Kambaata is the name of the people who speak the Kambaata language Their land is in south central Ethiopia. It was a province of Ethiopia beginning in the early 15th century and ending in the mid-17th century. During this first period, Kambaata province was Christianized; the former province is contained within the contemporary Kembata Tembaro Zone of Ethiopia's SNNPR. According to the 2007 Ethiopian national census, this ethnic group has 630,236 members, of whom 90.89% live in the Southern Nations and People's Region. One in five -- 18.5% -- live in urban areas. The Kambata people speak a Cushitic language; the Ksmbata kingdom was ruled by long line of its own kings known as Woma, ወማ. King Dagoye, from Oyeta clan, was one of the famous kings known for expanding Kambatta territories; the last independent king of Kambata was Wona Delbatao Degoye, killed while resisting Emperor Menelik II's invasion towards the end of 19th century. An important landmark for the Kambaata people is Mount Hambaricho, where their king, used to live and the people used celebrate annual festivities in the past.
The king and the god of Kambata lived there. They have many indigenous traditional foods, among which Kocho ቆጮ, procissef from enset, is their staple diet, they grow many kinds of tubers, coffee and vegetables. Kambata society used to have stratified social classes such as Womano ወማኖ and Contoma ኮንቶማ. In kembata province there are other clans like Tembaro and many more different clans live together and become Kembata; the most isolated clan in Kembata province is tanners shekla seriwoch, this clan cannot participate in any socio-economic activities with kembata. Kembata people can never marry tanners clan. Kambata is one of the most densely populated regions in Ethiopia; the Kambata pride themselves as one of the best educated in the country. Due to over population and lack economic opportunities in their region, they migrate to large cities, industrial areas and large plantation farms. In recent years they experienced large influx of migration to South Africa and Middle Eastern countries. Arsano, Yacob, "A traditional Institution of Kambata".
In: Bahru Zewde and Siegfried Pausewang, Ethiopia. The Challenge of Democracy from below. Uppsala Braukämper, Ulrich. 1983. Die Kambata: Geschichte und Gesellschaft eines süd-äthiopischen Bauernvolkes. Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner. Gebrewold-Tochalo, The Impact of the Socio-Cultural Structures of the Kambata/Ethiopia on their Economic Development. Vienna. Gebrewold, Belachew, "An introduction to the political and social philosophy of the Kambata" Daniel Yoseph Baiso, Occupational Minorities in Kambata Ethnic Group, Nairobi, 2007 Ashenafi Yonas Abebe, "Resignificacion de algunos valores culturales del pueblo Kambata-Etiope esde el mensaje evangélico", Bogota, 2008
Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples' Region
Southern Nations and Peoples' Region is one of the nine ethnically based regional states of Ethiopia. It was formed from the merger of five kililoch, called Regions 7 to 11, following the regional council elections on 21 June 1992, its capital is Awasa. The SNNPR borders Kenya to the south, the Ilemi Triangle to the southwest, South Sudan to the west, the Ethiopian region of Gambela to the northwest, the Ethiopian region of Oromia to the north and east. Besides Awasa, the region's major cities and towns include Sodo, Arba Minch, Chencha, Irgalem, Mizan Teferi, Welkite, Durame and Worabe. Based on the 2007 Census conducted by the Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia, the SNNPR has an estimated total population of 14,929,548, of whom 7,425,918 were men and 7,503,630 women. 13,433,991 or 89.98% of the population are estimated to be rural inhabitants, while 1,495,557 or 10.02% are urban. With an estimated area of 105,887.18 square kilometers, this region has an estimated density of 141 people per square kilometer.
