|Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg
Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg
|State of Germany|
|• First Mayor||Olaf Scholz (SPD)|
|• Governing parties||SPD / The Greens|
|• Bundesrat votes||3 (of 69)|
|• City||755 km2 (292 sq mi)|
|Population (31 December 2015)|
|• Density||2,400/km2 (6,100/sq mi)|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|• Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
|Postal code(s)||20001–21149, 22001–22769|
|ISO 3166 code||DE-HH|
|GDP/ Nominal||€111/$130 billion (2016) |
|GDP per capita||€62,000/$72,900 (2015)|
Hamburg (German pronunciation: [ˈhambʊɐ̯k] ( listen), local pronunciation [ˈhambʊɪ̯ç] ( listen); Low German/Low Saxon: Hamborg — [ˈhambɔːç] ( listen)),[a] officially the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg (German: Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg) is the second largest city and a state of Germany, with a population of over 1.7 million people.
The official name reflects Hamburg's history as a member of the medieval Hanseatic League, a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire, a city-state, and one of the 16 states of Germany. Before the 1871 Unification of Germany, it was a fully sovereign state. Prior to the constitutional changes in 1919, the civic republic was ruled by a class of hereditary grand burghers or Hanseaten. Though repeatedly destroyed by the Great Fire of Hamburg, the floods, and military conflicts including WW2 bombing raids, the city managed to recover and emerge wealthier after each catastrophe.
On the river Elbe, Hamburg is a major port and a global service, media, logistics and industrial hub, with headquarters and facilities of Airbus, Blohm + Voss, Aurubis, Beiersdorf, and Unilever. The radio and television broadcaster NDR, Gruner + Jahr (Europe's largest printing and publishing firm), Der Spiegel and Die Zeit are also based in Hamburg. Hamburg has been an important financial centre for centuries and is the seat of Germany's oldest stock exchange and the world's second oldest bank, Berenberg Bank. With the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, the EU-LAC Foundation, the UNESCO Institute of Lifelong Learning, many consular and diplomatic missions, and various international conferences like Hamburg Summit: China meets Europe and the 2017 G20 Hamburg summit, the city is also a factor in world politics and international law.
The city is a tourist destination for both domestic and international visitors, ranked 18th in the world for livability in 2016. Speicherstadt and Kontorhausviertel were declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 2015.
Hamburg is a major European science, research, and education hub, with several universities and institutes. Its creative industries and cultural sites include the Elbphilharmonie and Laeisz concert halls, art venues, music producers, and artists. It gave birth to movements like Hamburger Schule and paved the way for bands including The Beatles. Hamburg is also known for several theatres and a variety of musical shows. St. Pauli's Reeperbahn is among the best known European entertainment districts.
- 1 Geography
- 2 History
- 3 Demographics
- 4 Government
- 5 Cityscape
- 6 Culture and contemporary life
- 7 Economy
- 8 Infrastructure
- 9 Sport
- 10 Education
- 11 Twin towns and sister cities
- 12 People from Hamburg
- 13 See also
- 14 Notes
- 15 References
- 16 External links
Hamburg is on the southern point of the Jutland Peninsula, between Continental Europe to the south and Scandinavia to the north, with the North Sea to the west and the Baltic Sea to the north-east. It is on the River Elbe at its confluence with the Alster and Bille, the city centre is around the Binnenalster ("Inner Alster") and Außenalster ("Outer Alster"), both formed by damming the River Alster to create lakes. The islands of Neuwerk, Scharhörn and Nigehörn, 100 kilometres (60 mi) away in the Hamburg Wadden Sea National Park, are also part of the city of Hamburg.
The neighbourhoods of Neuenfelde, Cranz, Francop and Finkenwerder are part of the Altes Land (old land) region, the largest contiguous fruit-producing region in Central Europe. Neugraben-Fischbek has Hamburg's highest elevation, the Hasselbrack at 116.2 metres (381 ft) AMSL. Hamburg borders the states of Schleswig-Holstein and Lower Saxony.
Hamburg has an oceanic climate (Cfb), influenced by its proximity to the coast and marine air masses that originate over the Atlantic Ocean. Nearby wetlands also enjoy a maritime temperate climate. Snowfall differs a lot in the past decades: while in the late 1970s and early 1980s, heavy snowfall occurred, the winters of recent years have been less cold, with snowfall on several days per year.
The warmest months are June, July, and August, with high temperatures of 20.1 to 22.5 °C (68.2 to 72.5 °F). The coldest are December, January, and February, with low temperatures of −0.3 to 1.0 °C (31.5 to 33.8 °F).
|Climate data for Hamburg|
|Record high °C (°F)||14.4
|Average high °C (°F)||3.5
|Daily mean °C (°F)||1.0
|Average low °C (°F)||−1.4
|Record low °C (°F)||−22.8
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||67.8
|Average rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm)||12.1||9.2||11.3||8.9||9.6||11.3||11.4||10.2||10.8||10.5||11.7||12.4||129.4|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||46.9||69.0||108.8||171.6||223.4||198.7||217.5||203.1||144.6||107.9||53.0||37.4||1,581.9|
|Source #1: World Meteorological Organisation (UN)|
|Source #2: Deutscher Wetterdienst|
The name Hamburg comes from the first permanent building on the site, a castle which the Emperor Charlemagne ordered constructed in AD 808, it rose on rocky terrain in a marsh between the River Alster and the River Elbe as a defence against Slavic incursion, and acquired the name Hammaburg, burg meaning castle or fort. The origin of the Hamma term remains uncertain, as does the exact location of the castle.
In 834, Hamburg was designated as the seat of a bishopric, the first bishop, Ansgar, became known as the Apostle of the North. Two years later, Hamburg was united with Bremen as the Bishopric of Hamburg-Bremen.
Hamburg was destroyed and occupied several times; in 845, 600 Viking ships sailed up the River Elbe and destroyed Hamburg, at that time a town of around 500 inhabitants. In 1030, King Mieszko II Lambert of Poland burned down the city. Valdemar II of Denmark raided and occupied Hamburg in 1201 and in 1214. The Black Death killed at least 60% of the population in 1350. Hamburg experienced several great fires in the medieval period.
In 1189, by imperial charter, Frederick I "Barbarossa" granted Hamburg the status of an Imperial Free City and tax-free access up[clarification needed] the Lower Elbe into the North Sea. In 1265, an allegedly forged letter was presented to or by the Rath of Hamburg, this charter, along with Hamburg's proximity to the main trade routes of the North Sea and Baltic Sea, quickly made it a major port in Northern Europe. Its trade alliance with Lübeck in 1241 marks the origin and core of the powerful Hanseatic League of trading cities, on 8 November 1266, a contract between Henry III and Hamburg's traders allowed them to establish a hanse in London. This was the first time in history that the word hanse was used for the trading guild of the Hanseatic League; in 1270, the solicitor of the senate of Hamburg, Jordan von Boitzenburg, wrote the first description of civil, criminal and procedural law for a city in Germany in the German language, the Ordeelbook (Ordeel: sentence). On 10 August 1410, civil unrest forced a compromise (German: Rezeß, literally meaning: withdrawal), this is considered the first constitution of Hamburg. In 1529, the city embraced Lutheranism, and it received Reformed refugees from the Netherlands and France.
When Jan van Valckenborgh introduced a second layer to the fortifications to protect against the Thirty Years War in the seventeenth century, he extended Hamburg and created a "New Town" (Neustadt) whose street names still date from the grid system of roads he introduced.
Upon the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, the Free Imperial City of Hamburg was not incorporated into a larger administrative area while retaining special privileges (mediatised), but became a sovereign state with the official title of the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg. Hamburg was briefly annexed by Napoleon I to the First French Empire (1804–1814/1815). Russian forces under General Bennigsen finally freed the city in 1814. Hamburg re-assumed its pre-1811 status as a city-state in 1814, the Vienna Congress of 1815 confirmed Hamburg's independence and it became one of 39 sovereign states of the German Confederation (1815–1866).
In 1842, about a quarter of the inner city was destroyed in the "Great Fire", the fire started on the night of 4 May and was not extinguished until 8 May. It destroyed three churches, the town hall, and many other buildings, killing 51 people and leaving an estimated 20,000 homeless. Reconstruction took more than 40 years.
After periodic political unrest, particularly in 1848, Hamburg adopted in 1860 a democratic constitution that provided for the election of the Senate, the governing body of the city-state, by adult taxpaying males. Other innovations included the separation of powers, the separation of Church and State, freedom of the press, of assembly and association. Hamburg became a member of the North German Confederation (1866–1871) and of the German Empire (1871–1918), and maintained its self-ruling status during the Weimar Republic (1919–1933), the city experienced its fastest growth during the second half of the 19th century, when its population more than quadrupled to 800,000 as the growth of the city's Atlantic trade helped make it Europe's second-largest port. The Hamburg-America Line, with Albert Ballin as its director, became the world's largest transatlantic shipping company around the start of the 20th century. Shipping companies sailing to South America, Africa, India and East Asia were based in the city. Hamburg was the departure port for many Germans and Eastern Europeans to emigrate to the United States in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Trading communities from all over the world established themselves there.
