Airbus A320 family
The Airbus A320 family consists of short- to medium-range, narrow-body, commercial passenger twin-engine jet airliners manufactured by Airbus. The family includes the A319, A320 and A321, as well as the ACJ business jet; the A320s are named A320ceo following the introduction of the A320neo. The aircraft family can accommodate up to 236 passengers and has a range of 3,100 to 12,000 km, depending on model; the first member of the A320 family—the A320—was launched in March 1984, first flew on 22 February 1987, was first delivered in March 1988 to launch customer Air France. The family was extended to include the A321, the A319, the A318; the A320 family pioneered the use of digital fly-by-wire flight control systems, as well as side-stick controls, in commercial aircraft. There has been a continuous improvement process since introduction. Final assembly of the family takes place in Toulouse and Hamburg, Germany. A plant in Tianjin, has been producing aircraft for Chinese airlines since 2009, while a final assembly facility in Mobile, United States, delivered its first A321 in April 2016.
As of 31 December 2018, a total of 8,605 Airbus A320-family aircraft have been delivered, of which 8,217 are in service. In addition, another 6,056 airliners are on firm order, it ranked as the world's fastest-selling jet airliner family according to records from 2005 to 2007, as the best-selling single-generation aircraft programme. The A320 family has proved popular with airlines including low-cost carriers such as EasyJet, which ordered A319s and A320s to replace its ageing 737 fleet; as of December 2018, American Airlines was the largest operator of the Airbus A320 family aircraft, operating 397 aircraft. The aircraft family competes directly with the 737 and has competed with the 717, 757, the MD-80/MD-90. In December 2010, Airbus announced a new generation of the A320neo; the A320neo offers new, more efficient engines, combined with airframe improvements and the addition of winglets, named Sharklets by Airbus. The aircraft will deliver fuel savings of up to 15%; as of December 2018, a total of 6,526 A320neo family aircraft had been ordered by more than 70 airlines, making it the fastest selling commercial aircraft.
The first A320neo was delivered to Lufthansa on 20 January 2016 and it entered service on 25 January 2016. When Airbus designed the Airbus A300 during the late 1960s and early 1970s, it envisaged a broad family of airliners with which to compete against Boeing and Douglas, two established US aerospace manufacturers. From the moment of formation, Airbus had begun studies into derivatives of the Airbus A300B in support of this long-term goal. Prior to the service introduction of the first Airbus airliners, engineers within Airbus had identified nine possible variations of the A300 known as A300B1 to B9. A 10th variation, conceived in 1973 the first to be constructed, was designated the A300B10, it was a smaller aircraft which would be developed into the long-range Airbus A310. Airbus focused its efforts on the single-aisle market, dominated by the 737 and McDonnell Douglas DC-9. Plans from a number of European aircraft manufacturers called for a successor to the successful BAC One-Eleven, to replace the 737–200 and DC-9.
Germany's MBB, British Aircraft Corporation, Sweden's Saab and Spain's CASA worked on the EUROPLANE, a 180- to 200-seat aircraft. It was abandoned after intruding on A310 specifications. VFW-Fokker and Hawker Siddeley worked on a number of 150-seat designs. Alongside BAe were Fokker-VFW and Aérospatiale; the design within the JET study, carried forward was the JET2, which became the Airbus S. A1/2/3 series, before settling on the A320 name for its launch in 1984. Hawker Siddeley had produced a design called the HS.134 "Airbus" in 1965, an evolution of the HS.121 Trident, which shared much of the general arrangement of the JET3 study design. The name "Airbus" at the time referred to a BEA requirement, rather than to the international programme. In June 1977 was set up a new Joint European Transport programme, it was based at the British Aerospace site in Weybridge, Surrey, UK. Although the members were all of Airbus' partners, they regarded the project as a separate collaboration from Airbus; this project was considered the forerunner of Airbus A320, encompassing the 130- to 188-seat market, powered by two CFM56s.
