian Wars of the next few centuries. The Romans captured the cities of Seleucia and Ctesiphon on multiple occasions during these conflicts, but were never able to hold on to them. Frequent civil wars between Parthian contenders to the throne proved more dangerous to the Empire's stability than foreign invasion, Parthian power evaporated when Ardashir I, ruler of Istakhr in Persis, revolted against the Arsacids and killed their last ruler, Artabanus V, in 224 AD. Ardashir established the Sassanid Empire, which ruled Iran and much of the Near East until the Muslim conquests of the 7th century AD, although the Arsacid dynasty lived on through the Arsacid Dynasty of Armenia, the Arsacid dynasty of Iberia, the Arsacid Dynasty of Caucasian Albania. Native Parthian sources, written in Parthian and other languages, are scarce when compared to Sassanid and earlier Achaemenid sources. Aside from scattered cuneiform tablets, fragmentary ostraca, rock inscriptions, drachma coins, the chance survival of some parchment documents, much of Parthian history is only known through external sources.
These include Greek and Roman histories, but Chinese histories, prompted by the Han Chinese desire to form alliances against the Xiongnu. Parthian artwork is viewed by historians as a valid source for understanding aspects of society and culture that are otherwise absent in textual sources. Before Arsaces I of Parthia founded the Arsacid Dynasty, he was chieftain of the Parni, an ancient Central-Asian tribe of Iranian peoples and one of several nomadic tribes within the confederation of the Dahae; the Parni most spoke an eastern Iranian language, in contrast to the northwestern Iranian language spoken at the time in Parthia. The latter was a northeastern province, first under the Achaemenid, the Seleucid empires. After conquering the region, the Parni adopted Parthian as the official court language, speaking it alongside Middle Persian, Greek, Babylonian and other languages in the multilingual territories they would conquer. Why the Arsacid court retroactively chose 247 BC as the first year of the Arsacid era is uncertain.
A. D. H. Bivar concludes that this was the year the Seleucids lost control of Parthia to Andragoras, the appointed satrap who rebelled against them. Hence, Arsaces I "backdated his regnal years" to the moment when Seleucid control over Parthia ceased. However, Vesta Sarkhosh Curtis asserts that this was the year Arsaces was made chief of the Parni tribe. Homa Katouzian and Gene Ralph Garthwaite claim it was the year Arsaces conquered Parthia and expelled the Seleucid authorities, yet Curtis and Maria Brosius state that Andragoras was not overthrown by the Arsacids until 238 BC, it is unclear who succeeded Arsaces I. Bivar and Katouzian affirm that it was his brother Tiridates I of Parthia, who in turn was succeeded by his son Arsaces II of Parthia in 211 BC, yet Curtis and Brosius state that Arsaces II was the immediate successor of Arsaces I, with Curtis claiming the succession took place in 211 BC, Brosius in 217 BC. Bivar insists that 138 BC, the last regnal year of Mithridates I, is "the first established regnal date of Parthian history."
Due to these and other discrepancies
Baba Tahir was an 11th-century Persian poet. His poetry is written in the Hamadani dialect of the Persian language. According to L. P. Elwell-Sutton he wrote in the local dialect, adding: "Most traditional sources call it loosely Luri, while the name applied from an early date to verses of this kind, Fahlaviyat implies that they were thought to be in a language related to the Middle Iranian dialect Pahlavi. Rouben Abrahamian however found a close affinity with the dialect spoken at the present time by the Jews of Hamadan." According to The Cambridge History of Iran, Baba Tahir spoke a certain Persian dialect. Baba Tahir is known as one of the most revered early poets in Persian literature. Little is known of his life, he was lived in Hamadan, the capital city of the Hamadan Province in Iran. He was known by the name of Baba Taher-e Oryan, which suggests that he may have been a wandering dervish. Legend tells that the poet, an illiterate woodcutter, attended lectures at a religious school, where he was not welcomed by his fellow-students.
The dates of his birth and death are unknown. One source indicates that he died in 1019. If this is accurate, it would make Baba Tahir a contemporary of Ferdowsi and Avicenna and an immediate precursor of Omar Khayyam. Another source reports that he lived between 1000 and 1055, unlikely, it is said. Rahat al-sodur of Ravandi, whose work was completed 603/1206, describes a meeting between Baba Tahir and the Seljuq conqueror Tughril. At the time when Baba Tahir lived in the 10th century, there were great changes occurring in the development and growth of literature and art. Medieval artists and poets in Persia were respected and valued and had the right to express their thoughts freely. According to L. P. Elwell-Sutton: "He could be described as the first great poet of Sufi love in Persian literature. In the last two decades his do-baytis have been put to music". Baba Tahir's poems are recited to the present day all over Iran accompanied by the setar, the three stringed viol or lute; this style of poetry is known as Pahlaviat and it is ancient.