For the entire region 3,110,995 households were counted, which results in an average for the region of 4.8 persons to a household, with urban households having on average 3.9 and rural households 4.9 people. The projected population for 2017 was 19,170,007. In the previous census, conducted in 1994, the region's population was reported to be 10,377,028 of whom 5,161,787 were men and 5,215,241 were women. At the time of the census, the rural population of the Region accounted for 93.2% of the total population. Semien Omo and Gurage were the three zones with the highest population; the population is concentrated in eastern and central part of the SNNPR while the western and southern part of the region is sparsely populated. The SNNPR Water Resources Bureau announced that as of the fiscal year ending in 2006, they had increased the area of the region that had access to drinkable water to 54% from 10–15% 15 years ago. In August 2008, the head of public relations for the Bureau, Abdulkerim Nesru, announced that 94 million birr had been spent to further increase the availability of drinkable water in the region from 58% in the previous year to 63.6%.
Priority was given to certain zones, such as Sidama and Gurage, as well as the Alaba special woreda and several resettlement areas. Values for other reported common indicators of the standard of living for the SNNPR as of 2005 include the following: 10.7% of the inhabitants fall into the lowest wealth quintile. The SNNPR, being an amalgam of the main homelands of numerous ethnicities, contains over 45 indigenous ethnic groups. All ethnicitiesThe ethnicities native to the SNNPR, with percentages of the population as reported in the 2007 national census and organized by linguistic grouping, include: The 2007 census reported that the predominantly spoken mother tongue languages include Sidama, Hadiya, Gurage languages, Gamo and Amharic. Other languages spoken in the State include Kambaata, Goffa and Dima; the 1994 census reported that the predominantly spoken languages include Sidamigna, Welayta, Hadiyigna and Kembatigna. Other languages spoken in the State include Gamoigna, Mello and Gedeo. Amharic is still the working language although most pupils get eight years of primary education in their home language and all secondary and further education is in English.
The CSA reported that for 2004–2005 100,338 tons of coffee were produced in the SNNPR, based on inspection records from the Ethiopian Coffee and Tea authority. This represents 44.2% of the total production in Ethiopia. Farmers in the Region had an estimated total 7,938,490 head of cattle, 3,270,200 sheep, 2,289,970 goats, 298,720 horses, 63,460 mules, 278,440 asses, 6,586,140 poultry of all species, 726,960 beehives. Enset is a major indigenous local crop in the SNNPR. Abate Kisho 1992–2001 Hailemariam Desalegn 12 November 2001 – March 2006 Shiferaw Shigute March 2006 – July 2013 Dessie Dalke July 2013 – present The following list of administrative zones and special woredas is based on information from the 2007 census. Bench Maji Dawro Gamo Gofa Gedeo Gurage Hadiya Keffa Keficho Shekicho Kembata Tembaro North Omo Sheka Sidama Silti South Omo Wolayita Alaba Amaro Basketo Burji Dirashe Konso Konta Yem
The Agaw are an ethnic Cushitic peoples inhabiting Ethiopia and neighboring Eritrea. They speak Agaw languages; the Agaw are first mentioned in the third-century Monumentum Adulitanum, an Aksumite inscription recorded by Cosmas Indicopleustes in the sixth century. The inscription refers to a people called "Athagaus" from ʿAd Agaw, meaning "sons of Agaw." The Athagaous first turn up as one of the peoples conquered by the unknown king who inscribed the Monumentum Adulitanum. The Agaw are mentioned in an inscription of the fourth century emperor Ezana of Axum and the sixth-century emperor Kaleb of Axum. Based on this evidence, a number of experts embrace a theory first stated by Edward Ullendorff and Carlo Conti Rossini that they are the original inhabitants of much of the northern Ethiopian Highlands, were either forced out of their original settlements or assimilated by Semitic-speaking Tigrayans and Amharas. Cosmas Indicopleustes noted in his Christian Topography that a major gold trade route passed through the region "Agau".