A major outbreak of cholera in 1892 was badly handled by the city government, which retained an unusual degree of independence for a German city. About 8,600 died in the largest German epidemic of the late 19th century, and the last major cholera epidemic in a major city of the Western world.
Second World War
In the Third Reich (1933–1945), Hamburg was a Gau from 1934 until 1945, during the Second World War, Hamburg suffered a series of Allied air raids which devastated much of the city and the harbour. On 23 July 1943, RAF firebombing created a firestorm which spread from the Hauptbahnhof (main railway station) and quickly moved south-east, completely destroying entire boroughs such as Hammerbrook, Billbrook and Hamm South. Thousands of people perished in these densely populated working class boroughs. While some of the boroughs destroyed were rebuilt as residential districts after the war, others such as Hammerbrook are nowadays purely commercial districts with almost no residential population, the raids, codenamed Operation Gomorrah by the RAF, killed at least 42,600 civilians; the precise number is not known. About one million civilians were evacuated in the aftermath of the raids.
The Hamburg Commonwealth War Graves Commission Cemetery is in the greater Ohlsdorf Cemetery in the north of Hamburg.
At least 42,900 people are thought to have perished in the Neuengamme concentration camp (about 25 km (16 mi) outside the city in the marshlands), mostly from epidemics and in the bombing of Kriegsmarine evacuation vessels by the Royal Air Force at the end of the war.
Hamburg had the greatest concentration of Jews in Germany. Systematic deportations of Jewish Germans and Gentile Germans of Jewish descent started on 18 October 1941. These were all directed to Ghettos in Nazi-occupied Europe or to concentration camps. Most deported persons perished in the Holocaust. By the end of 1942 the Jüdischer Religionsverband in Hamburg was dissolved as an independent legal entity and its remaining assets and staff were assumed by the Reichsvereinigung der Juden in Deutschland (District Northwest). On 10 June 1943 the Reichssicherheitshauptamt dissolved the Reichsvereinigung by a decree, the few remaining employees not somewhat protected by a mixed marriage were deported from Hamburg on 23 June to Theresienstadt, where most of them perished.
Hamburg surrendered without a fight to British Forces on 3 May 1945, after the Second World War, Hamburg formed part of the British Zone of Occupation; it became a state of the then Federal Republic of Germany in 1949. From 1960 to 1962, the Beatles launched their career by playing in various music clubs in the city, on 16 February 1962, a North Sea flood caused the Elbe to rise to an all-time high, inundating one-fifth of Hamburg and killing more than 300 people.
The Inner German border – only 50 kilometres (30 mi) east of Hamburg – separated the city from most of its hinterland and reduced Hamburg's global trade. Since German reunification in 1990, and the accession of several Central European and Baltic states into the European Union in 2004, the Port of Hamburg has restarted ambitions for regaining its position as the region's largest deep-sea port for container shipping and its major commercial and trading centre.
|10 Largest Migrant Communities|
On 31 December 2016, there were 1,860,759 people registered as living in Hamburg in an area of 755.3 km2 (291.6 sq mi). The population density was 2,464/km2 (6,380/sq mi). The metropolitan area of the Hamburg region (Hamburg Metropolitan Region) is home to 5,107,429 living on 196/km2 (510/sq mi).
There were 915,319 women and 945,440 men in Hamburg, for every 1,000 males, there were 1,033 females. In 2015, there were 19,768 births in Hamburg (of which 38.3% were to unmarried women); 6422 marriages and 3190 divorces, and 17,565 deaths. In the city, the population was spread out with 16.1% under the age of 18, and 18.3% were 65 years of age or older. 356 People in Hamburg were over the age of 100.
According to the Statistical Office of the State of Hamburg, the number of people with a migrant background is at 34% (631,246). Immigrants come from 180 different countries. 5891 people have acquired German cititzenship in 2016.
In 2016, there were 1,021,666 households, of which 17.8% had children under the age of 18; 54.4% of all households were made up of singles. 25.6% of all households were single parent households. The average household size was 1.8.
Residents in Hamburg with foreign cititzenship
Hamburg residents with a foreign citizenship as of 31 December 2016 is as follows
|Australian and Oceanian||1,234||0.4%|
Like elsewhere in Germany, Standard German is spoken in Hamburg, but as typical for northern Germany, the original language of Hamburg is Low German, usually referred to as Hamborger Platt (German Hamburger Platt) or Hamborgsch. Since large-scale standardization of the German language beginning in earnest in the 18th century, various Low German-colored dialects have developed (contact-varieties of German on Low Saxon substrates). Originally, there was a range of such Missingsch varieties, the best-known being the low-prestige ones of the working classes and the somewhat more bourgeois Hanseatendeutsch (Hanseatic German), although the term is used in appreciation. All of these are now moribund due to the influences of Standard German used by education and media. However, the former importance of Low German is indicated by several songs, such as the famous sea shanty Hamborger Veermaster, written in the 19th century when Low German was used more frequently. Many toponyms and street names reflect Low Saxon vocabulary, partially even in Low Saxon spelling, which is not standardised, and to some part in forms adapted to Standard German.
Slightly less than half of the residents of Hamburg are members of a religion; in late 2015, 27.0% of the population belonged to the North Elbian Evangelical Lutheran Church, the largest religious body, and 10.7% to the Roman Catholic Church.
According to the publication "Muslimisches Leben in Deutschland" estimated 141,900 Muslim migrants (counting in nearly 50 countries of origin) lived in Hamburg in 2008. About three years later (May 2011) calculations based on census data for 21 countries of origin resulted in the number of about 143,200 Muslim migrants in Hamburg, making up 8,4 percent of the population.
Hamburg is seat of one of the three bishops of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Northern Germany and seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Hamburg. There are several mosques, including the Ahmadiyya run Fazle Omar Mosque, which is the oldest in the city, the Islamic Centre Hamburg, and a Jewish community.
The city of Hamburg is one of 16 German states, therefore the Mayor of Hamburg's office corresponds more to the role of a minister-president than to the one of a city mayor. As a German state government, it is responsible for public education, correctional institutions and public safety; as a municipality, it is additionally responsible for libraries, recreational facilities, sanitation, water supply and welfare services.
Since 1897, the seat of the government has been the Hamburg Rathaus, with the office of the mayor, the meeting room for the Senate and the floor for the Hamburg Parliament, from 2001 until 2010, the mayor of Hamburg was Ole von Beust, who governed in Germany's first statewide "black-green" coalition, consisting of the conservative CDU and the alternative GAL, which are Hamburg's regional wing of the Alliance '90/The Greens party. Von Beust was briefly succeeded by Christoph Ahlhaus in 2010, but the coalition broke apart on November, 28. 2010. On 7 March 2011 Olaf Scholz (SPD) became mayor.
Hamburg is made up of seven boroughs (German: Bezirke) and subdivided into 104 quarters (German: Stadtteile). There are 181 localities (German: Ortsteile), the urban organization is regulated by the Constitution of Hamburg and several laws. Most of the quarters were former independent cities, towns or villages annexed into Hamburg proper, the last large annexation was done through the Greater Hamburg Act of 1937, when the cities Altona, Harburg and Wandsbek were merged into the state of Hamburg. The Act of the Constitution and Administration of Hanseatic city of Hamburg established Hamburg as a state and a municipality. Some of the boroughs and quarters have been rearranged several times.
Each borough is governed by a Borough Council (German: Bezirksversammlung) and administered by a Municipal Administrator (German: Bezirksamtsleiter), the boroughs are not independent municipalities: their power is limited and subordinate to the Senate of Hamburg. The borough administrator is elected by the Borough Council and thereafter requires confirmation and appointment by Hamburg's Senate, the quarters have no governing bodies of their own.
Hamburg-Mitte ("Hamburg Centre") covers mostly the urban centre of the city and consists of the quarters Billbrook, Billstedt, Borgfelde, Finkenwerder, HafenCity, Hamm, Hammerbrook, Horn, Kleiner Grasbrook, Neuwerk, Rothenburgsort, St. Georg, St. Pauli, Steinwerder, Veddel, Waltershof and Wilhelmsburg. The quarters Hamburg-Altstadt ("old town") and Neustadt ("new town") are the historical origin of Hamburg.
Altona is the westernmost urban borough, on the right bank of the Elbe river. From 1640 to 1864, Altona was under the administration of the Danish monarchy. Altona was an independent city until 1937. Politically, the following quarters are part of Altona: Altona-Altstadt, Altona-Nord, Bahrenfeld, Ottensen, Othmarschen, Groß Flottbek, Osdorf, Lurup, Nienstedten, Blankenese, Iserbrook, Sülldorf, Rissen, Sternschanze.