The quatrains of Baba Tahir have a more amorous and mystical connotation rather than philosophical. Many of Baba Tahir's poems are of the do-baytī style, a form of Persian quatrains, which some scholars regard as having affinities with Middle Persian verses. Attributed to him is a work by the name Kalemat-e qesaar, a collection of nearly 400 aphorisms in Arabic, the subject of commentaries, one by Ayn-al-Qozat Hamadani. An example of such a saying is one where Baba Tahir ties knowledge with gnosis: "Knowledge is the guide to gnosis, when gnosis has come the vision of knowledge lapses and there remain only the movements of knowledge to gnosis", his tomb, designed by Mohsen Foroughi, is located near the northern entrance of the city of Hamadan in Western Iran, in a park, surrounded by flowers and winding paths. The structure consists of twelve external pillars surrounding a central tower, it was constructed in 1970. List of Persian poets and authors Persian literature "Baba Tahir Oryan". Retrieved October 24, 2005.
Manouchehr Saadat Noury. "A Research Note on Baba Taher Oryan". Retrieved November 27, 2005. Browne, E. G. Literary History of Persia, vol. 2. ISBN 0-7007-0406-X Jan Rypka, History of Iranian Literature. Reidel Publishing Company. ASIN B-000-6BXVT-K باباطاهر عریان, عارف و شاعر بلند آوازه ایران Bosworth, C. E.. "The rise of the new Persian language". In Frye, R. N; the Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 4: From the Arab Invasion to the Saljuqs. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Pp. 595–633. ISBN 0-521-20093-8. Works by or about Baba Tahir at Internet Archive Works by Baba Tahir at LibriVox Text of Baba Taher's poems at Ganjoor library
Ecbatana was an ancient city in Media in western Iran. It is believed that Ecbatana is in an archaeological mound in Hamedan. According to Herodotus, Ecbatana was chosen as the Medes' capital in the late 8th century BC by Deioces. Under the Achaemenid Persian kings, situated at the foot of Mount Alvand, became a summer residence, it became the capital of the Parthian kings, at which time it became their main mint, producing drachm and assorted bronze denominations. The wealth and importance of the city in the Persian empire is attributed to its location on a crucial crossroads that made it a staging post on the main East-West highway. In 330 BC, Ecbatana was the site of the murder of the Macedonian general Parmenion by order of Alexander the Great; the Tell Hagmatana called Tepe Hegmataneh has a circumference of 1.4 kilometres with an area of about 40 hectares, which corresponds to a report from Polybius, although the ancient Greek and Roman accounts exaggerate Ecbatana's wealth and extravagance.
Few finds thus far can be dated to the Median era. There is a "small, open-sided room with four corner columns supporting a domed ceiling," similar to a Median-era structure from Tepe Nush-i Jan, interpreted as a Zoroastrian fire temple. Excavations have revealed a massive defensive wall made of mud-bricks, dated to the Median period based on a comparison to Tepe Nush-i Jan and Godin Tepe. There are two column bases from the Achaemenid period, some mud-brick structures thought to be from the Median or Achaemenid period. A badly-damaged stone lion sculpture is of disputed date: it may be Achaemenid or Parthian. Numerous Parthian-era constructions attest to Ecbatana's status as a summer capital for the Parthian rulers. In 2006, excavations in a limited area of Hagmatana hill failed to discover anything older than the Parthian period, but this does not rule out older archaeological layers existing elsewhere within the 35-hectare site. Ecbatana was first excavated in 1913 by Charles Fossey. Excavations have been limited due to the modern town covering most of the ancient site.
In 1969 the Ministry of Culture and Art began buying property on the tell in support of archaeology, though excavation did not begin until 1983. By 2007, 12 seasons of excavation had occurred; the work on the tell is ongoing. The Greeks thought Ecbatana to be the capital of the Medes empire and credited its foundation to Deioces, it is alleged that he surrounded his palace in Ecbatana with seven concentric walls of different colours. In the 5th century BC, Herodotus wrote of Ecbatana: "The Medes built the city now called Ecbatana, the walls of which are of great size and strength, rising in circles one within the other; the plan of the place is, that each of the walls should out-top the one beyond it by the battlements. The nature of the ground, a gentle hill, favors this arrangements in some degree but it is effected by art; the number of the circles is the royal palace and the treasuries standing within the last. The circuit of the outer wall is nearly the same with that of Athens. On this wall the battlements are white, of the next black, of the third scarlet, of the fourth blue, the fifth orange.
