Plaza Singapura is a contemporary shopping mall located along Orchard Road, Singapore. The mall is managed by CapitaLand and owned by CapitaMall Trust, there are retail outlets over seven floors and two basements. The mall has a 752 lot seven storey carpark at the rear of the building, the mall is popular with families and young adults. The mall was first opened in 1974 and in 2012, it underwent a revamp which included the construction of a new wing increasing retail space by 25 percent. It is one of the oldest malls located along Orchard Road, Plaza Singapura was completed in 1974 and was designed by BEP Akitek Pte Ltd. At the time of completion, it was one of the largest malls in the island, the mall included a Yaohan department store and supermarket, which was opened on 14 September 1974, a Yamaha store and a Yaohan Best as its major tenants. The mall was managed by DBS Land which is the predecessor of CapitaLand. There were three internal courtyards and an external forecourt provided psychological relief from the noise of traffic and commercial activity outside, Plaza Singapura was officially opened by Minister for Finance, the late Mr Hon Sui Sen, on 16 August 1975.
It was described by students that the building appears lumpy in the context and it used to house two sculptures in the building which was designed by the late renowned sculptor Ng Eng Teng, which has now been removed. As Yaohan went bankrupt in 1997, it saw the departure of the main store, the malls tenants changed drastically with Liberty Market took over Yaohan in Basement 2. Liberty Market was shifted to Orchard Grand Court in 2001, and this was to change when between 2002 and 2003, when the mall once again when under a revamp with a new tenant mix. The mall had renovations in the basements, and a link to Dhoby Ghaut MRT station was constructed. Travelators were installed in the building for the convenience of shoppers serving between Basement 2, Basement 1 and Level 1, in 2008, further changes were made to Plaza Singapura. Level 7 of the mall was given a lift and tenants selling toys and hobby related items such as swords. In 2012, it underwent major work which costs about S$150 million.
The first phase signifies that the first three levels of Atrium@Orchard, which housed offices, were converted to shop spaces. The second phase involves the former 81,000 sq ft Carrefour converted to supermarket Cold Storage in basement 2 and department store John Little in level 1, which were completed in June 2013. The mall has given a new facade with a 170-metre long wave frontage
Lakeside Shopping Centre
It was constructed on the site of a former chalk quarry. The community of Chafford Hundred has grown to the east of the centre since its opening and its main rival is the Bluewater Shopping Centre in Greenhithe, just across the River Thames. The centre was rebranded as intu Lakeside in 2013 following the renaming of parent Capital Shopping Centres Group plc as intu properties plc. The shopping centre is the eleventh largest in Britain with 1,434,000 sq ft available as retail floorspace - the MetroCentre in Gateshead, after its expansion in 2004, is the largest. There are over 250 shops,50 cafes and restaurants, intu Lakeside has on average 500,000 visitors per week. It is currently open on weekdays from 10,00 am to 10,00 pm, and on Saturday from 9,00 am to 9,00 pm, the centres car parks have capacity for 13,000 cars. The Centre is connected to the M25 motorway which is Londons outermost ring road running south towards Dartford and Gatwick and North towards Enfield, Watford, as well as the M25 the centre is connected to the A13 road which connects central and east London to Basildon and Southend-on-Sea.
Route X80 operated by Ensignbus provides a link to Bluewater across the Dartford Crossing and this included new Italian porcelain flooring, new lighting, a new ceiling and new glass roofs which allow much more natural light into the shopping centre. There are now new, faster lifts, and four more escalators, the refurbishment has encouraged refitting of many shops so that they complement the new surroundings. In September 2005, Next opened an 18,600 sq ft. extension to its store, the Lakeside Pavilion, a market area adjoining the main shopping centre via a covered bridge, was closed in 2006 for refurbishment, re-opening in June 2007 as The Boardwalk. The Old Orleans bar and restaurant boat was refurbished and re-opened on the same day. Vue cinema formed part of the old Lakeside Pavilion, with a seven screen cinema and this closed on 11 January 2007 to be refurbished, and was re-opened on Friday 15 June 2007, the refurbishment resulted in nine state-of-the-art screens with stadium seating. Gold Class, a screen that housed luxury seating, has since been abandoned in favour of VIP seating sections in every screen.