Bergedorf consists of the quarters Allermöhe, Altengamme, Bergedorf—the centre of the former independent town, Billwerder, Curslack, Kirchwerder, Lohbrügge, Moorfleet, Neuengamme, Neuallermöhe, Ochsenwerder, Reitbrook, Spadenland and Tatenberg.
Eimsbüttel is split into nine quarters: Eidelstedt, Eimsbüttel, Harvestehude, Hoheluft-West, Lokstedt, Niendorf, Rotherbaum, Schnelsen and Stellingen. Located within this borough is former Jewish neighbourhood Grindel.
Hamburg-Nord contains the quarters Alsterdorf, Barmbek-Nord, Barmbek-Süd, Dulsberg, Eppendorf, Fuhlsbüttel, Groß Borstel, Hoheluft-Ost, Hohenfelde, Langenhorn, Ohlsdorf with Ohlsdorf cemetery, Uhlenhorst and Winterhude.
Harburg lies on the southern shores of the river Elbe and covers parts of the port of Hamburg, residential and rural areas, and some research institutes. The quarters are Altenwerder, Cranz, Eißendorf, Francop, Gut Moor, Harburg, Hausbruch, Heimfeld, Langenbek, Marmstorf, Moorburg, Neuenfelde, Neugraben-Fischbek, Neuland, Rönneburg, Sinstorf and Wilstorf.
Wandsbek is divided into the quarters Bergstedt, Bramfeld, Duvenstedt, Eilbek, Farmsen-Berne, Hummelsbüttel, Jenfeld, Lemsahl-Mellingstedt, Marienthal, Poppenbüttel, Rahlstedt, Sasel, Steilshoop, Tonndorf, Volksdorf, Wandsbek, Wellingsbüttel and Wohldorf-Ohlstedt.
Hamburg has architecturally significant buildings in a wide range of styles and only a few skyscrapers. Churches are important landmarks, such as St Nicholas', which for a short time in the 19th century was the world's tallest building, the skyline features the tall spires of the most important churches (Hauptkirchen) St Michael's (nicknamed "Michel"), St Peter's, St James's (St. Jacobi) and St. Catherine's covered with copper plates, and the Heinrich-Hertz-Turm, the radio and television tower (no longer publicly accessible).
The many streams, rivers and canals are crossed by some 2,500 bridges, more than London, Amsterdam and Venice put together. Hamburg has more bridges inside its city limits than any other city in the world and more canals than Amsterdam and Venice combined, the Köhlbrandbrücke, Freihafen Elbbrücken, and Lombardsbrücke and Kennedybrücke dividing Binnenalster from Aussenalster are important roadways.
The town hall is a richly decorated Neo-Renaissance building finished in 1897, the tower is 112 metres (367 ft) high. Its façade, 111 m (364 ft) long, depicts the emperors of the Holy Roman Empire, since Hamburg was, as a Free Imperial City, only under the sovereignty of the emperor. The Chilehaus, a brick expressionist office building built in 1922 and designed by architect Fritz Höger, is shaped like an ocean liner.
Europe's largest urban development since 2008, the HafenCity, will house about 10,000 inhabitants and 15,000 workers, the plan includes designs by Rem Koolhaas and Renzo Piano. The Elbphilharmonie (Elbe Philharmonic Hall), opened in January 2017, houses concerts in a sail-shaped building on top of an old warehouse, designed by architects Herzog & de Meuron.
The many parks are distributed over the whole city, which makes Hamburg a very verdant city, the biggest parks are the Stadtpark, the Ohlsdorf Cemetery and Planten un Blomen. The Stadtpark, Hamburg's "Central Park", has a great lawn and a huge water tower, which houses one of Europe's biggest planetaria, the park and its buildings were designed by Fritz Schumacher in the 1910s.
Parks and gardens
The lavish and spacious Planten un Blomen park (Low German dialect for "plants and flowers") located in the centre of Hamburg is the green heart of the city. Within the park you can find various thematic gardens, the biggest Japanese garden in Germany and The Alter Botanischer Garten Hamburg which is a historic botanical garden, that now consists primarily of greenhouses.
The Botanischer Garten Hamburg is a modern botanical garden maintained by the University of Hamburg. Besides these, there are many more big and small parks; in 2010 Hamburg was voted "greenest city of Europe" by the EU commission. In 2014 Hamburg celebrated a birthday of park culture, where many parks were reconstructed and cleaned up. Moreover, every year there are the famous water-light-concerts in the Planten un Blomen park from May to early October.
Culture and contemporary life
Hamburg has more than 40 theatres, 60 museums and 100 music venues and clubs; in 2005, more than 18 million people visited concerts, exhibitions, theatres, cinemas, museums, and cultural events. More than 8,552 taxable companies (average size 3.16 employees) were engaged in the culture sector, which includes music, performing arts and literature. There are five companies in the creative sector per thousand residents (as compared to three in Berlin and 37 in London). Hamburg has entered the European Green Capital Award scheme, and was awarded the title of European Green Capital for 2011.
The English Theatre of Hamburg near U3 Mundsburg station was established in 1976 and is the oldest professional English-speaking theatre in Germany, and has exclusively English native-speaking actors in its company.
Hamburg has several large museums and galleries showing classical and contemporary art, for example the Kunsthalle Hamburg with its contemporary art gallery (Galerie der Gegenwart), the Museum for Art and Industry (Museum für Kunst und Gewerbe) and the Deichtorhallen/House of Photography. The Internationales Maritimes Museum Hamburg opened in the HafenCity quarter in 2008. There are various specialised museums in Hamburg, such as the Archaeological Museum Hamburg (Archäologisches Museum Hamburg) in Hamburg-Harburg, the Museum of Labour (Museum der Arbeit), and several museums of local history, for example the Kiekeberg Open Air Museum (Freilichtmuseum am Kiekeberg). Two museum ships near Landungsbrücken bear witness to the freight ship (Cap San Diego) and cargo sailing ship era (Rickmer Rickmers). The world's largest model railway museum Miniatur Wunderland with 15.4 km (9.57 mi) total railway length is also situated near Landungsbrücken in a former warehouse.
BallinStadt Emigration City is dedicated to the millions of Europeans who emigrated to North and South America between 1850 and 1939. Visitors descending from those overseas emigrants may search for their ancestors at computer terminals.
Hamburg State Opera is a leading opera company. Its orchestra is the Philharmoniker Hamburg, the city's other well-known orchestra is the NDR Elbphilharmonie Orchestra. The main concert venue is the Laeiszhalle, Musikhalle Hamburg, pending completion of the new Elbe Philharmonic Hall, the Laeiszhalle also houses a third orchestra, the Hamburger Symphoniker. György Ligeti and Alfred Schnittke taught at the Hochschule für Musik und Theater Hamburg.
Since the German premiere of Cats in 1986, there have always been musicals running, including The Phantom of the Opera, The Lion King, Dirty Dancing and Dance of the Vampires. This density, the highest in Germany, is partly due to the major musical production company Stage Entertainment being based in the city.
Hamburg is the birthplace of Johannes Brahms, who spent his formative early years in the city, and the birthplace and home of the famous waltz composer Oscar Fetrás, who wrote the well-known "Mondnacht auf der Alster" waltz.
Prior to the group's initial recording and widespread fame, Hamburg provided residency and performing venues for the Beatles from 1960 to 1962. Hamburg has nurtured a number of pop musicians. Identical twins Bill Kaulitz and Tom Kaulitz from the rock band Tokio Hotel live and maintain a recording studio in Hamburg, where they recorded their second and third albums, Zimmer 483 and Humanoid. Singer Nena also lives in Hamburg. There are German hip hop acts, such as Fünf Sterne deluxe, Samy Deluxe, Beginner and Fettes Brot. There is a substantial alternative and punk scene, which gathers around the Rote Flora, a squatted former theatre located in the Sternschanze. Hamburg is famous for an original kind of German alternative music called Hamburger Schule ("Hamburg School"), a term used for bands like Tocotronic, Blumfeld, Tomte or Kante.
The city was a major centre for heavy metal music in the 1980s. Helloween, Gamma Ray, Running Wild and Grave Digger started in Hamburg. The industrial rock band KMFDM was also formed in Hamburg, initially as a performance art project, the influences of these and other bands from the area helped establish the subgenre of power metal.