The last two have their battlements coated with silver and gold. All these fortifications Deioces had caused to be raised for himself and his own palace." Herodotus' description is corroborated in part by stone reliefs from the Neo-Assyrian Empire, depicting Median citadels ringed by concentric walls. Other sources attest to the historical importance of Ecbatana based on the terms used by ancient authors to describe it such as Caput Mediae, the Royal Seat, great City, it is said that Alexander the Great deposited the treasures he took from Persepolis and Pasargadae and that one of the last acts of his life was to visit the city. The citadel of Ecbatana is mentioned in the Bible in Ezra 6:2, in the time of Darius I, as part of the national archives. Although historians and archaeologists now believe that "the identification of Ecbatana with Hamadān is secure," earlier visitors to the site were unable to find significant remains of the Median and Achaemenid periods, which led them to suggest other sites as the location of Ecbatana.
Assyrian sources never mention Hagmatana/Ecbatana. Some scholars believed the problem can be resolved by identifying the Ecbatana/Hagmatana mentioned in Greek and Achaemenid sources with the city Sagbita/Sagbat mentioned in Assyrian texts, since the Indo-Iranian sound /s/ became /h/ in many Iranian languages; the Sagbita mentioned by Assyrian sources was located in the proximity of the cities Kishesim and Harhar. It is now proposed that the absence of any mention of Ecbatana in Assyrian sources can be explained by the possibility that Assyria never became involved as far east as the Alvand mountains, but only in the western Zagros. Sir Henry Rawlinson attempted to prove that there was a second and older Ecbatana in Media Atropatene on the site of the modern Takht-i-Suleiman. However, the cuneiform texts imply that there was only one city of the name, that Takht-i Suleiman is the Gazaca of classical geography. There is the claim that Ecbatana used to be the city of Tabriz, one of the historical capitals of Iran and the present capital of East Azerbaijan province.
The city, called Tauris, was
The Seljuq dynasty, or Seljuqs, was an Oghuz Turk Sunni Muslim dynasty that became a Persianate society and contributed to the Turco-Persian tradition in the medieval West and Central Asia. The Seljuqs established both the Seljuk Empire and the Sultanate of Rum, which at their heights stretched from Iran to Anatolia, were targets of the First Crusade; the Seljuqs originated from the Qynyk branch of the Oghuz Turks, who in the 9th century lived on the periphery of the Muslim world, north of the Caspian Sea and Aral Sea in their Yabghu Khaganate of the Oghuz confederacy, in the Kazakh Steppe of Turkestan. During the 10th century, due to various events, the Oghuz had come into close contact with Muslim cities; when Seljuq, the leader of the Seljuq clan, had a falling out with Yabghu, the supreme chieftain of the Oghuz, he split his clan off from the bulk of the Tokuz-Oghuz and set up camp on the west bank of the lower Syr Darya. Around 985, Seljuq converted to Islam. In the 11th century the Seljuqs migrated from their ancestral homelands into mainland Persia, in the province of Khurasan, where they encountered the Ghaznavid empire.
In 1025, 40,000 families of Oghuz Turks migrated to the area of Caucasian Albania. The Seljuqs defeated the Ghaznavids at the Battle of Nasa plains in 1035. Tughril and Yabghu received the insignias of governor, grants of land, were given the title of dehqan. At the Battle of Dandanaqan they defeated a Ghaznavid army, after a successful siege of Isfahan by Tughril in 1050/51, they established an empire called the Great Seljuk Empire; the Seljuqs mixed with the local population and adopted the Persian culture and Persian language in the following decades. After arriving in Persia, the Seljuqs adopted the Persian culture and used the Persian language as the official language of the government, played an important role in the development of the Turko-Persian tradition which features "Persian culture patronized by Turkic rulers." Today, they are remembered as great patrons of Persian culture, art and language. They are regarded as the partial ancestors of the Western Turks – the present-day inhabitants of the Republic of Azerbaijan, Azerbaijan and Turkey.