The Evolution Screen, with a combination of giant bean bag chairs amongst VIP seating, was the first of its kind in the UK, apple opened its tenth UK store at Lakeside Shopping Centre. The application was approved at the end of October 2008 although no construction has taken place as of July 2011, owners of the Cult and Superdry brands opened its largest-ever store at the centre in July 2010, in the unit previously occupied by Woolworths. Eds Easy Diner opened their restaurant in the centres food court in July 2010. Taco Bell re-entered the UK market in June 2010 with the opening of its first stores at intu Lakeside, in 2011 US fashion giant Forever 21 opened a 35,000 sq ft flagship store at intu Lakeside, in a three-floor unit. In July 2016 this store closed down, there are two retail parks nearby called the Lakeside Retail Park and The Junction
Retail markets and shops have a very ancient history, dating back to antiquity. Retailing involves the process of selling goods or services to customers through multiple channels of distribution to earn a profit. Retailers satisfy demand is identified through a supply chain, Once the strategic retail plan is in place, retailers devise the retail mix which includes product, place, promotion and presentation. In the digital age, a number of retailers are seeking to reach broader markets by selling through multiple channels. Digital technologies are changing the way that consumers pay for goods. Retailing support services may include the provision of credit, delivery services. Shopping generally refers to the act of buying products, sometimes this is done to obtain final goods, including necessities such as food and clothing, sometimes it takes place as a recreational activity. Recreational shopping often involves window shopping and browsing, it not always result in a purchase. Retail shops occur in a range of types and in many different contexts - from strip shopping centres in residential streets through to large.
Shopping streets may restrict traffic to pedestrians only, forms of non-shop retailing include online retailing and mail order. Retail comes from the Old French word tailler, which means to cut off, pare and it was first recorded as a noun with the meaning of a sale in small quantities in 1433. Like in French, the retail in both Dutch and German refers to the sale of small quantities of items. Also see History of merchants, History of the market place, open air, public markets were known in ancient Babylonia and Assyria. These markets typically occupied a place in the towns centre, surrounding the market, skilled artisans, such as metal-workers and leather workers, occupied premises in alley ways that led to the open market-place. These artisans may have sold wares directly from their premises, in ancient Greece markets operated within the agora, and in ancient Rome the forum. In antiquity, exchange involved direct selling, merchants or peddlers, the Phoenicians, noted for their seafaring skills, plied their ships across the Mediterranean, becoming a major trading power by 9th century BCE.
The Phoenicians imported and exported wood, textiles and produce such as wine, dried fruit, the Phoenicians extensive trade networks necessitated considerable book-keeping and correspondence. In around 1500 BCE, the Phoenicians developed an alphabet which was much easier to learn that the complex scripts used in ancient Egypt
A game is a structured form of play, usually undertaken for enjoyment and sometimes used as an educational tool. Games are distinct from work, which is carried out for remuneration, and from art. However, the distinction is not clear-cut, and many games are considered to be work or art. Key components of games are goals, challenge, games generally involve mental or physical stimulation, and often both. Many games help develop practical skills, serve as a form of exercise, or otherwise perform an educational, attested as early as 2600 BC, games are a universal part of human experience and present in all cultures. The Royal Game of Ur, and Mancala are some of the oldest known games, ludwig Wittgenstein was probably the first academic philosopher to address the definition of the word game. In his Philosophical Investigations, Wittgenstein argued that the elements of games, such as play, from this, Wittgenstein concluded that people apply the term game to a range of disparate human activities that bear to one another only what one might call family resemblances. A piece of entertainment is an if it is interactive.
