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Hammer and sickle

The hammer and sickle is a symbol meant to represent proletarian solidarity – a union between the peasantry and working-class. It was first adapted during the Russian Revolution, the hammer represented the workers and the sickle represented the peasants. After World War I and the Russian Civil War, the hammer and sickle became more used as a symbol for labor within the Soviet Union and for international proletarian unity, it was taken up by many communist movements around some with local variations. Today after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the hammer and sickle remains commonplace in Russia and other former union republics, but its display is prohibited in some other former communist countries as well as in countries where communism is banned by law; the hammer and sickle remains commonplace in countries like Vietnam, China which are still communist states. Farm and worker instruments and tools have long been used as symbols for proletarian struggle; the combination of hammer and sickle symbolised the combination of farmers and construction workers.

One example of use prior to its political instrumentalisation by the Soviet Union is found in Chilean currency circulating since 1895. An alternative example is the combination of a plough, with the same meaning. In Ireland, the symbol of the plough remains in use; the Starry Plough banner was used by the Irish Citizen Army, a socialist republican workers' militia. James Connolly, co-founder of the Irish Citizen Army with Jack White, said the significance of the banner was that a free Ireland would control its own destiny from the plough to the stars. A sword is forged into the plough to symbolise the end of war with the establishment of a Socialist International; this was flown by the Irish Citizen Army during the 1916 Easter Rising. In 1917, Vladimir Lenin and Anatoly Lunacharsky held a competition to create a Soviet emblem; the winning design was a hammer and sickle on top of a globe in rays of the sun, surrounded by a wreath of grain and under a five-pointed star, with the inscription "proletariats of the world, unite!" in six languages.

It featured a sword, but Lenin objected, disliking the violent connotations. The winning designer was Yevgeny Ivanovich Kamzolkin. On 6 July 1923, the 2nd session of the Central Executive Committee adopted this emblem; the Coat of Arms of the Soviet Union and the Coats of Arms of the Soviet Republics showed the hammer and sickle, which appeared on the red star badge on the uniform cap of the Red Army uniform and in many other places. Serp i Molot is the name of the Moscow Metallurgical Plant. Serp i Molot is the name of a stop on the electric railway line from Kurski railway station in Moscow to Gorky, featured in Venedikt Yerofeyev's novel, Moscow-Petushki. At the time of creation, the hammer and sickle stood for worker-peasant alliance, with the hammer a traditional symbol of the industrial proletariat and the sickle a traditional symbol for the peasantry, but the meaning has since broadened to a globally recognizable symbol for Marxism, Marxist parties, or socialist states. In the Soviet Union, the hammer and sickle came to take on a gendered meaning, with the sickle coming to be associated with women and the hammer men.

Contrary to the popular belief, the symbol is widely used as a World War II resistance symbol against Nazism in which the Soviet soldiers and citizens died during the war. Two federal subjects of the post-Soviet Russian Federation use the hammer and sickle in their symbols: the Vladimir Oblast has them on its flag and the Bryansk Oblast has them on its flag and coat of arms, the central element of its flag. In addition, the Russian city of Oryol uses the hammer and sickle on its flag; the former Soviet national airline, continues to use the hammer and sickle in its symbol. The hammer and sickle can be found as a logo on most ushanka hats the Soviet-styled ones; the de facto government of Transnistria uses the flag and the emblem of the former Moldavian SSR, which includes the hammer and sickle. The flag can appear without the hammer and sickle in some circumstances, for example on Transnistrian-issued license plates. Three out of the five ruling Communist parties use a hammer and sickle as the party symbol: the Communist Party of China, the Communist Party of Vietnam and the Lao People's Revolutionary Party.