The "Great Seljuqs" were heads of the family. Turkish custom called for the senior member of the family to be the Great Seljuq, although the position was associated with the ruler of western Persia. Muhammad's son Mahmud II succeeded him in western Persia, but Ahmad Sanjar, the governor of Khurasan at the time being the senior member of the family, became the Great Seljuq Sultan; the rulers of western Persia, who maintained a loose grip on the Abbasids of Baghdad. Several Turkic emirs gained a strong level of influence in the region, such as the Eldiduzids. Mahmud II 1118–1131 1131–1134 disputed between: Dawud Mas'ud 1131 Toghrul II 1132–1134 Mas'ud 1133–1152 Malik Shah III 1152–1153 Muhammad II Suleiman Shah 1160–1161 Arslan Shah 1161–1174 Toghrul III 1174–1194In 1194, Tugrul III was killed in battle with the Khwarezm Shah, who annexed Hamadan. Kerman was a province in southern Persia. Between 1053 and 1154, the territory included Umman. Qawurd 1041–1073 Kerman Shah 1073–1074 Sultan Shah 1074–1075 Hussain Omar 1075–1084 Turan Shah I 1084–1096 Iran-Shah 1096–1101 Arslan Shah I 1101–1142 Mehmed I 1142–1156 Toğrül Shah 1156–1169 Bahram Shah 1169–1174 Arslan Shah II 1174–1176 Turan Shah II 1176–1183 Muhammad Shah 1183–1187Muhammad abandoned Kerman, which fell into the hands of the Oghuz chief Malik Dinar.
Kerman was annexed by the Khwarezmid Empire in 1196. Abu Sa'id Taj ad-Dawla Tutush I 1085–1086 Jalal ad-Dawlah Malik Shah I of Great Seljuq 1086–1087 Qasim ad-Dawla Abu Said Aq Sunqur al-Hajib 1087–1094 Abu Sa'id Taj ad-Dawla Tutush I 1094–1095 Fakhr al-Mulk Radwan 1095–1113 Tadj ad-Dawla Alp Arslan al-Akhras 1113–1114 Sultan Shah 1114–1123To the Artuqids Sultans/Emirs of Damascus: Aziz ibn Abaaq al-Khwarazmi 1076–1079 Abu Sa'id Taj ad-Dawla Tutush I 1079–1095 Abu Nasr Shams al-Muluk Duqaq 1095–1104 Tutush II 1104 Muhi ad-Din Baqtash 1104Damascus seized by the Burid Toghtekin The Seljuq line having been deprived of any significant power ended in the early 14th century. Kutalmish 1060–1077 Suleyman I 1077–1086 Dawud Kilij Arslan I 1092–1107 Malik Shah 1107–1116 Rukn ad-Din Mesud I 1116–1156 Izz ad-Din Kilij Arslan II 1156–1192 Ghiyath ad-Din Kaykhusraw I 1192–1196 Suleyman II 1196–1204 Kilij Arslan III 1204–1205 Ghiyath ad-Din Kaykhusraw I 1205–1211 Izz ad-Din Kaykaus I 1211–1220 Ala ad-Din Kayqubad I 1220–1237 Ghiyath ad-Din Kaykhusraw II 1237–1246 Izz ad-Din Kaykaus II 1246–1260 Rukn ad-Din Kilij Arslan IV 1248–1265 Ala ad-Din Kayqubad II 1249–1257 Ghiyath ad-Din Kaykhusraw III 1265–1282 Ghiyath ad-Din Mesud II 1282–1284 Ala ad-Din Kayqubad III 1284 Ghiyath ad-Din Mesud II 1284–1293 Ala ad-Din Kayqubad III 1293–1294 Ghiyath ad-Din Mesud II 1294–1301 Ala ad-Din Kayqubad III 1301–1303 Ghiyath ad-Din Mesud II 1303–1307 Seljuk Empire Sultanate of Rûm Ottoman dynasty List of Sunni Muslim dynasties Grousset, Rene.
The Empire of the Steppes: a History of Central Asia. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press. P. 147. ISBN 0813506271. Peacock, A. C. S. Early Seljuq History: A New Interpretation. W.. The Shorter Cambridge Medieval History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Hamadan Province, is an Iranian province located in the Zagros Mountains. Its center is Hamadan city; the province of Hamadan covers an area of 19,546 km². In the year 1996, Hamadan province had a population of 1.7 million people. In 2014 it was placed in Region 4. Other major cities of Hamadan province are: Hamadan, Nahavand, Asad Abad, Famenin and Kabudrahang; the counties of Hamadan Province are Kabudrahang County, Razan County, Famenin County, Bahar County, Hamadan County, Asadabad County, Tuyserkan County, Malayer County & Nahavand County. The province lies in an elevated region, with the'Alvand' mountains, running from the north west to the south west; these are part of the Zagros mountain range of Iran. Hamadan enjoys temperate warm summers and cold winters. Malayer County has a population of 285,272 people, Nahavand County has a population of 178,683 people, Hamadan County has a population of 626,183 people, Kabudrahang County has a population of 137,919 people, Razan County has a population of 111,120 people, Famenin County has a population of 40,541 people, Bahar County has a population of 121,590 people, Asadabad County has a population of 104,566 people & Tuyserkan County has a population of 42,520 people.