The area referred to seems to be an area east of the Tekezé River and just south of the Semien Mountains around Lake Tana. They exist in a number of scattered enclaves, which include the Bilen in and around Keren, Eritrea; the Cushitic speaking Agaw people ruled during the Zagwe dynasty of Ethiopia from about 900 to 1270. The name of the dynasty itself comes from the Ge'ez phrase Ze-Agaw, refers to the Agaw people; the Agaw speak Agaw languages. They are a part of the Cushitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic family. Many speak Amharic, Tigrinya and/or Tigre, which are Afro-Asiatic languages, but of the Semitic branch; the Northern Agaw are known as Bilen, capital Keren The Western Agaw are known as Qemant, capital TekelDengay The Eastern Agaw are known as Xamta, capital Soqota The Southern Agaw are known as Awi, capital Injibara Mara Takla Haymanot - Emperor of Ethiopia who founded the Zagwe dynasty by 1137 Gebre Mesqel Lalibela - Emperor of Ethiopia Who is credited with having constructed the rock-hewn churches of Lalibela Yetbarak - Emperor of Ethiopia the last ruler from the Zagwe dynasty who reigned up to 1270 Zagwe dynasty Bilen people
The Saho sometimes called Soho, are an ethnic Cushitic peoples inhabiting the Horn of Africa. They are principally concentrated in Eritrea, with some living in adjacent parts of Ethiopia, they speak Saho as a mother tongue, which belongs to the Cushitic branch of the Afroasiatic family and is related to Afar. According to Ethnologue, there are 271,180 total Saho speakers. Most are concentrated with the remainder inhabiting Ethiopia. Within Eritrea, the Saho reside in the Southern and Northern Red Sea regions; the Saho have a system of clans. Clan loyalty is an important factor in Saho politics; the Saho people speak the Saho language as a mother tongue. It belongs to the Saho-Afar dialect cluster of the Lowland East Cushitic languages, which are part of the Cushitic branch of the Afroasiatic family; the Saho language is quite similar to Afar. The Irob dialect is only spoken in Ethiopia; the Saho are predominantly Muslim. A few Christians, who are known as the Irob, live in the Tigray region of Ethiopia and the Debub Region of Eritrea.
Regarding the customary law of the Saho, when there is an issue the Saho tend to call for a meeting or conference which they call'"rahbe". In such a meeting the Saho people discuss how to solve issues related to water, pasture or land, clan disputes and how to alleviate these problems; this is discussed with neighboring tribes or ethnic groups and sub-clans to reach a consensus. A skilled representative is chosen for this meeting, this representative is called a "madarre". A madarre brings forth arguments to his audience and sub-clans or tribes who are involved and tries to win them over; this is discussed with clan or tribal wise men or elders, "ukal". On smaller scale conflicts between 2 individuals, one of the 2 takes their grievances to the "ukal", they in turn appoint "shimagale" or mediators for the dispute 1. Dabri-Mela Alades Are Labhalet Are2. Assa-Awurta Fokroti Are Lelish Are Assa- Kare Asa-Lesan Sarma Are Faqih Dik Urus Abusa3. Gaaso Arabic قعسو Shum Abdalla Gaisha Yofish Gaisha Shum Ahmad Gaisha Hassan Gaisha Silyan Gaisha Asa-Ushmaal Oni - Maal Salmunta Gadafur4.
Dasamo Abdallah Harak Naefie Harak Mosat Harak Subakum Are Daili Are Kundes Illaishe Asa Bora5. Faqat Harak Faqih Abubakar Faqih Omar Faqih Ahmad6. Silaita Hakatti Are Qomma Are Zella Are Halato Abbarior7. Idda, one of the earliest known Saho communities in Eritrea known as “Bado Ambalish” or "bearers of land". 8. Irob, a Christian community in the highlands of the Tigray Region. 9. Torra, Serrah Aria and Mussa Aria List of Saho communities Saho videos
Animism is the religious belief that objects and creatures all possess a distinct spiritual essence. Animism perceives all things—animals, rocks, weather systems, human handiwork and even words—as animated and alive. Animism is used in the anthropology of religion as a term for the belief system of many indigenous peoples in contrast to the more recent development of organised religions. Although each culture has its own different mythologies and rituals, "animism" is said to describe the most common, foundational thread of indigenous peoples' "spiritual" or "supernatural" perspectives; the animistic perspective is so held and inherent to most indigenous peoples that they do not have a word in their languages that corresponds to "animism". Due to such ethnolinguistic and cultural discrepancies, opinion has differed on whether animism refers to an ancestral mode of experience common to indigenous peoples around the world, or to a full-fledged religion in its own right; the accepted definition of animism was only developed in the late 19th century by Sir Edward Tylor, who created it as "one of anthropology's earliest concepts, if not the first".