Movies and books are cited as examples of non-interactive entertainment, if no goals are associated with a plaything, it is a toy. If it has goals, a plaything is a challenge, if a challenge has no active agent against whom you compete, it is a puzzle, if there is one, it is a conflict. Finally, if the player can only outperform the opponent, but not attack them to interfere with their performance, however, if attacks are allowed, the conflict qualifies as a game. Crawfords definition may thus be rendered as, an interactive, goal-oriented activity made for money, with agents to play against. A game is a system in which players engage in a conflict, defined by rules. A game is a form of art in which participants, termed players, according to this definition, some games that do not involve choices, such as Chutes and Ladders, Candy Land, and War are not technically games any more than a slot machine is. A game is an activity among two or more independent decision-makers seeking to achieve their objectives in some limiting context, a game is a form of play with goals and structure.
When you strip away the differences and the technological complexities, all games share four defining traits, a goal, rules, a feedback system. Games can be characterized by what the player does and this is often referred to as gameplay. Major key elements identified in this context are tools and rules that define the context of game
London /ˈlʌndən/ is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south east of the island of Great Britain and it was founded by the Romans, who named it Londinium. Londons ancient core, the City of London, largely retains its 1. 12-square-mile medieval boundaries. London is a global city in the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism. It is crowned as the worlds largest financial centre and has the fifth- or sixth-largest metropolitan area GDP in the world, London is a world cultural capital. It is the worlds most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the worlds largest city airport system measured by passenger traffic, London is the worlds leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. Londons universities form the largest concentration of education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted the modern Summer Olympic Games three times, London has a diverse range of people and cultures, and more than 300 languages are spoken in the region.
Its estimated mid-2015 municipal population was 8,673,713, the largest of any city in the European Union, Londons urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census. The citys metropolitan area is the most populous in the EU with 13,879,757 inhabitants, the city-region therefore has a similar land area and population to that of the New York metropolitan area. London was the worlds most populous city from around 1831 to 1925, Other famous landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Pauls Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square, and The Shard. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world, the etymology of London is uncertain. It is an ancient name, found in sources from the 2nd century and it is recorded c.121 as Londinium, which points to Romano-British origin, and hand-written Roman tablets recovered in the city originating from AD 65/70-80 include the word Londinio. The earliest attempted explanation, now disregarded, is attributed to Geoffrey of Monmouth in Historia Regum Britanniae and this had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had allegedly taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
From 1898, it was accepted that the name was of Celtic origin and meant place belonging to a man called *Londinos. The ultimate difficulty lies in reconciling the Latin form Londinium with the modern Welsh Llundain, which should demand a form *lōndinion, from earlier *loundiniom. The possibility cannot be ruled out that the Welsh name was borrowed back in from English at a date, and thus cannot be used as a basis from which to reconstruct the original name. Until 1889, the name London officially applied only to the City of London, two recent discoveries indicate probable very early settlements near the Thames in the London area
Heathrow Airport is a major international airport in London, United Kingdom. In 2016, it handled a record 75.7 million passengers, Heathrow lies 14 miles west of Central London, and has two parallel east–west runways along with four operational terminals on a site that covers 12.27 square kilometres. London Heathrow is the hub for British Airways and the primary operating base for Virgin Atlantic. In September 2012, the UK government established the Airports Commission, in July 2015, the commission backed a third runway at Heathrow and the government approved a third runway in October 2016. Heathrow is 14 mi west of central London, near the end of the London Borough of Hillingdon on a parcel of land that is designated part of the Metropolitan Green Belt. The airport is surrounded by the areas of Harlington, Harmondsworth and Cranford to the north and by Hounslow. To the south lie Bedfont and Stanwell while to the west Heathrow is separated from Slough in Berkshire by the M25 motorway, Heathrow falls entirely under the TW postcode area.