It would have a cruise speed of Mach 0.84. The programme was transferred to Airbus, leading up to the creation of the Single-Aisle studies in 1980, led by former leader of JET programme, Derek Brown; the group looked at three different variants, covering the 125- to 180-seat market, called SA1, SA2 and SA3. Although unaware at the time, the consortium was producing the blueprints for the A319, A320 and A321, respectively; the single-aisle programme created divisions within Airbus about whether to design a shorter-range twinjet rather than a longer-range quadjet wanted by the West Germans Lufthansa. However, works proceeded, the German carrier would order the twinjet. In February 1981, the project was re-designated A320, with efforts focused on the former SA2. During the year, Airbus worked with Delta Air Lines on a 150-seat aircraft envisioned and required by the airline; the A320 would carry 150 passengers over 1,860 nmi using fuel from wing fuel tanks only. The Dash 200 had centre tank activated, increasing fuel capacity from 15,590 to 23,430 L (
According to the International Civil Aviation Organization, a runway is a "defined rectangular area on a land aerodrome prepared for the landing and takeoff of aircraft". Runways may be a natural surface. In January 1919, aviation pioneer Orville Wright underlined the need for "distinctly marked and prepared landing places, the preparing of the surface of reasonably flat ground an expensive undertaking there would be a continuous expense for the upkeep." Runways are named by a number between 01 and 36, the magnetic azimuth of the runway's heading in decadegrees. This heading differs from true north by the local magnetic declination. A runway numbered 09 points east, runway 18 is south, runway 27 points west and runway 36 points to the north; when taking off from or landing on runway 09, a plane is heading around 90°. A runway can be used in both directions, is named for each direction separately: e.g. "runway 15" in one direction is "runway 33" when used in the other. The two numbers differ by 18.
For clarity in radio communications, each digit in the runway name is pronounced individually: runway one-five, runway three-three, etc.. A leading zero, for example in "runway zero-six" or "runway zero-one-left", is included for all ICAO and some U. S. military airports. However, most U. S. civil aviation airports drop the leading zero. This includes some military airfields such as Cairns Army Airfield; this American anomaly may lead to inconsistencies in conversations between American pilots and controllers in other countries. It is common in a country such as Canada for a controller to clear an incoming American aircraft to, for example, runway 04, the pilot read back the clearance as runway 4. In flight simulation programs those of American origin might apply U. S. usage to airports around the world. For example, runway 05 at Halifax will appear on the program as the single digit 5 rather than 05. If there is more than one runway pointing in the same direction, each runway is identified by appending left and right to the number to identify its position — for example, runways one-five-left, one-five-center, one-five-right.
Runway zero-three-left becomes runway two-one-right. In some countries, regulations mandate that where parallel runways are too close to each other, only one may be used at a time under certain conditions. At large airports with four or more parallel runways some runway identifiers are shifted by 1 to avoid the ambiguity that would result with more than three parallel runways. For example, in Los Angeles, this system results in runways 6L, 6R, 7L, 7R though all four runways are parallel at 69°. At Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, there are five parallel runways, named 17L, 17C, 17R, 18L, 18R, all oriented at a heading of 175.4°. An airport with only three parallel runways may use different runway identifiers, such as when a third parallel runway was opened at Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport in 2000 to the south of existing 8R/26L — rather than confusingly becoming the "new" 8R/26L it was instead designated 7R/25L, with the former 8R/26L becoming 7L/25R and 8L/26R becoming 8/26.
Runway designations may change over time because Earth's magnetic lines drift on the surface and the magnetic direction changes. Depending on the airport location and how much drift occurs, it may be necessary to change the runway designation; as runways are designated with headings rounded to the nearest 10°, this affects some runways sooner than others. For example, if the magnetic heading of a runway is 233°, it is designated Runway 23. If the magnetic heading changes downwards by 5 degrees to 228°, the runway remains Runway 23. If on the other hand the original magnetic heading was 226°, the heading decreased by only 2 degrees to 224°, the runway becomes Runway 22; because magnetic drift itself is slow, runway designation changes are uncommon, not welcomed, as they require an accompanying change in aeronautical charts and descriptive documents. When runway designations do change at major airports, it is changed at night as taxiway signs need to be changed and the huge numbers at each end of the runway need to be repainted to the new runway designators.