Animism encompasses the beliefs that all material phenomena have agency, that there exists no hard and fast distinction between the spiritual and physical world and that soul or spirit or sentience exists not only in humans, but in other animals, rocks, geographic features such as mountains or rivers or other entities of the natural environment, including thunder and shadows. Animism may further attribute souls to abstract concepts such as words, true names or metaphors in mythology; some members of the non-tribal world consider themselves animists. Earlier anthropological perspectives, which have since been termed the "old animism", were concerned with knowledge on what is alive and what factors make something alive; the "old animism" assumed that animists were individuals who were unable to understand the difference between persons and things. Critics of the "old animism" have accused it of preserving "colonialist and dualist worldviews and rhetoric"; the idea of animism was developed by the anthropologist Sir Edward Tylor in his 1871 book Primitive Culture, in which he defined it as "the general doctrine of souls and other spiritual beings in general".
According to Tylor, animism includes "an idea of pervading life and will in nature". That formulation was little different from that proposed by Auguste Comte as "fetishism", but the terms now have distinct meanings. For Tylor, animism represented the earliest form of religion, being situated within an evolutionary framework of religion which has developed in stages and which will lead to humanity rejecting religion altogether in favor of scientific rationality. Thus, for Tylor, animism was fundamentally seen as a mistake, a basic error from which all religion grew, he did not believe that animism was inherently illogical, but he suggested that it arose from early humans' dreams and visions and thus was a rational system. However, it was based on unscientific observations about the nature of reality. Stringer notes that his reading of Primitive Culture led him to believe that Tylor was far more sympathetic in regard to "primitive" populations than many of his contemporaries and that Tylor expressed no belief that there was any difference between the intellectual capabilities of "savage" people and Westerners.
Tylor had wanted to describe the phenomenon as "spiritualism" but realised that would cause confusion with the modern religion of Spiritualism, prevalent across Western nations. He adopted the term "animism" from the writings of the German scientist Georg Ernst Stahl, who, in 1708, had developed the term animismus as a biological theory that souls formed the vital principle and that the normal phenomena of life and the abnormal phenomena of disease could be traced to spiritual causes; the first known usage in English appeared in 1819. The idea that there had once been "one universal form of primitive religion" has been dismissed as "unsophisticated" and "erroneous" by the archaeologist Timothy Insoll, who stated that "it removes complexity, a precondition of religion now, in all its variants". Tylor's definition of animism was a part of a growing international debate on the nature of "primitive society" by lawyers and philologists; the debate defined the field of research of a new science: anthropology.
By the end of the 19th century, an orthodoxy on "primitive society" had emerged, but few anthropologists still would accept that definition. The "19th-century armchair anthropologists" argued "primitive society" was ordered by kinship and was divided into exogamous descent groups related by a series of marriage exchanges, their religion was the belief that natural species and objects had souls. With the development of private property, the descent groups were displaced by the emergence of the territorial state; these rituals and beliefs evolved over time into the vast array of "developed" religions. According to Tylor, the more scientifically advanced a society became, the fewer members of that society believed in animism. However, any remnant ideologies of souls or spirits, to Tylor, represented "survivals" of the original animism of early humanity. In 1869, the Edinburgh lawyer
The Daasanach are an ethnic group inhabiting parts of Ethiopia and South Sudan. Their main homeland is in the Debub Omo Zone of the Southern Nations and People's Region, adjacent to Lake Turkana. According to the 2007 national census, they number 48,067 people, of whom 1,481 are urban dwellers; the Daasanach are called Marille by their neighbours, the Turkana of Kenya. The Daasanach are traditionally pastoralists, but in recent years have become agropastoral. Having lost the majority of their lands over the past fifty years or so as a result from being excluded from their traditional Kenyan lands, including on both sides of Lake Turkana, the'Ilemi Triangle' of Sudan, they have suffered a massive decrease in the numbers of cattle and sheep; as a result, large numbers of them have moved to areas closer to the Omo River, where they attempt to grow enough crops to survive. There is much disease along the river, making this solution to their economic plight difficult. Like many pastoral peoples throughout this region of Africa, the Daasanach are a egalitarian society, with a social system involving age sets and clan lineages - both of which involve strong reciprocity relations.