All of these use the yellow-on-red colour scheme. In Laos and Vietnam, the hammer and sickle party flags can be seen flying side-by-side with their respective national flags. Many communist parties around the world use it, including the Communist Party of Greece, the Communist Party of Chile, the Communist Party of Brazil, the Purba Banglar Sarbahara Party from Bangladesh, the Communist Party of Sri Lanka, the Communist Party of India, the Communist Party of India Liberation, the Communist Party of India, the Communist Party of India, the Indian Communist Marxist Party, the Socialist Unity Centre of India, the Egyptian Communist Party, the Communist Party of Pakistan, the Communist Party of Spain, the Communist Party of Denmark, the Nepal Communist Party, the Communist Party of Norway, the Romanian Communist Party, the Lebanese Communist Party, the Communist Party of the Philippines and the Shining Path; the Communist Party of Sweden, the Portuguese Communist Party and the Mexican Communist Party use the hammer and sickle i

Petar V. Kokotovic

Petar V. Kokotovic is professor emeritus in the College of Engineering at the University of California, Santa Barbara, USA, he has made contributions in the areas of adaptive control, singular perturbation techniques, nonlinear control the backstepping stabilization method. Kokotovic’s impact as an educator is evident in the success of his students. Kokotovic was born in Belgrade in 1934, he received his B. S. and M. S. degrees from the University of Belgrade Faculty of Electrical Engineering, his Ph. D. from the USSR Academy of Sciences, Moscow. He was professor at the University of Illinois for 25 years, he joined the University of California, Santa Barbara, in 1991, where he was the founding and long-serving director of the Center for Control, Dynamical Systems and Computation. This center has become a role model of cross-disciplinary education. One of the Center’s achievements is a integrated cross-disciplinary graduate program for electrical and computer and environmental, chemical engineering fields.

At UC Santa Barbara his group developed constructive nonlinear control methods and applied them, with colleagues from MIT, Caltech and United Technologies Research Center, to new jet engine designs. As a long-term industrial consultant, he has contributed to computer controls at Ford and to power system stability at General Electric. For his control systems contributions, Professor Kokotovic has been recognized with the triennial Quazza Medal from the International Federation of Automatic Control, the Control Systems Field Award from the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, the 2002 Richard E. Bellman Control Heritage Award from the American Automatic Control Council, with the citation "for pioneering contributions to control theory and engineering, for inspirational leadership as mentor and lecturer over a period spanning four decades." He is a member of the U. S. National Academy of Engineering, a foreign member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Fellow of IEEE, his honors include the D.

C. Drucker Eminent Faculty Award and two IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control outstanding paper awards." With his 34 Ph. D. students, 20 postdoctoral researchers, other collaborators, Dr. Kokotovic has co-authored numerous papers and eight books. Richard E. Bellman Control Heritage Award, American Automatic Control Council, 2002. IEEE James H. Mulligan, Jr. Education Medal, IEEE, 2001 Foreign member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2011 Member, National Academy of Engineering, 1996 The 1995 IEEE Control Systems Award The 1993 IEEE Outstanding Transactions Paper Award Foreign Expert to Evaluate French National Institute, 1992 IEEE Bode Prize Lecture, 1991 Quazza Medal, Highest Triennial Award, International Federation of Automatic Control, 1990 Grainger Endowed Chair, University of Illinois, Urbana, 1990 D. C. Drucker Eminent Faculty Award, University of Illinois, Urbana, 1987 Outstanding Paper Award, IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, 1984 Lecturer at the French National Seminar on "New Tools for Control," Paris, 1982 Fellow of the IEEE, 1980 Backstepping "I.

E. E. E. Bio Page of Petar Kokotovic". Retrieved 2008-01-17


Pooyamkutty is a small town in Ernakulam district, Kothamangalam Taluk, Kuttampuzha panchayat and in the Indian state of Kerala. Pooyamkutty is situated along Pooyamkutty river, a tributary of the Periyar; the nearest Municipality is Kothamangalam, 27KM away from Pooyamkutty and takes one hour travelling time. Pooyamkutty is known for a hydroelectric project by KSEB; the project was designed to build a hydroelectric power station at Peendimedu waterfall, 8 kilometres deep inside the forest from Pooyamkutty. It was abandoned in 1990s; the project was designed to make an installed capacity of 1000MW, similar to Idukki dam changed to 210MW and subsequently abandoned due to environmental and financial issues by the government of India. Private buses are used as the first medium of transportation from the nearest town Kothamangalam which pass through Pooyamkutty and lead to Manikandamchal followed by Vellaramkuthu. Manikandamchal is occupied by farmers and Vellaramkuthu is by'Adivasi' people. Manikandamchal bridge connects Pooyamkutty to Manikandamchal, built in 2002, considered as a great addition by farmers staying in Manikandamchal and Kallelumedu.