As the airport is west of London and as its runways run east–west, for a chronicled history of Heathrow Airport, see History of Heathrow Airport. Heathrow Airport originated in 1929 as an airfield on land south-east of the hamlet of Heathrow from which the airport takes its name. At that time there were farms, market gardens and orchards there, there was a Heathrow Farm about where Terminal 1 is now, a Heathrow Hall and a Heathrow House. This hamlet was largely along a lane which ran roughly along the east. Development of the whole Heathrow area as a much larger airport began in 1944. But by the time the airfield was nearing completion, World War II had ended, the government continued to develop the airport as a civil airport, it opened as London Airport in 1946 and was renamed Heathrow Airport in 1966. Heathrow Airport is used by over 80 airlines flying to 185 destinations in 84 countries, the airport is the primary hub of British Airways and is a base for Virgin Atlantic. It has four terminals and a cargo terminal.
Of Heathrows 73.4 million passengers in 2014, 93% were international travellers, the busiest single destination in passenger numbers is New York, with over 3 million passengers flying between Heathrow and JFK Airport in 2013. As the required length for runways has grown, Heathrow now has two parallel runways running east–west. These are extended versions of the two east–west runways from the original hexagram, from the air, almost all of the original runways can still be seen, incorporated into the present system of taxiways
Abu Dhabi is the capital and the second most populous city of the United Arab Emirates, and capital of the Emirate of Abu Dhabi, the largest of the UAEs seven emirates. Abu Dhabi lies on a T-shaped island jutting into the Persian Gulf from the western coast. The city proper had a population of 1.5 million in 2014, Abu Dhabi houses federal government offices, is the seat of the United Arab Emirates Government, home to the Abu Dhabi Emiri Family and the President of the UAE, who is from this family. Abu Dhabis rapid development and urbanisation, coupled with the high average income of its population, has transformed the city into a large. Today the city is the center of political and industrial activities. Abu Dhabi accounts for about two-thirds of the roughly $400-billion United Arab Emirates economy, Abu Dhabi is the fourth most expensive city for expatriate employees in the region, and in 2014 was the 68th most expensive big city in the world. Abu Dhabi is full of evidence that points to civilizations, such as the Umm an-Nar Culture.
Settlements were found farther outside the city of Abu Dhabi. There is evidence of civilizations around the mountain of Hafeet and this location is very strategic because it is the UAE’s second tallest mountain, so it would have great visibility. It contains a lot of moisture in its springs and lakes, origin of the name Abu Dhabi The origin of the name Abu Dhabi is uncertain. Meaning Father of the Gazelle, when translated from Arabic. According to Bilal al-Budoor, assistant under-secretary for Cultural Affairs at the Ministry of Culture and Community Development, The area had a lot of dhibaa, an old story tells about a man who used to chase deer and was named the father of the animal. Abu Dhabis original name was Milh salt, possibly referring to the salty water of the Persian Gulf, some Bedouins called the city Umm Dhabi, while British records refer to the place as Abu Dhabi. According to some accounts, the name Abu Dhabi was first used more than 300 years ago. The first word of Abu Dhabi is pronounced Bu by inhabitants on the western coast.
In the eastern part of the city, the pronunciation is Abu, origins of the Al Nahyan family The Bani Yas bedouin were originally centered on the Liwa Oasis. This tribe was the most significant in the area, having over 20 subsections, in 1793, the Al Bu Falah subsection migrated to the island of Abu Dhabi on the coast of the Persian Gulf due to the discovery of fresh water there. One family within this section was the Al Nahyan family and this family makes up the rulers of Abu Dhabi today
Republic of Ireland
Ireland, known as the Republic of Ireland, is a sovereign state in north-western Europe occupying about five-sixths of the island of Ireland. The capital and largest city is Dublin, which is located on the part of the island. The state shares its land border with Northern Ireland, a part of the United Kingdom. It is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the Celtic Sea to the south, Saint Georges Channel to the south-east, and it is a unitary, parliamentary republic. The head of government is the Taoiseach, who is elected by the Dáil and appointed by the President, the state was created as the Irish Free State in 1922 as a result of the Anglo-Irish Treaty. It was officially declared a republic in 1949, following the Republic of Ireland Act 1948, Ireland became a member of the United Nations in December 1955. It joined the European Economic Community, the predecessor of the European Union, after joining the EEC, Ireland enacted a series of liberal economic policies that resulted in rapid economic growth.