Festivals and regular events
Hamburg is noted for several festivals and regular events, some of them are street festivals, such as the gay pride Hamburg Pride festival or the Alster fair, held at the Binnenalster. The Hamburger DOM is northern Germany's biggest fun fair, held three times a year. Hafengeburtstag is a funfair to honour the birthday of the port of Hamburg with a party and a ship parade. The biker's service in Saint Michael's Church attracts tens of thousands of bikers. Christmas markets in December are held at the Hamburg Rathaus square, among other places, the long night of museums offers one entrance fee for about 40 museums until midnight. The sixth Festival of Cultures was held in September 2008, celebrating multi-cultural life, the Filmfest Hamburg — a film festival originating from the 1950s Film Days (German: Film Tage) — presents a wide range of films. The Hamburg Messe and Congress offers a venue for trade shows, such hanseboot, an international boat show, or Du und deine Welt, a large consumer products show. Regular sports events—some open to pro and amateur participants—are the cycling competition EuroEyes Cyclassics, the Hamburg Marathon, the biggest marathon in Germany after Berlin, the tennis tournament Hamburg Masters and equestrian events like the Deutsches Derby. Since 2007, Hamburg has the Dockville music and art festival, it takes place every year in summer in Wilhelmsburg.
Original Hamburg dishes are Birnen, Bohnen und Speck (green beans cooked with pears and bacon), Aalsuppe (Hamburgisch Oolsupp) is often mistaken to be German for "eel soup" (Aal/Ool translated ‘eel’), but the name probably comes from the Low Saxon allns [aˑlns], meaning "all", "everything and the kitchen sink", not necessarily eel. Today eel is often included to meet the expectations of unsuspecting diners. There is Bratkartoffeln (pan-fried potato slices), Finkenwerder Scholle (Low Saxon Finkwarder Scholl, pan-fried plaice), Pannfisch (pan-fried fish with mustard sauce), Rote Grütze (Low Saxon Rode Grütt, related to Danish rødgrød, a type of summer pudding made mostly from berries and usually served with cream, like Danish rødgrød med fløde) and Labskaus (a mixture of corned beef, mashed potatoes and beetroot, a cousin of the Norwegian lapskaus and Liverpool's lobscouse, all offshoots off an old-time one-pot meal that used to be the main component of the common sailor's humdrum diet on the high seas).
Alsterwasser (in reference to the city's river, the Alster) is the local name for a type of shandy, a concoction of equal parts of beer and carbonated lemonade (Zitronenlimonade), the lemonade being added to the beer.
There is the curious regional dessert pastry called Franzbrötchen. Looking rather like a flattened croissant, it is similar in preparation but includes a cinnamon and sugar filling, often with raisins or brown sugar streusel, the name may also reflect to the roll's croissant-like appearance – franz appears to be a shortening of französisch, meaning "French", which would make a Franzbrötchen a "French roll." Ordinary bread rolls tend to be oval-shaped and of the French bread variety. The local name is Schrippe (scored lengthways) for the oval kind and, for the round kind, Rundstück ("round piece" rather than mainstream German Brötchen, diminutive form of Brot "bread"), a relative of Denmark's rundstykke. In fact, while by no means identical, the cuisines of Hamburg and Denmark, especially of Copenhagen, have a lot in common, this also includes a predilection for open-faced sandwiches of all sorts, especially topped with cold-smoked or pickled fish.
The American hamburger may have developed from Hamburg's Frikadeller: a pan-fried patty (usually larger and thicker than its American counterpart) made from a mixture of ground beef, soaked stale bread, egg, chopped onion, salt and pepper, usually served with potatoes and vegetables like any other piece of meat, not usually on a bun. The Oxford Dictionary defined a Hamburger steak in 1802: a sometimes-smoked and -salted piece of meat, that, according to some sources, came from Hamburg to America, the name and food, "hamburger", has entered all English-speaking countries, and derivative words in non-English speaking countries.
There are restaurants which offer most of these dishes, especially in the HafenCity, which started being built in 2008 with 155 hectares (380 acres) and 13 quarters, this district increases the city centre by about 40%, with restaurants and apartments.
Speicherstadt (Warehouse district)
Hamburg Rathaus (City Hall)
St. Michael's Church ("Michel")
Große Freiheit ("Great Freedom")
Planten un Blomen park
Hills and mansions in Blankenese
Laeiszhalle concert venue
Hamburg Hauptbahnhof, busiest railway station in Germany
Highrises in St. Pauli ("Hafenkrone")
View over Hamburg and the Alster
Hamburg has long been a centre of alternative music and counter culture movements, the boroughs of St. Pauli, Sternschanze and Altona are known for being home to many radical left-wing and anarchist groups, culminating every year during the traditional May Day demonstrations.
The Rote Flora is a former theatre, which was squatted in 1989 in the wake of re-development plans for that area, since then, the Rote Flora has become one of the most well-known strongholds against gentrification and a place for radical culture throughout Germany and Europe. Especially during the 33rd G8 summit in nearby Heiligendamm, the Rote Flora served as an important venue for organising the counter-protests that were taking place back then.
During the 2017 G20 summit, which took place in Hamburg from 7–8 July that year, protestors clashed violently with the police in the Sternschanze area and particularly around the Rote Flora, on 7 July, several cars were set on fire and street barricades were erected to prevent the police from entering the area. In response to that, the police made heavy use of water cannons and tear gas in order to scatter the protestors. However, this was met with strong resistance by protestors, resulting in a total of 160 injured police and 75 arrested participants in the protests.
After the summit, however, the Rote Flora issued a statement, in which it condemns the arbitrary acts of violence that were committed by some of the protestors whilst generally defending the right to use violence as a means of self-defence against police oppression; in particular, the spokesperson of the Rote Flora said that the autonomous cultural centre had a traditionally good relationship with its neighbours and local residents, since they were united in their fight against gentrification in that neighbourhood.
There are several English-speaking communities, such as Caledonian Society of Hamburg, The British Club Hamburg, British and Commonwealth Luncheon Club, Anglo-German Club e.V., Professional Women's Forum, The British Decorative and Fine Arts Society, The English Speaking Union of the Commonwealth, The Scottish Country Dancers of Hamburg. There is also a thriving 400-year-old Anglican church community worshiping at St Thomas Becket Church. Further The Hamburg Players e. V. English Language Theatre Group, The Hamburg Exiles Rugby Club, Several cricket clubs, The Morris Minor Register of Hamburg. Furthermore, the Anglo-Hanseatic Lodge No. 850  within the Grand Lodge of British Freemasons of Germany under the United Grand Lodges of Germany  works in Hamburg, and has a diverse expat membership.
American and international English-speaking organisations are The American Club of Hamburg e.V., the American Women's Club of Hamburg, the English Speaking Union, and the German-American Women's Club., The International Women's Club of Hamburg e. V.. Business themes are dealt with by The American Chamber of Commerce. The International School of Hamburg serves school children.
A Hamburg saying, referring to its anglophile nature, is: "Wenn es in London anfängt zu regnen, spannen die Hamburger den Schirm auf." ... "When it starts raining in London, people in Hamburg open their umbrellas.".
A tribute to the British is that for German's extremely popular 18 minutes short intimate play "Dinner For One - The 90th Birthday". It was casted 1963 as a live act for TV in english language at NDR-Hamburg studios with Freddie Frinton and May Warden, the funny story is about a wealthy british lady, her buttler and four pretended guests celebrating her 90th birthday.
A memorial for successful English engineer William Lindley, who reorganized, beginning in 1842, the drinking water and sewage system and thus helped to fight against cholera, is near Baumwall train station in Vorsetzen street.
In 2009, more than 2,500 "stumbling blocks" (Stolpersteine) were laid, engraved with the names of deported and murdered citizens. Inserted into the pavement in front of their former houses, the blocks draw attention to the victims of Nazi persecution.
The 2007 gross domestic product (GDP) totaled €85.9 billion. The city has a relatively high employment rate, at 88 percent of the working-age population, employed in over 120,000 businesses.The average income of employees was €30,937.
Hamburg has for centuries been a commercial centre of Northern Europe, and is the most important banking city of Northern Germany, the city is the seat of Germany's oldest bank, the Berenberg Bank, M.M.Warburg & CO and HSH Nordbank. The Hamburg Stock Exchange is the oldest of its kind in Germany.
The most significant economic unit is the Port of Hamburg, which ranks second to Rotterdam in Europe and ninth worldwide with transshipments of 9.8 million twenty-foot equivalent units (TEU) of cargo and 134 million tons of goods in 2007. After German reunification, Hamburg recovered the eastern portion of its hinterland, becoming by far the fastest-growing port in Europe. International trade is also the reason for the large number of consulates in the city, although situated 68 miles (110 km) up the Elbe, it is considered a sea port due to its ability to handle large ocean-going vessels.
The HafenCity is Europe's largest urban development project and is located in the Hamburg-Mitte district, it consists of the area of the Great Grasbrook, the northern part of the former Elbe island Grasbrook, and the warehouse district on the former Elbe island Kehrwieder and Wandrahm. It is bordered to the north, separated by the customs channel to Hamburg's city center, west and south by the Elbe and to the east, bounded by the upper harbor, Rothenburgsort, the district is full of rivers and streams and is surrounded by channels, and has a total area of about 2.2 square-kilometers.