In July 2009 for example, London Stansted Airport in the United Kingdom changed its runway designations from 05/23 to 04/22 during the night. For fixed-wing aircraft it is advantageous to perform takeoffs and landings into the wind to reduce takeoff or landing roll and reduce the ground speed needed to attain flying speed. Larger airports have several runways in different directions, so that one can be selected, most nearly aligned with the wind. Airports with one runway are constructed to be aligned with the prevailing wind. Compiling a wind rose is in fact one of the preliminary steps taken in constructing airport runways. Note that wind direction is given as the direction the wind is coming from: a plane taking off from runway 09 faces east, into an "east wind" blowing from 090°. Runway dimensions vary from as small as 245 m long and 8 m wide in s
Airbus A350 XWB
The Airbus A350 XWB is a family of long-range, twin-engine wide-body jet airliners developed by European aerospace manufacturer Airbus. The A350 is the first Airbus aircraft with both fuselage and wing structures made of carbon fibre reinforced polymer, its variants seat 280 to 366 passengers in typical three-class seating layouts. The A350 is positioned to succeed the A340 and to compete with the Boeing 787 and 777; the A350 was conceived in 2004 as a pairing of the A330's fuselage with new aerodynamics features and engines. In 2006, Airbus redesigned the aircraft in response to negative feedback from several major prospective customers, producing the "A350 XWB". Development costs are estimated at €11 billion; as of February 2019, Airbus had received 852 orders for A350s from 47 customers worldwide. The prototype A350 first flew on 14 June 2013 from France. Type certification from the European Aviation Safety Agency was received in September 2014 and certification from the Federal Aviation Administration two months later.
On 15 January 2015, the A350-900 entered service with its launch operator Qatar Airways, the A350-1000 on 24 February 2018 with the same airline. Airbus rejected Boeing's claim that the Boeing 787 Dreamliner would be a serious threat to the Airbus A330, stating that the 787 was just a reaction to the A330 and that no response was needed; when airlines urged Airbus to provide a competitor, Airbus proposed the "A330-200Lite", a derivative of the A330 featuring improved aerodynamics and engines similar to those on the 787. The company did not proceed. On 16 September 2004, Airbus president and chief executive officer Noël Forgeard confirmed the consideration of a new project during a private meeting with prospective customers. Forgeard did not give a project name, he did not state whether it would be an new design or a modification of an existing product. Airline dissatisfaction with this proposal motivated Airbus to commit €4 billion to a new airliner design; the original version of the A350 superficially resembled the A330 due to its common fuselage cross-section and assembly.
A new wing, a horizontal stabiliser–to be coupled with new composite materials and production methods applied to the fuselage–would make the A350 an all-new aircraft. On 10 December 2004, the boards of EADS and BAE Systems the shareholders of Airbus, gave Airbus an "authorisation to offer" and formally named it the A350. On 13 June 2005 at the Paris Air Show, Middle Eastern carrier Qatar Airways announced that they had placed an order for 60 A350s. In September 2006 the airline signed a memorandum of understanding with General Electric to launch the GEnx-1A-72 engine for the aircraft. Emirates sought a more improved design and decided against ordering the initial version of the A350. On 6 October 2005, the programme's industrial launch was announced with an estimated development cost of around €3.5 billion. The A350 was planned to be a 250- to 300-seat twin-engine wide-body aircraft derived from the existing A330's design. Under this plan, the A350 would have modified wings and new engines while sharing the A330's fuselage cross-section.
As a result of a controversial design, the fuselage was to consist of aluminium-lithium rather than the carbon-fibre-reinforced polymer fuselage on the Boeing 787. The A350 would see entry in two versions: the A350-800 with a 8,800 nmi range with a typical passenger capacity of 253 in a three-class configuration, the A350-900 with 7,500 nmi range and a 300-seat 3-class configuration; the A350 was designed to be a direct competitor to the Boeing 787-9 and 777-200ER. The A350 was publicly criticised by two of Airbus's largest customers, International Lease Finance Corporation and GE Capital Aviation Services. On 28 March 2006, ILFC President Steven F. Udvar-Házy urged Airbus to pursue a clean-sheet design or risk losing market share to Boeing and branded Airbus's strategy as "a Band-aid reaction to the 787", a sentiment echoed by GECAS president Henry Hubschman. In April 2006, while reviewing bids for the Boeing 787 and A350, CEO of Singapore Airlines Chew Choon Seng, commented that "having gone through the trouble of designing a new wing, cockpit... should have gone the whole hog and designed a new fuselage."Airbus responded that they were considering A350 improvements to satisfy customer demands.