Persian language: Spoken by the majority of Hamadan city and county centers, it's Iran's official language. Azerbaijani language: Most of the people living in the north and western side of Hamadan city speak Azeri as of their native language. Lurish: Most people living in the southern of province in Malayer and Samen Kurdish: Most people living in the west of province. In Hamadan city, 80% of the people identified their language as Persian, 12% Azeri and 8% Luri and Laki. In the counties of Hamadan province, the Hamadan county, 70% of the people are Persian, 22% Azeri and 8% Lurish and Laki. In Hamadan city, 97 % of the people identified their language as 3 % other languages; the population of Nahavand was 184160 with 99% speaking Luri and Laki. The population of Malayer in 1997 was 297062 and 45% speak Persian, 45% Luri and Laki and 10% Azeri; the population of Tooserkan county was 118945 in 1997 and the majority of the population is Luri and Laki. Alongside a minority of Azeri of 22%. In Asadabad county, the population was 110077 and 63% were Persian, 19% Kurdish, 14% Azeri and 4% Luri and Laki.
In Kabudarahang, the population in 1997 was 152318 with 90% speaking Azeri, 5% Persian and another 5% Kurdish. In Razan county, the population was 123790 with 99.47% of the residents speaking Azeri and 0.53 speaking Kurdish. In Bahar country was 127600 with 86.3% speaking Azeri, 7.9% speaking Kurdish, 4.5% speaking Persian and 1.3% speaking Luri. Hamadan province is one of the most ancient parts of its civilization. Relics of this area confirm this fact. Today's Hamedan is what is left of Ecbatana, the Medes' capital before they formed a union with the Persians; the poet Ferdowsi says. According to historical records, there was once a castle in this city by the name of Haft Hessar which had a thousand rooms and its grandeur equalled that of the Babylon Tower; the structures of city are related to Diya Aku, a King of the Medes from 700 BC. According to Greek records, this territory was called'Ekbatan' and'Hegmataneh' by this King, thus transformed into a huge capital. During the Parthian era, Ctesiphon became capital of Persia, Hamedan became the summer capital and residence of the Parthian rulers.
After the Parthians, the Sassanids constructed their summer palaces in Hamedan as well. In the year 633 when the war of Nahavand took place and Hamadan came into the hands of the invading Arabs, at times it thrived and at times it declined and witnessed hardships. During the Buwayhids, it suffered plenty of damages. In the 11th century, the Seljuks shifted their capital from Baghdad to Hamadan once again; the city of Hamadan was always at risk during the fall of powers. It was destroyed during the Timurid invasion, but during the Safavid era the city thrived once more. In the 18th century, Hamadan surrendered to the Ottomans, but Hamadan was retaken by Nader Shah Afshari, under the peace treaty between Iran and the Ottomans it was returned to Iran; the city of Hamadan lay on the Silk Road and in recent centuries enjoyed good prospects in commerce and trade being on the main road network in the western region of Iran. According to local Jewish traditions, the City of Hamedan is mentioned in the Bible, as the capital of Ancient Persia in the days of King Ahasuerus in the Book of Esther.
It was known as Shushan. The Tombs of Mordecai and Esther are located in modern-day Hamadan; the province has a population of over 1,820,000 million. The province is divided into 8 Shahrestans; these divisions are shown on the map as well as the center of each county and the neighbor provinces. Bu-Ali Sina University Hamedan Medical University Hamedan University of Technology Islamic Azad University of Hamedan Islamic Azad University of Nahavand Islamic Azad University of Toyserkan Malayer University Payam Noor University of Bahar Payam Noor University of Hamedan Payam Noor University of Kabootar Ahang Payam Noor University of Nahavand Payam Noor University of Razan Payam Noor University of Toyserkan The Cultural Heritage of Iran lists 442 sites of historical and cultural significance located in Hamadan, thus makin