The Daasanach today speak the Daasanach language. It belongs to the Cushitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic family; the language is notable for its large number of noun classes, irregular verb system, implosive consonants. For instance, the initial D in Daasanach is implosive, sometimes written as'D. Modern genetic analysis of the Daasanach indicates that they are more related to Nilo-Saharan and Niger-Congo-speaking populations inhabiting Tanzania than they are to the Cushitic and Semitic Afro-Asiatic-speaking populations of Ethiopia; this suggests that the Daasanach were Nilo-Saharan speakers, sharing common origins with the Pokot. In the 19th century, the Nilotic ancestors of these two populations are believed to have begun separate migrations, with one group heading southwards into the African Great Lakes region and the other group settling in southern Ethiopia. There, the early Daasanach Nilotes would have come into contact with a Cushitic-speaking population, adopted this group's Afro-Asiatic language.
The Daasanach are a agropastoral people. Otherwise the Daasanach rely on their goats and cattle which give them milk, are slaughtered in the dry season for meat and hides. Sorghum is cooked with water into a porridge eaten with a stew. Corn is roasted, sorghum is fermented into beer; the Daasanach who herd cattle live in dome-shaped houses made from a frame of branches, covered with hides and woven boxes. The huts have a hearth, with mats covering the floor used for sleeping; the Dies, or lower class, are their way of living. They live on fishing. Although their status is low because of their lack of cattle, the Dies help the herders with crocodile meat and fish in return for meat. Women are circumcised by removing the clitoris. Women who are not circumcised can not get married or wear clothes. Women wear a pleated cowskin skirt and necklaces and bracelets, they are married off at 17 while men are at 20. Boys are circumcised. Men wear only a checkered cloth around their waist. There are a number including Dasenach and Dassanech.
Daasanach is the primary name given in the Ethnologue language entry. El Molo people Arbore people Western Omo–Tana languages Uri Almagor, "Institutionalizing a fringe periphery: Dassanetch-Amhara relations", pp. 96–115 in The Southern Marches of Imperial Ethiopia, Oxford: James Currey, 2002. Claudia J. Carr, Pastoralism in Crisis: the Dassanetch of Southwest Ethiopia. University of Chicago. 1977
The Harari people called Geyusu, are an ethnic group inhabiting the Horn of Africa. Members traditionally reside in the walled city of Harar, situated in the Harari Region of eastern Ethiopia, they speak a member of the Ethiosemitic language group within the Afroasiatic family. The Harla, an extinct Afro-Asiatic people native to Hararghe are considered the precursor to the Harari people; the ancestors of Hararis moved across the Bab-el-Mandeb entering shores of north Somalia from Arabia, producing a semitic population among cushites and hamites in Harar. Upon the arrival of Arab Fagih Abadir the alleged patriarch of the Harari in the 10th century, he was met by the Harla and Argobba tribes. By the thirteenth century, Hararis were one of the administrators of the Ifat Sultanate. In the fourteenth century raids on Harar town of Get by Abyssinian Emperor Amda Seyon I, Hararis are referred to as Harla Arabs. In the sixteenth century, walls built around the city of Harar during the reign of Emir Nur, helped preserve Harari identity from being assimilated by the Oromo.