The country achieved considerable prosperity between the years of 1995 and 2007, which known as the Celtic Tiger period. This was halted by a financial crisis that began in 2008. However, as the Irish economy was the fastest growing in the EU in 2015, Ireland is again quickly ascending league tables comparing wealth and prosperity internationally. For example, in 2015, Ireland was ranked as the joint sixth most developed country in the world by the United Nations Human Development Index and it performs well in several national performance metrics, including freedom of the press, economic freedom and civil liberties. Ireland is a member of the European Union and is a member of the Council of Europe. The 1922 state, comprising 26 of the 32 counties of Ireland, was styled, the Constitution of Ireland, adopted in 1937, provides that the name of the State is Éire, or, in the English language, Ireland. Section 2 of the Republic of Ireland Act 1948 states, It is hereby declared that the description of the State shall be the Republic of Ireland.
The 1948 Act does not name the state as Republic of Ireland, because to have done so would have put it in conflict with the Constitution. The government of the United Kingdom used the name Eire, from 1949, Republic of Ireland, for the state, as well as Ireland, Éire or the Republic of Ireland, the state is referred to as the Republic, Southern Ireland or the South. In an Irish republican context it is referred to as the Free State or the 26 Counties. From the Act of Union on 1 January 1801, until 6 December 1922, during the Great Famine, from 1845 to 1849, the islands population of over 8 million fell by 30%
Regent Street is a major shopping street in the West End of London. It is named after George, the Prince Regent and was built under the direction of the architect John Nash, the street runs from Waterloo Place in St Jamess at the southern end, through Piccadilly Circus and Oxford Circus, to All Souls Church. From there Langham Place and Portland Place continue the route to Regents Park, the street was completed in 1825 and was an early example of town planning in England, replacing a number of earlier roads including Swallow Street. Nashs street layout has survived, although all the buildings except All Souls Church have been replaced following reconstruction in the late 19th century. The street is known for its retail stores, including Liberty, Jaeger. The Royal Polytechnic Institution, now the University of Westminster, has based on Regent Street since 1838. Regent Street is approximately 0.8 miles long and begins at a junction with Charles II Street as a continuation of Waterloo Place. It runs north to Piccadilly Circus, where it left before curving round the Quadrant to head north again.
It ends at a junction with Cavendish Place and Mortimer Street near the BBC Broadcasting House, with the road ahead being Langham Place, the southern section of the road is one-way northbound and part of the A4, a major road through West London. From Piccadilly Circus northwards, it is numbered A4201, though in common with roads inside the London congestion charging zone, the number does not appear on signs. Nearby tube stations are Charing Cross, Piccadilly Circus and Oxford Circus, the lattermost being one of the busiest underground stations in London, numerous bus routes, such as 6,12, and 13, run along Regent Street. Regent Street was one of the first planned developments of London and it was hoped the road could link Pall Mall and the Haymarket, of which has since declined in quality. A further problem was increased congestion around Charing Cross, which would benefit from road improvements, the street was designed by John Nash, who had been appointed to the Office of Woods and Forests in 1806 and previously served as an adviser to the Prince Regent.