Airbus's then-CEO Gustav Humbert stated, "Our strategy isn't driven by the needs of the next one or two campaigns, but rather by a long-term view of the market and our ability to deliver on our promises." As major airlines such as Qantas and Singapore Airlines selected the 787 over the A350, Humbert tasked an engineering team to produce new alternative designs. One such proposal, known internally as "1d", formed the basis of the A350 redesign. On 14 July 2006, during the Farnborough Airshow, the redesigned aircraft was designated "A350 XWB". Within four days, Singapore Airlines agreed to order 20 A350XWBs with options for another 20 A350XWBs; the proposed A350 was a new design, including a wider fuselage cross-section, allowing seating arrangements ranging from an eight-abreast low-density premium economy layout to a ten-abreast high-density seating configuration for a maximum seating capacity of 440–475 depending on variant. The A330 and previous iterations of the A350 would only be able to accommodate a maximum of eight seats per row.
The 787 is configured for nine seats per row. The 777 accommodates nine or ten seats per row, with more than half of recent 777s being ten-abreast as the 777X will be; the A350 cabin is 12.7 cm wider
The Transall C-160 is a military transport aircraft, produced as a joint venture between France and Germany. "Transall" is an abbreviation of the manufacturing consortium Transporter Allianz, comprising the companies of MBB, Aerospatiale and VFW-Fokker. It was developed to meet the requirements for a modern transport aircraft for the French and German Air Forces; the C-160 remained in service more than 50 years after the type's first flight in 1963. It has provided logistical support to overseas operations and has served in specialist roles such as an aerial refueling tanker, electronic intelligence gathering and as a communications platform; the C-160 is expected to be replaced in German service by the Airbus A400M Atlas. In the late 1950s, a requirement arose to replace the piston-engined Nord Noratlas transports operated by the air forces of both France and Germany. Keen to encourage industrial co-operation between the two countries, as had happened under a previous arrangement in which Noratlases for German service had been built under license by Weser Flugzeugbau and Germany signed an agreement for the development of a Noratlas successor on 28 November 1957.
The Italian government became involved in the project early on to meet their own requirements, however Italy's participation in the fledgling program was soon terminated in favour of the smaller and locally-built Fiat G.222. The consortium, "Transporter-Allianz" or Transall, was formed in January 1959 between the French company Nord Aviation and the German companies Weser Flugzeugbau and Hamburger Flugzeugbau to design and build the new transport; the new aircraft was required to carry a 16,000 kilograms cargo over a range of 1,720 kilometres or a load of 8,000 kg over a range of 4,540 km and be able to operate out of semi-prepared airstrips. One prototype was built by each of the production partners, with the first flying on 25 May 1963, with the VFW and HFB-built prototypes following on 25 May 1963 and 19 February 1964; these were followed by six pre-production examples, stretched by 51 centimetres compared with the prototypes, which flew between 1965 and 1966. Production orders were delayed by attempts by Lockheed to sell its C-130 Hercules transport to Germany.
Manufacturing work was split between France in line with the number of orders placed. The aircraft's tail fin was to be built by Dornier. Three production lines were set up to assemble these components at each of the three main partners; the first production airframes were delivered to France and Germany from 1967. The first batch included 110 C-160Ds for the German Air Force, 50 C-160Fs for the French Air Force, nine C-160Zs for the South African Air Force. Four C-160Fs were converted to C-160P air mail transport aircraft, were operated by Air France. Production continued until October 1972. In July 1977, France placed an order for 25 aircraft to be built to an improved standard. Production work for the new variant was split 50-50 between Aérospatiale and MBB, with a single assembly line in Toulouse; the cargo loading door on the port side of the fuselage was replaced by provision for additional fuel tanks in the wing centre section. When fitted these tanks increased fuel capacity from 19,000 litres to 28,000 litres.
The aircraft were fitted with updated avionics. The first second generation C-160 took flight in 1981. Aircraft produced in this batch included 29 for France, 6 for Indonesia; the Transall C-160 is a twin-engine tactical transport featuring a cargo hold, a rear-access ramp beneath an upswept tail, a high-mounted wing and turboprop engines. The C-160 is designed to perform cargo and troop transport duties, aerial delivery of supplies and equis designed to be compatible with international railway loading gauges to simplify cargo logistics and loading. In flight the cargo area is pressurised and kept at a constant temperature by integrated air conditioning systems. One aspect of the C-160 that made the type well suited to tactical operations was the type's short airfield performance. In the airlift role, a production C-160 could carry up to 8.5 tons across a distance of 5,000 kilometers, take off from airstrips as short as 700 meters. Dependent upon aircraft configuration, a single aircraft could airdrop as many as 88 paratroopers or transport up to 93 equipped troops.
