The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark shortened to Hamlet, is a tragedy written by William Shakespeare sometime between 1599 and 1601. It is Shakespeare's longest play with 30,557 words. Set in Denmark, the play depicts Prince Hamlet and his revenge against his uncle, who has murdered Hamlet's father in order to seize his throne and marry Hamlet's mother. Hamlet is Shakespeare's longest play and is considered among the most powerful and influential works of world literature, with a story capable of "seemingly endless retelling and adaptation by others", it was one of Shakespeare's most popular works during his lifetime and still ranks among his most performed, topping the performance list of the Royal Shakespeare Company and its predecessors in Stratford-upon-Avon since 1879. It has inspired many other writers—from Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and Charles Dickens to James Joyce and Iris Murdoch—and has been described as "the world's most filmed story after Cinderella"; the story of Shakespeare's Hamlet was derived from the legend of Amleth, preserved by 13th-century chronicler Saxo Grammaticus in his Gesta Danorum, as subsequently retold by the 16th-century scholar François de Belleforest.
Shakespeare may have drawn on an earlier Elizabethan play known today as the Ur-Hamlet, though some scholars believe Shakespeare wrote the Ur-Hamlet revising it to create the version of Hamlet we now have. He certainly wrote his version of the title role for his fellow actor, Richard Burbage, the leading tragedian of Shakespeare's time. In the 400 years since its inception, the role has been performed by numerous acclaimed actors in each successive century. Three different early versions of the play are extant: the First Quarto; each version includes entire scenes missing from the others. The play's structure and depth of characterisation have inspired much critical scrutiny. One such example is the centuries-old debate about Hamlet's hesitation to kill his uncle, which some see as a plot device to prolong the action but which others argue is a dramatisation of the complex philosophical and ethical issues that surround cold-blooded murder, calculated revenge, thwarted desire. More psychoanalytic critics have examined Hamlet's unconscious desires, while feminist critics have re-evaluated and attempted to rehabilitate the often-maligned characters of Ophelia and Gertrude.
The protagonist of Hamlet is Prince Hamlet of Denmark, son of the deceased King Hamlet, nephew of King Claudius, his father's brother and successor. Claudius hastily married King Hamlet's widow, Hamlet's mother, took the throne for himself. Denmark has a long-standing feud with neighbouring Norway, in which King Hamlet slew King Fortinbras of Norway in a battle some years ago. Although Denmark defeated Norway and the Norwegian throne fell to King Fortinbras's infirm brother, Denmark fears that an invasion led by the dead Norwegian king's son, Prince Fortinbras, is imminent. On a cold night on the ramparts of Elsinore, the Danish royal castle, the sentries Bernardo and Marcellus discuss a ghost resembling the late King Hamlet which they have seen, bring Prince Hamlet's friend Horatio as a witness. After the ghost appears again, the three vow to tell Prince Hamlet; as the court gathers the next day, while King Claudius and Queen Gertrude discuss affairs of state with their elderly adviser Polonius, Hamlet looks on glumly.
During the court, Claudius grants permission for Polonius's son Laertes to return to school in France and sends envoys to inform the King of Norway about Fortinbras. Claudius scolds Hamlet for continuing to grieve over his father and forbids him to return to his schooling in Wittenberg. After the court exits, Hamlet despairs of his mother's hasty remarriage. Learning of the ghost from Horatio, Hamlet resolves to see it himself; as Polonius's son Laertes prepares to depart for a visit to France, Polonius offers him advice that culminates in the maxim "to thine own self be true." Polonius's daughter, admits her interest in Hamlet, but Laertes warns her against seeking the prince's attention, Polonius orders her to reject his advances. That night on the rampart, the ghost appears to Hamlet, telling the prince that he was murdered by Claudius and demanding that Hamlet avenge him. Hamlet agrees, the ghost vanishes; the prince confides to Horatio and the sentries that from now on he plans to "put an antic disposition on", or act as though he has gone mad, forces them to swear to keep his plans for revenge secret.
Soon thereafter, Ophelia rushes to her father, telling him that Hamlet arrived at her door the prior night half-undressed and behaving erratically. Polonius resolves to inform Claudius and Gertrude; as he enters to do so, the king and queen finish welcoming Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, two student acquaintances of Hamlet, to Elsinore. The royal couple has requested that the students investigate the cause of Hamlet's mood and behaviour. Additional news requires that Polonius wait to be heard: messengers from Norway inform Claudius that the King of Norway has rebuked Prince Fortinbras for attempting to re-fight his father's battles; the forces that Fortinbras had conscripted to march against Denmark will instead be sent against Poland, though they will pass through Danish territory to get there. Polonius tells Claudius and Gertrude his theory regarding Hamlet's behaviour and speaks to Hamlet in a hall of the castle to try to uncover more information. Hamlet feigns subtly insults Polonius all the while.
When Rosencrantz and Guildenstern arrive, Hamlet gre
Jodie L. Lutkenhaus is a Professor of Chemical Engineering at Texas A&M University, she develops redox active polymers for smart coatings. In 2019 Lutkenhaus and Karen L. Wooley demonstrated the world's first biodegradable peptide battery, she is a World Economic Forum Young Scientist. Lutkenhaus was inspired to study engineering by her family, her mother studied her father studied physics. She studied chemical engineering at the University of Texas at Austin and graduated in 2002, she moved to Massachusetts Institute of Technology for her doctoral degree, which she finished in 2007. After earning her doctorate under the supervision of Paula T. Hammond Lutkenhaus moved to the University of Massachusetts Amherst. In 2008 Lutkenhaus joined the faculty at Yale University. Lutkenhaus joined the faculty at Texas A&M University in 2010, was promoted to Associate Professor in 2015, she develops new materials for energy storage and smart coatings, including polyelectrolytes and redox active polymers. She looks to develop soft and flexible power supplies for wearable electronics that are durable and efficient.