HafenCity has 155 hectares in the area formerly belonging to the free port north of the Great Grasbrook. Residential units for up to 12,000 people are planned to be built on the site by around the mid-2020s, and jobs for up to 40,000 people, mainly in the office sector, should be created, it is the largest ongoing urban development project in Hamburg.
Construction work started in 2003, and in 2009 the first part of the urban development project was finished with the completion of the Dalmannkai / Sandtorkai neighborhood – which is the first stage of the HafenCity project. According to the person responsible for the development and commercialization of HafenCity, HafenCity Hamburg GmbH, half of the master plan underlying structural construction is already completed, whereas the other half is either under construction or is in the construction preparation stages.
Many companies operating in E-Commerce have moved into HafenCity or started there; in addition to cruise agents such as the CaptainTravel GmbH many start-up companies that have no direct connection to the port or ships can be found in HafenCity.
In 2007, more than 3,985,105 visitors with 7,402,423 overnight stays visited the city. The tourism sector employs more than 175,000 people full-time and brings in revenue of almost €9 billion, making the tourism industry a major economic force in the Hamburg Metropolitan Region. Hamburg has one of the fastest-growing tourism industries in Germany, from 2001 to 2007, the overnight stays in the city increased by 55.2% (Berlin +52.7%, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern +33%).
A typical Hamburg visit includes a tour of the city hall and the grand church St. Michaelis (called the Michel), and visiting the old warehouse district (Speicherstadt) and the harbour promenade (Landungsbrücken). Sightseeing buses connect these points of interest, as Hamburg is one of the world's largest harbours many visitors take one of the harbour and/or canal boat tours (Große Hafenrundfahrt, Fleetfahrt) which start from the Landungsbrücken. Major destinations also include museums.
The area of Reeperbahn in the quarter St. Pauli is Europe's largest red light district and home of strip clubs, brothels, bars and nightclubs. The singer and actor Hans Albers is strongly associated with St. Pauli, and wrote the neighbourhood's unofficial anthem, "Auf der Reeperbahn Nachts um Halb Eins" ("On the Reeperbahn at Half Past Midnight") in the 1940s. The Beatles had stints on the Reeperbahn early in their careers. Others prefer the laid-back neighbourhood Schanze with its street cafés, or a barbecue on one of the beaches along the river Elbe. Hamburg's famous zoo, the Tierpark Hagenbeck, was founded in 1907 by Carl Hagenbeck as the first zoo with moated, barless enclosures.
In 2005, the average visitor spent two nights in Hamburg. The majority of visitors come from Germany. Most foreigners are European, especially from the United Kingdom (171,000 overnight stays), Switzerland (about 143,000 overnight stays), Austria (about 137,000 overnight stays) and the Netherlands (about 80,000 overnight stays). The largest group from outside Europe comes from the United States (129,000 overnight stays).
Media businesses employ over 70,000 people, the Norddeutscher Rundfunk which includes the television station NDR Fernsehen is based in Hamburg, as are the commercial television station Hamburg 1, the Christian television station Bibel TV and the civil media outlet Tide TV. There are regional radio stations such as Radio Hamburg, some of Germany's largest publishing companies, Axel Springer AG, Gruner + Jahr, Bauer Media Group are located in the city. Many national newspapers and magazines such as Der Spiegel and Die Zeit are produced in Hamburg, as well as some special-interest newspapers such as Financial Times Deutschland. Hamburger Abendblatt and Hamburger Morgenpost are daily regional newspapers with a large circulation. There are music publishers, such as Warner Bros. Records Germany, and ICT firms such as Adobe Systems and Google Germany. The Internet and telecommunications company HanseNet, which sells DSL Internet access under the Alice brand, has its headquarters in Hamburg.
Hamburg was one of the locations for the James Bond series film Tomorrow Never Dies, the Reeperbahn has been the location for many scenes, including the 1994 Beatles film Backbeat. The film A Most Wanted Man was set in and filmed in Hamburg. Hamburg was also shown in An American Tail where Fievel Mousekewitz and his family immigrate to America in the hopes to escape cats.
Hamburg has 54 hospitals, the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, with about 1,450 beds, houses a large medical school. There are also smaller private hospitals, on 1 January 2011 there were about 11,350 hospital beds. The city had 5,663 physicians in private practice and 456 pharmacies in 2010.
Hamburg is a major transportation hub, connected to four Autobahnen (motorways) and the most important railway junction on the route to Scandinavia.
Bridges and tunnels connect the northern and southern parts of the city, such as the old Elbe Tunnel (Alter Elbtunnel) or St. Pauli Elbtunnel (official name) which opened in 1911, now is major tourist sight, and the Elbe Tunnel (Elbtunnel) the crossing of a motorway.
Hamburg Airport is the oldest airport in Germany still in operation. There is also the smaller Hamburg Finkenwerder Airport, used only as a company airport for Airbus, some airlines market Lübeck Airport in Lübeck as serving Hamburg.
Hamburg's licence plate prefix was "HH" (Hansestadt Hamburg; English: Hanseatic City of Hamburg) between 1906 and 1945 and from 1956, rather than the single letter normally used for large cities since the federal registration reform in 1956, such as B for Berlin or M for Munich. "H" was Hamburg's prefix in the years between 1945 and 1947 (used by Hanover since 1956);
Public transport by rail, bus and ship is organised by the Hamburger Verkehrsverbund ("Hamburg transit authority") (HVV). Tickets sold by one company are valid on all other HVV companies' services, the HVV was the first organisation of this kind worldwide.
Ten mass transit rail lines across the city are the backbone of public transport, the S-Bahn (heavy railway system) comprises six lines and the U-Bahn four lines – U-Bahn is short for Untergrundbahn (underground railway). Approximately 41 km (25 mi) of 101 km (63 mi) of the U-Bahn is underground; most is on embankments or viaduct or at ground level. Older residents still speak of the system as Hochbahn (elevated railway), also because the operating company of the subway is the Hamburger Hochbahn, the AKN railway connects satellite towns in Schleswig-Holstein to the city. On some routes regional trains of Germany's major railway company Deutsche Bahn AG and the regional metronom trains may be used with an HVV ticket. Except at the four bigger stations of the city, Hauptbahnhof, Dammtor, Altona and Harburg regional trains do not stop inside the city. The tram system was opened in 1866 and shut down in 1978.
Gaps in the rail network are filled by more than 600 bus routes, operated by single-deck two-, three- and four-axle diesel buses. Hamburg has no trams or trolleybuses, but has hydrogen-fueled buses operating pilot services, the buses run frequently during working hours, with buses on some so-called MetroBus routes as often as every 2 minutes. On special weekday night lines the intervals can be 30 minutes or longer, on normal days (Monday-Friday) the normal buses stop running at night. (MetroBuses run all around the clock, every day at the year at least every half-hour.)
The international airport at Hamburg Fuhlsbüttel, official name "Hamburg Airport Helmut Schmidt" (IATA: HAM, ICAO: EDDH) is the fifth biggest and oldest airport in Germany, having been established in 1912 and located about 5 miles (8 kilometres) from the city centre. About 60 airlines provide service to 125 destination airports, including some long distance destinations like Newark, New Jersey on United Airlines, Dubai on Emirates, and Tehran on Iran Air; Lufthansa is the hub carrier, with the most flights, followed by Air Berlin, and Lufthansa operates one of its biggest maintenance facilities at the Hamburg airport. The second airport is located in Hamburg-Finkenwerder, official name Hamburg Finkenwerder Airport (IATA: XFW, ICAO: EDHI). It is about 10 km (6 mi) from the city centre and is a nonpublic airport for the Airbus plant. It is the second biggest Airbus plant, after Toulouse, and the third biggest aviation manufacturing plant after Seattle and Toulouse; the plant houses the final assembly lines for A318, A319, A320, A321 and A380 aircraft.
Public Transportation Statistics
The average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit in Hamburg, for example to and from work, on a weekday is 58 min. 16% of public transit riders, ride for more than two hours every day. The average amount of time people wait at a stop or station for public transit is 11 min, while 11% of riders wait for over 20 minutes on average every day, the average distance people usually ride in a single trip with public transit is 8.9 km, while 21% travel for over 12 km in a single direction.
Electricity for Hamburg and Northern Germany is largely provided by Vattenfall Europe, formerly the state-owned Hamburgische Electricitäts-Werke. Vattenfall Europe used to operate the Brunsbüttel Nuclear Power Plant and Krümmel Nuclear Power Plant, both taken out of service as part of the nuclear power phase-out. In addition, E.ON operates the Brokdorf Nuclear Power Plant near Hamburg. There are also the coal-fired Wedel, Tiefstack and Moorburg Power Stations, and the fuel-cell power plant in the HafenCity quarter. VERA Klärschlammverbrennung uses the biosolids of the Hamburg wastewater treatment plant; the Pumpspeicherwerk Geesthacht is a pump storage power plant and a solid waste combustion power station is Müllverwertung Borsigstraße.