The C-160 is powered by a pair of two Rolls-Royce Tyne turboprop engines, which drives a pair of four-bladed Dowty Rotol propellers. Advantages of the twin-engine configuration over four include reduced unit and production cost, lower weight and fuel consumption, simplified design and reliability; each engine is equipped with an auxiliary generator system, providing the aircraft with both electricity and hydraulic pressure. An auxiliary power unit is used to power the aircraft while on the ground, for rare use in mid-air emergencies. An updated second generation of the C-160 was produced during the 1980s. Amongst changes made, the new variant was equipped with additional fuel t
Toulouse–Blagnac Airport is an international airport located 3.6 nautical miles west northwest of Toulouse, in Blagnac, both communes of the Haute-Garonne department in the Occitanie region of France. In 2017, the airport served 9,264,611 passengers; as of April 2017, the airport features flights to 74 destinations in Europe and Northern Africa with a few additional seasonal long-haul connections. The airport resides at an elevation of 499 feet above mean sea level, it has two asphalt paved runways: 14R/32L is 3,500 by 45 metres and 14L/32R is 3,000 by 45 metres. Both Airbus and ATR test them from the airport. A Concorde operated by Air France with the registration F-BVFC is preserved at the Aeroscopia Museum near the airport. Toulouse–Blagnac Airport S. A. is a limited liability company. Toulouse–Blagnac Airport S. A. has authority to operate the airport until 2046 under a franchise agreement awarded by the French government. The current CEO is Philippe Crébassa; the following airlines operate regular scheduled and charter flights to and from Toulouse: Since April 2015, the tram line T2 connects Toulouse with the airport every 15 minutes.
The tram connects with metro ligne A at Arènes and metro ligne B at Palais de Justice. It takes about 35 minutes with a change to go to the town center by tram. Shuttle buses to Toulouse city centre stop outside Hall B every 20 minutes. Faster than the tram, they take 20 minutes to reach the city centre, stopping at Compans Caffarelli and Jeanne d'Arc, Jean Jaurès and at Toulouse-Matabiau railway station. Three daily coach services connect Toulouse–Blagnac Airport to Andorra, which does not have its own commercial airport. On 29 January 1988, Inter Cargo Service Flight 1004, operated by Vickers Vanguard F-GEJF crashed when take-off was attempted with only three operable engines. On 30 June 1994, an Airbus A330-300 performing a test flight crashed shortly after takeoff, due to a series of mistakes while conducting a flight test simulating an engine failure. All seven people on board died in the accident. On 15 November 2007, a brand-new Airbus A340-600 due to be delivered to Etihad Airways ran up and over the top of a concrete sloped blast-deflection wall during an engine test at the Airbus factory at the airport.
This was due to the crew not following proper test procedures, raising all four engines to maximum thrust while the wheels were un-chocked. The attempt to steer away from the wall resulted in decreased braking power. Five people were injured and the aircraft was written off. Media related to Toulouse Blagnac International Airport at Wikimedia Commons Official website Aéroport de Toulouse – Blagnac Radar Toulouse Current weather for LFBO at NOAA/NWS Accident history for TLS at Aviation Safety Network LiveATC.net
Spantax S. A. was a Spanish airline that operated from 1959 to 1988. Its head office was located in Madrid. Spanish Air Taxi Líneas Aéreas S. A. was founded on 6 October 1959 by ex-Iberia pilot Rodolfo Bay Wright and ex-Iberia flight attendant Marta Estades Sáez. The airline was based at Gran Canaria Airport in the Canary Islands, began operations flying geologists and technicians who were searching for oil in the Sahara and Spanish West Africa. Initial destinations included El Farsia, Itguy, Tindouf, Lagouira and El Aaiún. In 1959 the fleet comprised three Airspeed Consuls, two Airspeed Oxfords, one Auster and a single Avro Anson. A Douglas DC-3 was added to the fleet in 1960. At the end of 1960, the airline purchased two DC-3s from Swissair and these were placed into service from May 1961 operating tourist flights within the Canary Islands, were joined by a Piper Apache for short flights; the fleet was joined in 1962 by a Beechcraft Model 18 executive aircraft, a Bristol 170, leased from Iberia.