He put forward his own plans for the street in 1810 following the death of Fordyce, envisioning broad, architecturally distinguished thoroughfares and public spaces. Nash originally wanted to construct a straight boulevard in the style seen in French cities. The northern section involved demolishing most of the existing Swallow Street, the road was designed to curve east between Oxford Street and Piccadilly so that it did not meet St Jamess Square, and the circuses allowed visual continuity down the street. The central section, known as the Quadrant, was designed for shops appropriated to articles of fashion and taste and it was built with a colonnade made out of cast-iron columns, allowing commuters to walk along the street without having to face bad weather. The road was planned to end outside Carlton House in Pall Mall, Nash insisted that businesses on the new street would be of high-quality, rivalling that of the nearby Bond Street, common trades such as butchers or greengrocers were not allowed
Elizabeth II has been Queen of the United Kingdom, Canada and New Zealand since 6 February 1952. Elizabeth was born in London as the eldest child of the Duke and Duchess of York, King George VI and Queen Elizabeth and her father acceded to the throne on the abdication of his brother Edward VIII in 1936, from which time she was the heir presumptive. She began to undertake duties during the Second World War. Elizabeths many historic visits and meetings include a visit to the Republic of Ireland. She has seen major changes, such as devolution in the United Kingdom, Canadian patriation. She has reigned through various wars and conflicts involving many of her realms and she is the worlds oldest reigning monarch as well as Britains longest-lived. In October 2016, she became the longest currently reigning monarch, in 2017 she became the first British monarch to commemorate a Sapphire Jubilee. Elizabeth has occasionally faced republican sentiments and press criticism of the family, support for the monarchy remains high.
Elizabeth was born at 02,40 on 21 April 1926, during the reign of her paternal grandfather and her father, Prince Albert, Duke of York, was the second son of the King. Her mother, Duchess of York, was the youngest daughter of Scottish aristocrat Claude Bowes-Lyon, 14th Earl of Strathmore and she was delivered by Caesarean section at her maternal grandfathers London house,17 Bruton Street, Mayfair. Elizabeths only sibling, Princess Margaret, was born in 1930, the two princesses were educated at home under the supervision of their mother and their governess, Marion Crawford, who was casually known as Crawfie. Lessons concentrated on history, language and music, Crawford published a biography of Elizabeth and Margarets childhood years entitled The Little Princesses in 1950, much to the dismay of the royal family. The book describes Elizabeths love of horses and dogs, her orderliness, others echoed such observations, Winston Churchill described Elizabeth when she was two as a character. She has an air of authority and reflectiveness astonishing in an infant and her cousin Margaret Rhodes described her as a jolly little girl, but fundamentally sensible and well-behaved.
During her grandfathers reign, Elizabeth was third in the line of succession to the throne, behind her uncle Edward, Prince of Wales, and her father, the Duke of York. Although her birth generated public interest, she was not expected to become queen, many people believed that he would marry and have children of his own. When her grandfather died in 1936 and her uncle succeeded as Edward VIII, she became second-in-line to the throne, that year, Edward abdicated, after his proposed marriage to divorced socialite Wallis Simpson provoked a constitutional crisis. Consequently, Elizabeths father became king, and she became heir presumptive, if her parents had had a son, she would have lost her position as first-in-line, as her brother would have been heir apparent and above her in the line of succession
Buses in London
The London Bus is one of Londons principal icons, the archetypal red rear-entrance AEC Routemaster being recognized worldwide. Buses have been used on the streets of London since 1829, LGOC began using motor omnibuses in 1902, and manufactured them itself from 1909. In 1904 Thomas Tilling started its first motor bus service, the last LGOC horse-drawn bus ran on 25 October 1911, although independent operators used them until 1914. In 1909 Thomas Tilling and LGOC entered into an agreement to pool their resources, the agreement restricted the expansion of Thomas Tilling in London, and allowed the LGOC to lead an amalgamation of most of Londons bus services. However, in 1909 Thomas Clarkson started the National Steam Car Company to run buses in London in competition with the LGOC. In 1919 the National company reached agreement with the LGOC to withdraw from bus operation in London, in 1912 the Underground Group, which at that time owned most of the London Underground, bought the LGOC. In 1933 the LGOC, along with the rest of the Underground Group, the name London General was replaced by London Transport, which became synonymous with the red London bus.