Hamburg is sometimes called Germany's capital of sport since no other city has more first-league teams and international sports events.
Hamburger SV is a football team in the Bundesliga. The HSV is the oldest team of the Bundesliga, playing in the league since its beginning in 1963. HSV is a six-time German champion, a three-time German cup winner and triumphed in the European Cup in 1983, and has played in the group stages of the Champions League twice: in 2000/2001 and in 2006/2007, they play at the Volksparkstadion (average attendance in the 12/13 season was 52,916). In addition, FC St. Pauli was a second division football club that came in second place in the 2009/2010 season and qualified to play alongside Hamburger SV in the first division for the first time since the 2001–02 season. St. Pauli's home games take place at the Millerntor-Stadion.
HSV Handball represented Hamburg until 2016 in the German handball league. In 2007, HSV Handball won the European Cupwinners Cup, the Club won the league in the 2010/11 season and had an average attandence of 10.690 in the O2 World Hamburg the same year. The most recent success for the team was the EHF Champions League win in 2013, since 2014 the club has suffered from economic problems and was almost not allowed the playing licence for the 2014–15 season. But due to economic support from the former club president/sponsor Andreas Rudolf the club was allowed the licence in the last minute, on 20 January 2016 however, their licence was removed due to violations following the continued economic struggles. In 2016–17 they are not allowed to play in the first or second league.
The BCJ Hamburg played in the Basketball Bundesliga from 1999 to 2001, since then, teams from Hamburg have attempted to return to Germany's elite league. The recently founded Hamburg Towers have already established themselves as one of the main teams in Germany's second division ProA and aim to take on the heritage of the BCJ Hamburg, the Towers play their home games at the Inselparkhalle in Wilhelmsburg.
Hamburg is the nation's field hockey capital and dominates the men's as well as the women's Bundesliga. Hamburg hosts many top teams such as Uhlenhorster Hockey Club, Harvesterhuder Hockey Club and Club An Der Alster.
The Hamburg Warriors are one of Germany's top lacrosse clubs, the club has grown immensely in the last several years and includes at least one youth team, three men's, and two women's teams. The team participates in the Deutsch Lacrosse Verein, the Hamburg Warriors are part of the Harvestehuder Tennis- und Hockey-Club e.V (HTHC).
There are also the Hamburg Dockers, an Australian rules football club, the FC St. Pauli team dominates women's rugby in Germany. Other first-league teams include VT Aurubis Hamburg (Volleyball), Hamburger Polo Club, and Hamburg Blue Devils (American Football). There are also several minority sports clubs, including four cricket clubs.
Hamburg also hosts equestrian events at Reitstadion Klein Flottbek (Deutsches Derby in jumping and dressage) and Horner Rennbahn (Deutsches Derby flat racing). Besides Hamburg owns the famous harness racing track "Trabrennbahn Bahrenfeld", the Hamburg Marathon is the biggest marathon in Germany after Berlin's. In 2008 23,230 participants were registered. World Cup events in cycling, the UCI ProTour competition EuroEyes Cyclassics, and the triathlon ITU World Cup event Hamburg City Man are also held in here.
Hamburg was applying for 2024 Olympic Games, however 51.7 percent of those participating in the referendum (only Hamburg's residents) in November 2015 had decided against continuing Hamburg's bid to host the 2024 Olympics. Meanwhile, Hamburg's partner city Kiel voted in favour of hosting the event, with almost 66 percent of all participants supporting the bid. Opponents of the bid had argued that hosting the 33rd Olympic Games would cost the city too much in public funds.
The school system is managed by the Ministry of Schools and Vocational Training (Behörde für Schule und Berufsbildung). The system had approximately 160,000 students in 245 primary schools and 195 secondary schools in 2006. There are 33 public libraries in Hamburg proper.
Seventeen universities are located in Hamburg, with about 70,000 university students in total, including 9,000 resident aliens. Six universities are public, including the largest, the University of Hamburg (Universität Hamburg) with the University Medical Centre of Hamburg-Eppendorf, the University of Music and Theatre, the Hamburg University of Applied Sciences, the HafenCity University Hamburg and the Hamburg University of Technology. Seven universities are private, like the Bucerius Law School and the Hamburg School of Business Administration. The city has also smaller private colleges and universities, including many religious and special-purpose institutions, such as the Helmut Schmidt University (formerly the University of the Federal Armed Forces Hamburg). Hamburg is home to one of the oldest international schools in Germany, the International School of Hamburg.
Twin towns and sister cities
People from Hamburg
In Hamburg it's hard to find a native Hamburger. A hurried and superficial search turns up only crayfish, people from Pinneberg, and those from Bergedorf. One accompanies the contented little kippers of a striving society; mackerels from Stade, sole from Finkenwerder, herrings from Cuxhaven swim in expectant throngs through the streets of my city and lobsters patrol the stock exchange with open claws.... The first so-called unguarded glance always lands on the bottom of the sea and falls into twilight of the aquarium. Heinrich Heine must have had the same experience when he tried, with his cultivated scorn and gifted melancholy, to find the people of Hamburg.
- English: //
- "State population". Portal of the Land Statistics Office Hamburg. Retrieved 29 December 2015.
- "Hamburger". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
- Constitution of Hamburg),Verfassung der Freien und Hansestadt Hamburg (in German) (11th ed.), 6 June 1952, archived from the original on 10 June 2007, retrieved 21 September 2008
- "Europe's largest cities". City Mayors Statistics. Retrieved 29 December 2009.
- "World Port Ranking 2011" (PDF).
- "2015 Quality of Living survey". Mercer.com. Retrieved 21 July 2015.
- Media release on the website of Hamburg Marketing, retrieved on 19 March 2016.
- Hamburg Wadden Sea National Park Act Gesetz über den Nationalpark Hamburgisches Wattenmeer (in German), 9 April 1990, retrieved 26 February 2011
- Geologisches Landesamt Hamburg (Hamburg State Geological Department) (2007), Statistisches Jahrbuch 2007/2008 (in German), Hamburg: Statistisches Amt für Hamburg und Schleswig-Holstein, ISSN 1614-8045
- Report on the snowfall desaster of 1978/1979 in northern Germany, retrieved on 20 July 2016.
- Article on the winters in Germany, retrieved on 20 July 2016.
- Comparison Archived 7 October 2016 at the Wayback Machine. of the weather and snowfall in German winters (from 1950 on), retrieved on 20 July 2016.
- "World Weather Information Service – Hamburg". Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved 6 April 2012.
- "Ausgabe der Klimadaten: Monatswerte". Retrieved 24 June 2014.
- Verg, Erich; Verg, Martin (2007), Das Abenteuer das Hamburg heißt (in German) (4th ed.), Hamburg: Ellert&Richter, p. 8, ISBN 978-3-8319-0137-1
- "Hammaburg – der große Irrtum" (in German). Hamburg Abendblatt. 12 December 2007. Retrieved 30 September 2008.
- Verg (2007), p.15
- Snell, Melissa (2006), The Great Mortality, Historymedren.about.com, retrieved 19 April 2009
- Verg (2007), p. 26
- Verg (2007), p. 30
- Clark, David S. (1987), "The Medieval Origins of Modern Legal Education: Between Church and State", The American Journal of Comparative Law, American Society of Comparative Law, Vol. 35, No. 4 (4): 653–719, JSTOR 840129, doi:10.2307/840129
- Verg (2007), p. 39
- History of the area, accessed 3 November 2012
- "Gedenkstätte Konzentrationslager Neuengamme". Kz-gedenkstaette-neuengamme.de. Retrieved 14 September 2013.