The Bristol was returned to Iberia the following year, four Douglas DC-4s were acquired. The pressurised long range Douglas DC-7C entered service with the airline in April 1963, Spantax would go on to operate eight of the aircraft which served destinations in the United Kingdom and elsewhere in Europe. Between June 1963 and September 1967 the airline acquired an additional four DC-4s, in May 1965 it obtained two Douglas DC-6s. Between 1962 and 1965 the airline operated DC-3s and a de Havilland Canada DHC-2 Beaver on routes for Air Mauritanie, in 1966 the airline became the first Spanish airline to operate the Fokker F27 Friendship turboprop, put into service on routes in the Canary Islands. On 7 December 1965, the airline suffered its first crash, when a DC-3 on a charter flight from Los Rodeos Tenerife to Gran Canaria crashed just after take-off, killing 28 passengers and 4 crew. After receiving approval from the Spanish authorities to operate passenger charter flights, the airline moved its headquarters from Gran Canaria to Palma de Mallorca.
The Balearic base was chosen due to the role that Mallorca had taken in the development of tourism in Spain, allowing the airline to gain prestige in the European market. The airline entered the jet age when in February and May 1967 two Convair 990 four engine jetliners joined the fleet after being purchased second hand from American Airlines. Between 1968 and 1972, an additional eight Convair 990s would join the fleet; the airline acquired a further four Convairs from Swissair in April and June 1975, the airline would become the world's largest operator of the type. The last one was retired in the mid 1980s. Requiring an aircraft with intercontinental range, Spantax purchased two stretched Douglas DC-8-61CFs from Trans Caribbean Airways in February 1973, would go on to operate an additional four of the type. Two DC-9-14s were acquired from Southern Airways in April 1974 in order to meet demand on charter flights on domestic and European routes. In October 1978 the airline put into service its first wide-body aircraft, a McDonnell Douglas DC-10-30, put it into service on charter routes to the United States.
By 1980 the airline employed 1,168 people, carried 2,017,000 passengers and had revenues of 9.953 billion pesetas. In 1983, Spantax became the first Spanish airline to fly to Japan via the polar route, with a stop in Anchorage, in the same year Boeing 737-200s began to be added to the fleet, to replace the DC-9s. New flights from Palma de Mallorca to Turku, Kuopio and Vaasa in Finland were begun with the 737s in 1984, in the August 1984 the airline undertook charter flights to Venezuela with the DC-10s in conjunction with Iberia and VIASA. By the mid-1980s, competition in the charter airline market in Europe was intense, in conjunction with spiralling fuel prices, the fortunes of the airline took a turn. Having an outdated fleet, the company was forced to lease in 737s from SABENA, two Boeing 747s and a DC-10 from Malaysian Airline System. In 1987, plagued by financial troubles and labour strikes, Spantax was sold to the Aviation Finance Group, based in Luxembourg; the new owners had committed capital of 3 billion pesetas, an investment of 4 billion pesetas.
Debts to the Spanish authorities totaling 13 billion pesetas were reorganised for payment over a twenty five-year period, a fleet renewal program would have seen the airline operating fifteen aircraft by 1993. Attempts to revamp and refinance the airline, renew its fleet with McDonnell Douglas MD-83s, negotiate with China Airlines for acquisition of Boeing 767s were all unsuccessful. After the Kuwait Investment Authority withdrew from a planned offer to purchase the airline, Spantax ceased all operations on 29 March 1988, leaving some 7,000 passengers around Europe stranded. On 5 January 1970, a CV-990 crashed while taking off on a three-engine ferry flight to Zürich, Switzerland from Arlanda Airport in Stockholm after it had experienced problems with one of its engines. Five crew were killed. There were ten people on board. On 30 September 1972, Douglas C-47B EC-AQE crashed on take-off from Madrid-Barajas Airport; the aircraft was being used for the student pilot over-rotated and stalled. One of the six people on board was killed.