Bus numbers were first used in 1906, when the independent firms started in 1922, they used General route numbers, along with suffixes from the alphabet to denote branch routes. In 1924, under the London Traffic Act, the Metropolitan Police was given the authority of allocating route numbers, which all buses had to carry. This ultimately led to chaos and in the London Passenger Transport Act of 1933 the powers of allocating route numbers was taken away from the police and handed once again to professional busmen. Suffixes were gradually abolished over the decades, the last such route in London being the 77A, the LPTB, under Lord Ashfield, assumed responsibility for all bus services in the London Passenger Transport Area, an area with a radius of about 30 miles of central London. This included the London General country buses, Green Line Coaches, London buses continued to operate under the London Transport name from 1933 to 2000, although the political management of transport services changed several times.
The LPTB oversaw transport from 1933 to 1947 until it was re-organised into the London Transport Executive, responsibility for London Transport was subsequently taken over to the London Transport Board, the Greater London Council and London Regional Transport. However, in 1969 legislation was passed to transfer the country services, outside the area of the Greater London Council. Trading under the name London Country the green buses and Green Line Coaches became the responsibility of a new NBC subsidiary, London Country Bus Services, a former network of express buses operated by London Transport in central London was the Red Arrows. The routes, all numbered in the 500s, ran from main line stations to various locations in the West End and City. They were introduced in 1966 and expanded in 1968, but in the 1990s they were phased out. In the 1980s the government of Margaret Thatcher decided to privatise the bus operating industry in the Great Britain and this regime is still in place today, and bus operations in London must be put out to competitive tendering so that routes are operated by a number of private companies
Kuala Lumpur International Airport
Kuala Lumpur International Airport is Malaysias main international airport and one of the major airports in South East Asia. Built at a cost of US$3.5 billion in Sepang district of Selangor, it is located approximately 45 kilometres south of Kuala Lumpur city centre, KLIA is the largest and busiest airport in Malaysia. In 2015, it handled 48,938,424 passengers and 726,230 tonnes of cargo and it is the worlds 23rd-busiest airport by total passenger traffic. The airport is operated by Malaysia Airports Sepang Sdn Bhd and is the hub of Malaysia Airlines, MASkargo, AirAsia, AirAsia X, Malindo Air, UPS Airlines. The construction of the airport was mainly by a few state owned construction companies as well as Ekovest Berhad – helmed by Tan Sri Datuk Lim Kang Hoo. It was created as part of the Multimedia Super Corridor, a development plan for Malaysia. The chief architect who designed the new terminal was the Japanese architect Kisho Kurokawa. Upon KLIAs completion, Subang Airports Terminal 1 building was demolished, Malaysia Airports agreed to redevelop the remaining Terminal 3 to create a specialist airport for turboprop and charter planes surrounded by a residential area and a business park.
The IATA airport code KUL was transferred from Subang Airport, which handles only turboprop aircraft, general aviation. Subang Airports IATA code has since changed to SZB. The airports site spans 100 square kilometres 2, of agricultural land and is one of the worlds largest airport sites. An ambitious three-phase development plan anticipates KLIA to have five runways, Phase One involved the construction of the main terminal and one satellite terminal, giving a capacity of 25 million passengers, and two full service runways. The Phase One airport had sixty contact piers, twenty remote parking bays with eighty aircraft parking positions, four maintenance hangars, Phase Two, designed to increase capacity to 35 million passengers per year is largely complete. Phase Three is anticipated to increase capacity to 100 million passengers per year, the first domestic arrival was Malaysia Airlines flight MH1263 from Kuantan at 07,10 MST. The first international arrival was Malaysia Airlines flight MH188 from Malé International Airport at 07,30 MST.
The first domestic departure was Malaysia Airlines flight MH1432 to Langkawi at 07,20 MST, the inauguration of the airport was marked with problems. Aerobridge and bay allocation systems broke down, queues built up throughout the airport, bags were lost and there were waits of over five hours. Most of these issues were remedied eventually, though baggage handling system was plagued with problems until it was put up for a replacement tender in 2007