- Cf. 'Schreiben der Geheimen Staatspolizei – Staatspolizeileitstelle Hamburg – an den Oberfinanzpräsidenten, Vermögensverwaltungsstelle vom 1. Juni 1943', Staatsarchiv Hamburg, Bestand Oberfinanzpräsident, Arb. Sign. 31/1 A, here after: Vierhundert Jahre Juden in Hamburg: eine Ausstellung des Museums für Hamburgische Geschichte vom 8. November 1991 bis 29. März 1992, Ulrich Bauche (ed.), Hamburg: Dölling und Galitz, 1991, (Die Geschichte der Juden in Hamburg; vol. 1), p. 492, ISBN 3-926174-31-5
- Ortwin Pelc, Kriegsende in Hamburg, Hamburg 2005
- Staff (2016), Hamburger Melderegister (PDF) (in German), Statistical office Hamburg and Schleswig-Holstein (Statistisches Amt für Hamburg und Schleswig-Holstein)
- Hamburg Metropolitan Area fact sheet (PDF), Office of Statistics for Hamburg and Schleswig-Holstein (Statistisches Amt für Hamburg und Schleswig-Holstein), retrieved 25 July 2017
- Cite error: The named reference
statistisches_jahrbuch_Hamburg_2016.2F2017was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
- https://www.statistik-nord.de/fileadmin/Dokumente/Statistik_informiert_SPEZIAL/SI_SPEZIAL_V_2017_Korrektur.pdf Cite error: Invalid
<ref>tag; name "statistik-nord.de" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
- Selectable data base: Source: Residents registration office, Regionalergebnisse (PDF) (in German), Statistical office Hamburg and Schleswig-Holstein, retrieved 25 July 2016
- Bausch, Karl-Heinz (2007), "Die deutsche Sprache—eine Dialektlandschaft", Nationalatlas Bundesrepublik Deutschland (PDF) (in German), Leipzig: Leibniz-Institut für Länderkunde, pp. 94–95, ISBN 3-8274-0947-0, archived from the original (PDF) on 19 July 2011, retrieved 24 September 2008
- Several places are named ...brook (Billbrook, Brooktor, Grasbrook, Hammerbrook, Hellbrook, Iserbrook) rather than Standard German ...bruch (neutr.; =brook riverscape), Bullenhusen rather than Bullenhausen, Lohbrügge rather than Lohbrücke, several localities starting with Nien... (Niendorf, Nienstedten) rather than Neuen..., or ending ...hude (Dockenhuden, Harvestehude, Winterhude) rather than ...hut[ung] (fem.; =pasture), Uhlenhorst rather than Eulenhorst, several places and water bodies are named ...bek (Barmbek, Eilbek, Fischbek, Flottbek, Goldbek, Isebek, Kirchsteinbek, Langenbek, Osterbek, Pepermölenbek, Wandsbek) rather than ...bach, several places and water bodies are called ...fleet (Alsterfleet, Bleichenfleet, Moorfleet) rather than ...fließ (=brook, stream). Further toponyms with no close Standard German correspondents appear, such as ...büttel (=inhabited place; Eimsbüttel, Fuhlsbüttel, Hummelsbüttel, Poppenbüttel, Wellingsbüttel) or Twiete (=alley wedged between buildings). Like in other parts of Northern Germany ...stedt (Bergstedt, Billstedt, Duvenstedt, Eidelstedt, Lokstedt, Mellingstedt, Nienstedten, Ohlstedt, Rahlstedt) prevails over ...stadt (=town, originally simply stead).
- Evangelische Kirche in Deutschland - Kirchemitgliederzahlen Stand 31.12.2015 EKD Januar 2017
- Sonja Haug et al.: Muslimisches Leben in Deutschland, Nuremberg, 2009
- "Kartenseite: Muslime in den Landkreisen beim Zensus 2011" (PDF). Retrieved 30 April 2017.
- "Deutschlands älteste Moschee wurde 50". 19 June 2007. Retrieved 8 June 2014.
- Zaklikowski, Dovid (30 August 2007), Jewish School Returns to Hamburg Building Left Judenrein by Nazis, chabad.org, retrieved 11 August 2008
- Kleiner Rathausführer (in German), Hamburg: State Chancellery, 2006
- German conservatives win most votes, USA today, 24 February 2008, retrieved 13 August 2008
- Kopp, Martin (2007), Geheime Absprachen zwischen CDU und Grünen (in German), Hamburg: Die Welt, archived from the original on 29 June 2009, retrieved 13 August 2008
- Schwarz-Grün in Hamburg am Ende in Die Zeit – online, revisited on November, 28. 2010.
- Borough Administration Act Bezirksverwaltungsgesetz (BezVG) (in German), 6 July 2006, archived from the original on 13 August 2007, retrieved 21 September 2008
- Greater Hamburg Act Groß-Hamburg-Gesetz (in German), 26 January 1937, retrieved 24 September 2008
- Reich Act of the Constitution and Administration of Hanseatic city of Hamburg Reichsgesetz über die Verfassung und Verwaltung der Hansestadt Hamburg (in German), 9 December 1937, retrieved 24 September 2008
- Hamburg Act of Areal Organization Gesetz über die räumliche Gliederung der Freien und Hansestadt Hamburg (RäumGiG) (in German), 6 July 2006, archived from the original on 13 August 2007, retrieved 24 September 2008
- Staff (1 July 2007), Hamburg – Grüne Metropole am Wasser (in German), Hamburg: Behörde für Stadtentwicklung und Umwelt, retrieved 24 September 2008
- Lander, Sebastian (23 November 2011). "Hello Hamburg: Christmas markets, cuisine and cocktails in Germany's elegant port". Daily Mail. London.
- "Hamburg: Germany's Window to the World". EuropeUpClose.com. 18 April 2012. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
- Buba, Eike Manfred (1998), Auf dem Rathausmarkt (in German), Hamburg website, archived from the original on 10 October 2008, retrieved 13 August 2008
- Staff (5 April 2007), River Tunes: Elbe Philharmonic Hall by Herzog & de Meuron, ArchNewsNow.com, retrieved 23 August 2008
- Jaeger, Falk (May 2008), Waterfront Living and Working: Hamburg's HafenCity, Goethe-Institut, archived from the original on 2 June 2008, retrieved 23 August 2008
- Kotynek, M.; Wiegand, R. "Auszeichnung der EU-Kommission: Hamburg leuchtet grün" – via Sueddeutsche.de.
- Institut für Kultur- und Medienmanagement (August 2006), Kulturwirtschaftsbericht 2006 (PDF) (in German), Hamburg: Behörde für Kultur, Sport und Medien, archived from the original (PDF) on 9 November 2008, retrieved 13 August 2008
- Kulturstiftung des Bundes, Bayreuth Was Yesterday – New Opera at Kampnagel, retrieved 13 August 2008
- "''The English Theatre'' of Hamburg". Englishtheatre.de. Retrieved 14 September 2013.
- "Museums in Hamburg". Retrieved 29 December 2009.
- Staff (1999), Transcript of the John Tusa Interview with Gyorgy Ligeti, BBC, retrieved 24 September 2008
- Staff, Alfred Schnittke, Boosey & Hawkes, retrieved 24 September 2008
- Rivadavia, Eduardo, allmusic (((Helloween> Biography ))), allmusic, retrieved 24 September 2008
- Staff, Spirit Zone Recordings, www.discogs.com, retrieved 24 September 2008
- "Hamburg Pride" (in German). Retrieved 5 October 2008.
- "Alstervergnügen Hamburg" (in German). Retrieved 5 October 2008.
- "Wann ist DOM" (in German). Retrieved 5 October 2008.
- "Hafengeburtstag Hamburg". Retrieved 5 October 2008.
- "Zehntausende Biker und ein schwerer Unfall" (in German). Spiegel online. 13 July 2008. Retrieved 5 October 2008.
- "Weihnachtsmärkte in Hamburg-Mitte 2008" (in German). Bezirk Hamburg-Mitte. Archived from the original on 18 September 2009. Retrieved 30 September 2008.
- "Lange Nacht der Museen" (in German). Retrieved 5 October 2008.
- "6. Festival der Kulturen Hamburg". Retrieved 5 October 2008.
- "Filmfest Hamburg". Retrieved 5 October 2008.
- "Welcoming the world". Retrieved 5 October 2008.
- "Mandago, Timofeyeva impress at Hamburg Marathon". 27 April 2008. Archived from the original on 20 October 2012. Retrieved 5 October 2008.
- "Dockville". Retrieved 19 June 2009.
- Staff (5 July 2002), Birnen, Bohnen, Speck – Schmeckt vorzüglich (in German), Hamburger Abendblatt, retrieved 11 August 2008
- Staff (25 June 2002), Aalsuppe – Frage des Geschmacks (in German), Hamburger Abendblatt, retrieved 11 August 2008
- Staff (25 June 2002), Maischollen – Zart gebraten (in German), Hamburger Abendblatt, retrieved 11 August 2008
- Staff (25 June 2002), Grütze – Mit kalter Milch (in German), Hamburger Abendbla, retrieved 11 August 2008
- Staff (25 June 2002), Labskaus – Essen der Matrosen (in German), Hamburger Abendblatt, retrieved 11 August 2008
- Staff (10 August 2002), Alsterwasser – Bier und Limonade (in German), Hamburger Abendblatt, retrieved 11 August 2008
- Staff (5 August 2002), Rundstück – Hamburger Brötchen (in German), Hamburger Abendblatt, retrieved 6 June 2008
- Stradley, Linda (2004), History of Hamburgers, retrieved 23 August 2008
- Staff (11 February 2013), specialities and restaurants in Hamburg (in German), Restaurants in Hamburg, retrieved 11 February 2013
- "1. Mai-Demo in Hamburg: Was soll der Krawall auf der Schanze noch?". www.spiegel.de. Retrieved 9 February 2017.