In 1972 a DC-3 on training flight stalled on Madrid airport runway. Three of the five on board were killed. December 3, 1972 — Spantax Flight 275 crashed at Los Rodeos Airport on the island of Tenerife while taking off on a flight to Munich in zero visibility, killing all seven crew and 148 passengers
Asphalt known as bitumen, is a sticky and viscous liquid or semi-solid form of petroleum. It may be found in natural deposits or may be a refined product, is classed as a pitch. Before the 20th century, the term asphaltum was used; the word is derived from the Ancient Greek ἄσφαλτος ásphaltos. The primary use of asphalt is in road construction, where it is used as the glue or binder mixed with aggregate particles to create asphalt concrete, its other main uses are for bituminous waterproofing products, including production of roofing felt and for sealing flat roofs. The terms "asphalt" and "bitumen" are used interchangeably to mean both natural and manufactured forms of the substance. In American English, "asphalt" is used for a refined residue from the distillation process of selected crude oils. Outside the United States, the product is called "bitumen", geologists worldwide prefer the term for the occurring variety. Common colloquial usage refers to various forms of asphalt as "tar", as in the name of the La Brea Tar Pits.
Occurring asphalt is sometimes specified by the term "crude bitumen". Its viscosity is similar to that of cold molasses while the material obtained from the fractional distillation of crude oil boiling at 525 °C is sometimes referred to as "refined bitumen"; the Canadian province of Alberta has most of the world's reserves of natural asphalt in the Athabasca oil sands, which cover 142,000 square kilometres, an area larger than England. The word "asphalt" is derived from the late Middle English, in turn from French asphalte, based on Late Latin asphalton, the latinisation of the Greek ἄσφαλτος, a word meaning "asphalt/bitumen/pitch", which derives from ἀ-, "without" and σφάλλω, "make fall"; the first use of asphalt by the ancients was in the nature of a cement for securing or joining together various objects, it thus seems that the name itself was expressive of this application. Herodotus mentioned that bitumen was brought to Babylon to build its gigantic fortification wall. From the Greek, the word passed into late Latin, thence into French and English.
In French, the term asphalte is used for occurring asphalt-soaked limestone deposits, for specialised manufactured products with fewer voids or greater bitumen content than the "asphaltic concrete" used to pave roads. The expression "bitumen" originated in the Sanskrit words jatu, meaning "pitch", jatu-krit, meaning "pitch creating" or "pitch producing"; the Latin equivalent is claimed by some to be gwitu-men, by others, subsequently shortened to bitumen, thence passing via French into English. From the same root is derived the Anglo-Saxon word cwidu, the German word Kitt and the old Norse word kvada. In British English, "bitumen" is used instead of "asphalt"; the word "asphalt" is instead used to refer to asphalt concrete, a mixture of construction aggregate and asphalt itself. Bitumen mixed with clay was called "asphaltum", but the term is less used today. In Australian English, the word "asphalt" is used to describe a mix of construction aggregate. "Bitumen" refers to the liquid derived from the heavy-residues from crude oil distillation.
In American English, "asphalt" is equivalent to the British "bitumen". However, "asphalt" is commonly used as a shortened form of "asphalt concrete". In Canadian English, the word "bitumen" is used to refer to the vast Canadian deposits of heavy crude oil, while "asphalt" is used for the oil refinery product. Diluted bitumen is known as "dilbit" in the Canadian petroleum industry, while bitumen "upgraded" to synthetic crude oil is known as "syncrude", syncrude blended with bitumen is called "synbit"."Bitumen" is still the preferred geological term for occurring deposits of the solid or semi-solid form of petroleum. "Bituminous rock" is a form of sandstone impregnated with bitumen. The oil sands of Alberta, Canada are a similar material. Neither of the terms "asphalt" or "bitumen" should be confused with coal tars. Tar is the thick liquid product of the dry distillation and pyrolysis of organic hydrocarbons sourced from vegetation masses, whether fossilized as with coal, or freshly harvested; the majority of bitumen, on the other hand, was formed when vast quantities of organic animal materials were deposited by water and buried hundreds of metres deep at the diagenetic point, where the disorganized fatty hydrocarbon molecules joined together in long chains in the absence of oxygen.
Bitumen occurs as a solid or viscous liquid. It may be mixed in with coal deposits. Bitumen, coal using the Bergius process, can be refined into petrols such as gasoline, bitumen may be distilled into tar, not the other way around; the components of asphalt include four main classes of compounds: Naphthene aromatics, consisting of hydrogenated polycyclic aromatic compounds Polar aromatics, consisting of high molecular weight phenols and carboxylic acids produced by partial oxidation of the material Saturated hydrocarbons. Most natural bitumens a