According to Ulrich Braukämper, Harla-Harari semitic group were most active in the region prior to the Adal Sultanate's Islamic invasion of Ethiopia. Sixteenth century saw Oromos invading regions of Somalia from the northern areas of Hargeisa to its southern portions such as Lower Juba, incorporating the Harari people. During the Abyssinian-Adal war, some Harari militia settled in Gurage territory forming the Silt'e ethnic group. Hararis were furious when Muhammad Jasa decided to move the Adal Sultanate's capital from Harar to Aussa in 1577. In less than a year after its relocation Adal would collapse. Harari imams continued to have a presence in the southern Afar Region in the Imamate of Aussa until they were overthrown in the eighteenth century by the Mudaito dynasty who established the Sultanate of Aussa. Among the assimilated peoples were Arab Muslims that arrived during the start of the Islamic period, as well as Argobba and other migrants that were drawn to Harar's well-developed culture.
Statistics prove that a Semitic-speaking people akin to the Harari may have inhabited a stretch of land between the Karkaar Mountains, the middle Awash and the Jijiga region, Oromo migrations have split this putative ethnolinguistic block to the Lake Zway islands, Gurage territory, Harar. Following the decline of the Adal Sultanate's ascendancy in the area, a large number of the Harari were in turn absorbed into the Oromo community. In the Emirate of Harar period, Hararis sent missionaries to convert Oromo to Islam; the loss in the crucial Battle of Chelenqo marked the end of Harar's independence in 1887. Hararis supported the designated but uncrowned Emperor of Ethiopia Iyasu V, his presumed efforts to make Harar the capital of an African Islamic empire. Iyasu was however overthrown in 1916, many of his Harari followers were jailed. Due to severe violation of Harari rights during Abyssinian rule, Hararis made several attempts to cut ties with Ethiopia and unify Hararghe with Somalia. Launching the nationalist Kulub movement linked to the Somali Youth League.
These events led to the Haile Selassie government's forced displacement efforts on Hararis, to break their dominant control of Harar. A Harar Oromo proverb alludes to this occasion as: "On that day Hararis were eliminated from earth." Former Mayor of Harar Bereket Selassie reported that both the Amhara and Oromo viewed Hararis with contempt. Haile Selassie's overthrow by the Derg communist regime made minor differences for the Harari, they describe it as "little more than a transition from the frying pan into the fire"; the 1975 rural act disenfranchised Hararis from their farm land. The surviving Harari relatives of the members to the Kulub movement would join the Somali Armed Forces and some having been promoted high-ranking military officers, fought in the Ogaden War to free Harari/Somali territory from Ethiopian rule. Hararis were involved in WSLF. After Ethiopians won the war in Ogaden, Derg soldiers began massacring civilians in Harari areas of Addis Ababa for collaborating with Somalis.
Today Hararis are outnumbered in their own state by the Oromo people. The ruling Ethiopian government ushered in 1991 has favored Hararis tremendously, they now control their Harari Region again and have been given special rights not offered to other groups in the region. According to academic Sarah Vaughan, Harari People's National Regional State was created to overturn the historical bad relationship between Harar and the Ethiopian government. Hararis as well as the Somali Sheekhal and Hadiya Halaba clan assert descent from Abadir Umar ar-Rida known as Fiqi Umar, who traced his lineage to the first caliph, Abu Bakr. According to the explorer Richard Francis Burton, "Fiqi Umar" crossed over from the Arabian Peninsula to the Horn of Africa ten generations prior to 1854, with his six sons: Umar the Greater, Umar the Lesser, the two Abdillahs and Siddik. According to Hararis, they consist of seven Harla subclans: Abogn, Awari, Gaturi and Wargar; the Harari were known as "Adere", although this term is now considered derogatory.
Arsi Oromo state an intermarriage took place between their ancestors and the previous inhabitants Adere whom they call the Hadiya. Hadiya clans claim their forefathers were Harari however they became influenced by Sidama. Moreover Habar Habusheed a sub clan of the Somali Isaaq tribe in northern Somalia, hold the tradition they originate from an intermarriage between Hararis and their forefathers; the Harari people speak the Harari language, an Ethiosemitic language referred to as Gey Ritma or Gey Sinan ("Language of the City"