This is only possible way to access the nearest town. Many of the locations used in the Mohanlal movies Pulimurugan and Shikkar are filmed at Pooyamkutty. Kuttampuzha Kothamangalam

Overlay journal

An overlay journal or overlay ejournal is a type of open access academic journal always an online electronic journal, that does not produce its own content, but selects from texts that are freely available online. While many overlay journals derive their content from preprint servers, such as the Lund Medical Faculty Monthly, contain papers published by commercial publishers, but with links to self-archived preprint or postprints when possible; the editors of an overlay journal locate suitable material from open access repositories and public domain sources, read it, evaluate its worth. This evaluation may take the form of the judgement of a single editor or editors, or a full peer review process. Public validation of subsequently approved. At its most formal, the editor may republish the article with explicit approval. Approval might take the form of an addition to its metadata. Or the editor may link to the article, via the table of contents of the overlay journal. An alternative approach is to link to articles published in various open access ejournals, but adding value by grouping scattered articles together as a single themed issue of the overlay journal.

Such themed issues allow the focussed coverage of obscure or newly emerging topics. is an initiative by the Center for Direct Scientific Communication to host overlay journals. The term'overlay journal' was first coined by Paul Ginsparg in 1996; that same year, the journal began to link to pre-prints that they had accepted, but not yet published. It was not until that the first overlay journals were founded, including Journal of High Energy Physics, Logical Methods in Computer Science and Geometry and Topology, all of which were overlays for arXiv. Open Video Project: Overlay Journal prototype demonstration "Investigating overlay journals: introducing the RIOJA Project". D-Lib Magazine. September/October 2007 Lund Medical Faculty Monthly Gibney, Elizabeth. "Open journals that piggyback on arXiv gather momentum". Nature. Doi:10.1038/nature.2015.19102. Retrieved 30 August 2016

Melodic learning

Melodic Learning is a multimodal learning method that uses the defining elements of singing to facilitate the capture and retrieval of information. Recognized examples of Melodic Learning include using the alphabet song to learn the alphabet and This Old Man to learn counting. In 2004, Dr. Susan Homan, Dr. Robert Dedrick and doctoral student, Marie C. Biggs of the University of South Florida's College of Education began researching the use of a non-standard approach to reading remediation that used repeated singing of grade leveled songs with struggling, middle school readers; when the results of their pilot study as well as further research over the following five years showed significant gains, Dr. Homan, et al. began searching the literature for an explanation as to why this non-traditional approach was effective. After reviewing recent findings in the fields of literacy and anthropology, Dr. Homan, in collaboration with Dr. Eliot Levinson, identified this use of repeated singing to accelerate learning as a form of, "Melodic Learning".

Dr. Homan posits that other forms of Melodic Learning include the singing of hymns in organized religions and the use of oral tradition to pass on important information from generation to generation in pre-literate societies Melodic learning combines melody with visual imagery to enhance learning. Melodic learning is an extension of Multimedia Learning Theory because it focuses on the addition of music to learning. Research indicates that multiple types of media have positive effects on a learner however, multimedia learning can encompass as few as two senses whereas melodic learning explores how music embeds learning deeper into the human brain; the neuroscience about how music affects learning is a new area of research. Music is a part of every known culture including in the distant past. Dr. Patel’s research links music to linguistics, to early learning, to language learning, to literacy learning. Music engages all of the following brain functions: Emotion Memory Learning and Plasticity Attention Motor control Pattern perception Imagery Learning with Sesame Street on the television is an example of melodic learning.