A challenge with using polymers in batteries is that polymers are not good at storing and exchanging electrons. Lutkenhaus has demonstrated. If used in portable electronic devices, organic radical polymers could enable fast charging. Lutkenhaus has characterised the speed of charge transfer in these systems using an electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance. Lutkenhaus hopes that future batteries will be metal-free and recyclable. At present, only 5% of lithium-ion batteries are recycled. Lutkenhaus and Wooley demonstrated that glutamic acid could be used to make batteries – the first biodegradable protein battery; the peptides contain redox-active compounds, the stable radical Tempo on the cathode and bipyridine viologen on the anodes. Lutkenhaus has studied, she is developing two-dimensional transition metal-carbon nanosheets, which are sheet-like structures made from layered ceramics. They can include a range of different functional groups. Lutkenhaus is investigating how chemical structure and molecular packing influence the electronic properties of these materials.
She has shown that a MXene – polyelectrolyte device can be used to sense humidity and pressure, as water facilitates the relaxation of charged molecular assemblies by reducing Coulombic attraction. Her awards and honours include. "Electrochemically enabled polyelectrolyte multilayer devices: from fuel cells to sensors". Soft Matter. 3: 804. Bibcode:2007SMat....3..804L. Doi:10.1039/B701203A. Lutkenhaus, Jodie L.. "Elastomeric Flexible Free-Standing Hydrogen-Bonded Nanoscale Assemblies". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 127: 17228–17234. Doi:10.1021/ja053472s. PMID 16332070. Mike, Jared F.. "Recent advances in conjugated polymer energy storage". Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics. 51: 468–480. Bibcode:2013JPoSB..51..468M. Doi:10.1002/polb.23256. She serves on the editorial board of ACS Macro Letters and Scientific Reports. Lutkenhaus is married to chemical engineer Ben Wilhite and they have two sons, her older sister, Jessica Winter, is a scientist
In the Catholic Church, a eucharistic congress is a gathering of clergy and laity to bear witness to the Real Presence of Jesus in the Eucharist, an important Roman Catholic doctrine. Congresses bring together people from a wide area, involve large open-air Masses, Eucharistic adoration, other devotional ceremonies held over several days. Congresses may both refer to International Eucharistic Congresses. Paschal Baylon is considered the patron saint of such eucharistic congresses; the first International Eucharistic Congress owed its inspiration to Bishop Gaston de Ségur, was held at Lille, France, on June 21, 1881. The initial inspiration behind the idea came from a laywoman, Emilie-Marie Tamisier Marie-Marthe-Baptistine Tamisier who spent a decade lobbying clergy; the sixth congress met in Paris in 1888, the great memorial Church of the Sacred Heart on Montmartre was the center of the proceedings. Antwerp hosted the next congress, from in 1890, at which an immense altar of repose was erected in the Place de Meir, an estimated 150,000 persons gathered around it when Cardinal Goossens, Archbishop of Mechelen, gave the solemn Benediction.
Bishop Doutreloux of Liège was president of the Permanent Committee for the Organization of Eucharistic Congresses, the body which has charge of the details of these meetings. Of special importance was the eighth congress, held in Jerusalem in 1893, as it was the first congress held outside Europe. In 1907, the congress was held in Metz and the German government suspended the law of 1870, in order that the usual solemn procession of the Blessed Sacrament might be held; each year the congress had become more and more international in nature, at the invitation of Archbishop Bourne of Westminster it was decided to hold the nineteenth congress in London, the first among English-speaking members of the Church. The presidents of the Permanent Committee of the International Eucharistic Congresses, under whose direction all this progress was made, were: Bishop Gaston de Ségur of Lille. After each congress this committee prepared and published a volume giving a report of all the papers read and the discussions on them in the various sections of the meeting, the sermons preached, the addresses made at the public meetings, the details of all that transpired.
Pontifical Committee for International Eucharistic Congresses Real presence of Christ in the Eucharist World Youth Day Chesterton, Gilbert Keith. The Collected Works of G. K. Chesterton. Ignatius Press. ISBN 978-0-89870-854-7. de Courcy, J. W.. The Liffey in Dublin. Gill & Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-7171-2423-7. Congressieucaristici.va – Official site of the Pontifical Committee for the International Eucharistic Congresses Pontifical Committee for International Eucharistic Congresses iec2016.ph – Official Website for the 2016 International Eucharistic Congress iec2020.hu/en – Official Website for the 2020 International Eucharistic Congress The 1926 Cardinal's Train to the 28th International Eucharistic Congress in Chicago at ThemeTrains.com. Samantha Frappell. "International Eucharistic Congress 1928". Dictionary of Sydney. Dictionary of Sydney Trust. Retrieved 5 October 2015. 49th International Eucharistic Congress: Photo Gallery by The Catholic Photographer Eucharistic Congresses on New Advent Catholic Encyclopedia