- "Raid of "Rote Flora" G8 Convergence Centre in Hamburg". www.indymedia.org.uk. Retrieved 9 February 2017.
- "Raid of "Krawalle beim G20-Gipfel - Randalierer setzen Autos in Brand". www.spiegel.de. Retrieved 11 July 2017.
- "Krawalle in Hamburg beim G20-Gipfel - Rote Flora distanziert sich von Gewaltausbrüchen". www.rp-online.de. Retrieved 11 July 2017.
- "Website of the Anglo-German Club". Retrieved 15 December 2015.
- "Britain in Hamburg". ning.com. Retrieved 13 September 2009.
- "The Anglican Church of St Thomas Becket – A welcoming, active and inclusive church, growing in our relationship with God and the wider community". anglican-church-hamburg.de.
- "Anglo-Hanseatic Lodge 850". gl-bfg.com. Retrieved 14 September 2015.
- "Grand Lodge of British Freemasons in Germany". gl-bfg.com. Retrieved 14 September 2015.
- "United Grand Lodges of Germany". freimaurer.org. Retrieved 14 September 2015.
- "Website of the American Club of Hamburg". Retrieved 13 September 2009.
- "Website of the American Women's Club of Hamburg". Retrieved 13 April 2014.
- Hamburg Führer Verlag GmbH: Hamburg Guide, May 2009, p. 61
- Germany, AmCham. "American Chamber of Commerce in Germany". amcham.de.
- Behling, Heidburg; Garbe, Detlef (January 2009), "Die Orte bleibe", Mittelungen des Freundeskreises KZ-Gedenkstätte Neuengamme (in German) (11), p. 3
- Volkswirtschaftliche Basisdaten 2007 (in German), HWF Hamburgische Gesellschaft für Wirtschaftsförderung, archived from the original on 3 May 2009, retrieved 6 August 2008
- Van Marle, Gavin (31 January 2008). "Europe Terminals stretched to limit". Lloyds List Daily Commercial News. pp. 8–9.
- M. Ramesh: M. Ramesh (25 December 2000). "Making Hamburg Europe's preferred port". Hinduonnet.com. Archived from the original on 20 July 2009. Retrieved 11 August 2008.
- ArcelorMittal Website / Hamburg, retrieved 26 February 2011
- Trimet Website / Hamburg, retrieved 26 February 2011
- Aurubis Website / Hamburg, archived from the original on 8 March 2011, retrieved 26 February 2011
- Blohm + Voss Website / Hamburg, archived from the original on 28 March 2012, retrieved 26 February 2011
- Past Cost-Cutting and Layoffs Haunt Airbus in Germany, Spiegel online, 28 July 2006, retrieved 11 August 2008
- Staff (29 February 2008), Newsletter Nr. 18 (PDF), Hamburg Tourismus GmbH, archived from the original (PDF) on 21 September 2008, retrieved 13 August 2008 (in German)
- Staff (11 July 2008), Umsatzbringer und Jobmotor Tourismus (in German), Behörde für Kultur, Sport und Medien, archived from the original on 9 August 2010, retrieved 13 August 2008
- Rene S. Ebersole (November 2001). "The New Zoo". Audubon Magazine. National Audubon Society. Archived from the original on 6 September 2007. Retrieved 1 October 2008.
- Staff (2008), Zahlen, Fakten, Trends 2007 (PDF) (in German), Hamburg Tourismus GmbH, retrieved 24 September 2008
- Ulrich Gaßdorf: Engländer wollen in den Hafen, Amerikaner in gute Restaurants. In: Hamburger Abendblatt from 24 October 2009, page 17
- Hamburg wird heimlicher Heimathafen der "Queen Mary 2" (in English: Hamburg nearly a home port for "Queen Mary 2"). In: Hamburger Abendblatt from 15 January 2010, p. 13
- Staff, Von der Faszination, in Hamburg zu arbeiten (in German), www.hamburg.de, archived from the original on 9 March 2012, retrieved 6 August 2008
- "Backbeat filming locations". movielocations.com. Retrieved 1 October 2008.
- Krankenhausplan 2015 der Freien und Hansestadt Hamburg (Hospital plan of Hamburg) (PDF) (in German), December 2010, retrieved 30 August 2012
- Statistik Nord (statistics for Northern Germany) (in German), June 2011, archived from the original on 17 June 2008, retrieved 30 August 2012
- Staff (10 August 2002), Elbe ohne e – Buchstaben fallen weg (in German), Hamburger Abendblatt, retrieved 11 August 2008
- Staff (28 March 2008), Handelskammer Hamburg – Hamburg Airport: Facts, figures, and the Chamber's viewpoint, Handelskammer Hamburg (Hamburg chamber of commerce), archived from the original (– Scholar search) on 9 June 2007, retrieved 25 September 2008
- Press release (8 January 2001), The airport celebrates its 90th anniversary, Hamburg Airport, retrieved 25 September 2008
- Staff, Hamburg Lübeck Airport Guide, www.travel-library.com, retrieved 27 September 2008
- other prefixes used between 1945 and 1956 were "MGH" (Military Government, Hamburg: 1945 only), "HG" (1947 only) and "BH" (British Zone, Hamburg) between 1948 and 1956.
- Staff, HVV – Mehr als ein Ziel – Historie (in German), Hamburger Verkehrsverbund, retrieved 25 September 2008
- Tramway & Light Railway Atlas – Germany 1996. London: Light Rail Transit Association. 1995. p. 262. ISBN 0-948106-18-2.
- Staff, Airbus in Germany, Airbus, retrieved 27 January 2012
- "Hamburg Public Transportation Statistics". Global Public Transit Index by Moovit. Retrieved 19 June 2017. Material was copied from this source, which is available under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
- Staff (30 June 2017), MVB, MVB, retrieved 30 June 2017
- "HTHC Hamburg Warriors". Hamburgwarriors.com. Retrieved 25 January 2010.
- Forman, Ross (10 June 2008), Out lacrosse coach lands in Germany, Outsports.com, archived from the original (– Scholar search) on 4 June 2008, retrieved 11 August 2008
- Staff (18 July 2005), Australian Football im Stadtpark (in German), Hamburger Abendblatt, retrieved 11 August 2008
- Staff (11 August 2008), Hamburg Blue Devils vor Einzug in die Play-offs (in German), Hamburger Abendblatt, retrieved 11 August 2008
- Staff, Center Court / Rothenbaum Stadion (in German), Deutscher Tennis Bund, archived from the original on 1 February 2009, retrieved 16 August 2008
- Shinar, Jack (9 July 2008), Kamsin Easily Wins Deutsches Derby, news.bloodhorse.com, retrieved 11 August 2008
- Staff (27 April 2008), Mandago, Timofeyeva impress at Hamburg Marathon, IAAF, archived from the original on 20 October 2012, retrieved 11 August 2008
- Staff (2 February 2008), Hamburg City Man 2006 als WM-Generalprobe (in German), Hamburger Abendblatt, retrieved 11 August 2008
- Bilal, Ahmed (29 March 2008), 2010 Champions League Final in Madrid, 2010 UEFA Cup final in Hamburg, Soccerlens.com, retrieved 11 August 2008
- Selectable data base: Regionalergebnisse (in German), Statistical office Hamburg and Schleswig-Holstein, archived from the original on 17 June 2008, retrieved 16 June 2008
- Wir über uns (Hamburg Libraries about us) (in German), Bücherhallen Hamburg, retrieved 16 June 2008
- Staff, Science Portal Hamburg (in German), Ministry of Science and Research (Behörde für Wissenschaft und Forschung), retrieved 5 August 2008
- Staff, Hamburg und seine Städtepartnerschaften (Hamburg sister cities) (in German), Hamburg's official website, retrieved 19 January 2014
- "Dresden – Partner Cities". 2008 Landeshauptstadt Dresden. Archived from the original on 23 October 2007. Retrieved 29 December 2008.
- "Partnerská města HMP" [Prague – Twin Cities HMP]. Portál "Zahraniční vztahy" [Portal "Foreign Affairs"] (in Czech). 18 July 2013. Archived from the original on 25 June 2013. Retrieved 5 August 2013.
- Holtermann, Hannes (30 March 2011). "Looking at the sister city agreement between Hamburg and Dar es Salaam from a Tanzanian perspective". Werkstatt.imch.eu. Retrieved 29 July 2013.
- Jenkins, Jennifer (2003), Provincial modernity: local culture and liberal politics in fin-de-siècle Hamburg, Cornell University Press, ISBN 0-8014-4025-4
- Official website
- Hamburg at DMOZ
- Geographic data related to Hamburg at OpenStreetMap
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Hamburg (city)". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
- Panoramas and Virtual Tours of Hamburg
- Hamburg-Cruise-Center + Elbphilharmonie Hamburg- Elbe-Harbour-Web-Cams
- Hamburg Portal – City Guide
- Hamburg Panorama-View