Through Sesame Street, young children experience and advance emergent literacy processes through poems, chants, word games and singing songs. Several of the principles of literacy learning interact. Rhyming and singing are high-level multi-modal interactions of visual, auditory/aural, kinesthetic modalities. Rhythmic and tonal processing contribute to the success of this learning process. Jumping rope is an example of melodic learning. Tonal, rhythmic and visual elements interplay as children sing and rhyme; the rope’s motion supplies the kinesthetic element to enhance the process. This may explain why many children learn jump rope rhymes faster and retain them longer than they do for many of their classroom lessons. A combination of five specific modalities or Learning styles affect how a child learns while playing or while watching Sesame Street or jumping rope: Aural - The child says and processes audio content as he listens to Grover singing a song on Sesame Street. Visual – The child sees and processes the images of Grover and what he is singing about.

Kinesthetic learning– The child is animated singing, while processing the audio and visual content from Grover’s song. Rhythmic – As the melody and accompaniment to the song are played, the child feels both the rhythm of the song and the rhythm of the language; this feeling of the rhythm can lead to kinesthetic involvement. Tonal – The child feels the beat of the music and is moved to sing along. Singing encourages the child to modulate her tone. Tone or pitch helps transmit the meaning; the integration of these modalities creates more powerful and permanent measurable learning outcomes and can accelerate learning struggling learners. Melodic learning appears to derive its effectiveness from the special nature of music and singing's activity pattern in the human brain. A series of books published in the 2000s by noted neuroscientists document the unique relationship between music and our brains, including Musicophilia by Oliver Sacks, This Is Your Brain On Music by Daniel Levitin, Music and the Brain by Aniudh Patel.

An earworm is a portion of a song. As as 2005, researchers discovered that the earworm is engraved in the auditory cortex and retrieved. Industrial psychologists have made good use of this link between music and learning by creating catchy jingles to sell products. More earworms are being used in training products. Nearly every civilization uses music to share information. Australia’s aboriginal tribesmen used songs to detail complex routes to important places. Although this was not a feat of memory alone and that rock art serve as tangible manuscripts for these musicians. In Africa, drums were used to communicate. Throughout Europe roving minstrels and troubadours sang ballads retelling the news and politics of the day. In churches and mosques, chanted prayers etch religious words into memory; the connection between music and learning runs deep inside the brain. The patterns reinforce each other resulting in a greater learning effect. Adults and children can recognize a wrong note in a simple melody.

If one note of the simple five-note opening to The Star-Spangled Banner is played incorrectly, those who’ve heard the song before can recognize that it is wrong. Westerners recognize standard chord progressions that are “wrong” though they have never heard them before. Researchers link the phenomena of identifying the wrong note and identifying t

Tant que tu es là

"Tant que tu es là" is a song written by Alexandra Maquet and Mark Weld, recorded by Australian singer Tina Arena. The song was released in November 2017 as the lead single from Arena's third French language studio album Quand tout Recommence, it is the first original French-language material released by Arena since her 2008 album 7 vies and marks the beginning of her collaboration with French record label Play Two. After the French release of concept record Love & Loss in 2015 and the end of her collaboration with Capitol Records, Tina Arena focused on her Australian career and celebrated four decades in the entertainment industry with the retrospective record Greatest Hits & Interpretations. On 21 August 2017, Arena announced on her Instagram account that she had completed the recording of her next French-language album, that 2018 would mark her return to musical theatre as the titular character in the Sydney Opera House production of Evita; the first teaser for the song appeared on social networks on 30 October 2017 with the caption "Bientôt".

The music video for the song was directed by French director Julien Bloch and released on 17 November 2017. It mixes footage of Arena performing in a studio setting between ceiling-high white veil curtains with images of human bonding, happy or sad, which portray love, family ties, enduring friendship, physical effort, human support through illness or disability; such images are shown on the curtains and the walls surrounding the singer