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Hammond organ

The Hammond organ is an electric organ invented by Laurens Hammond and John M. Hanert and first manufactured in 1935. Various models have been produced; until 1975, Hammond organs generated sound by creating an electric current from rotating a metal tonewheel near an electromagnetic pickup, strengthening the signal with an amplifier to drive a speaker cabinet. The organ is used with the Leslie speaker. Around two million Hammond organs have been manufactured; the organ was marketed by the Hammond Organ Company to churches as a lower-cost alternative to the wind-driven pipe organ, or instead of a piano. It became popular with professional jazz musicians in organ trios, small groups centered on the Hammond organ. Jazz club owners found. Jimmy Smith's use of the Hammond B-3, with its additional harmonic percussion feature, inspired a generation of organ players, its use became more widespread in the 1960s and 1970s in rhythm and blues, rock and progressive rock. In the 1970s, the Hammond Organ Company switched to integrated circuits.

These organs were less popular, the company went out of business in 1985. The Hammond name was purchased by the Suzuki Musical Instrument Corporation, which proceeded to manufacture digital simulations of the most popular tonewheel organs; this culminated in the production of the "New B-3" in 2002, a recreation of the original B-3 organ using digital technology. Hammond-Suzuki continues to manufacture a variety of organs for both professional players and churches. Companies such as Korg and Clavia have achieved success in providing more lightweight and portable emulations of the original tonewheel organs; the sound of a tonewheel Hammond can be emulated using modern software such as Native Instruments B4. A number of distinctive Hammond organ features are not found on other keyboards like the piano or synthesizer; some are similar to a pipe organ. Most Hammond organs have two 61-note keyboards called manuals; as with pipe organ keyboards, the two manuals are arrayed on two levels close to each other.

Each is laid out in a similar manner to a piano keyboard, except that pressing a key on a Hammond results in the sound continuously playing until it is released, whereas with a piano, the note's volume decays. No difference in volume occurs regardless of how or the key is pressed, so overall volume is controlled by a pedal; the keys on each manual have a lightweight action, which allows players to perform rapid passages more than on a piano. In contrast to piano and pipe organ keys, Hammond keys have a flat-front profile referred to as "waterfall" style. Early Hammond console models had sharp edges, but starting with the B-2, these were rounded, as they were cheaper to manufacture; the M series of spinets had waterfall keys, but spinet models had "diving board" style keys which resembled those found on a church organ. Modern Hammond-Suzuki models use waterfall keys. Hammond console organs come with a wooden pedalboard played for bass notes. Most console Hammond pedalboards have 25 notes, with the bottom note a low C and the top note a middle C two octaves higher.

Hammond used a 25-note pedalboard because he found that on traditional 32-note pedalboards used in church pipe organs, the top seven notes were used. The Hammond Concert models E, RT, RT-2, RT-3 and D-100 had 32-note American Guild of Organists pedalboards going up to the G above middle C as the top note; the RT-2, RT-3 and D-100 contained a separate solo pedal system that had its own volume control and various other features. Spinet models have 12- or 13-note miniature pedalboards; the sound on a tonewheel Hammond organ is varied through the manipulation of drawbars. A drawbar is a metal slider that controls the volume of a particular sound component, in a similar way to a fader on an audio mixing board; as a drawbar is incrementally pulled out, it increases the volume of its sound. When pushed all the way in, the volume is decreased to zero; the labeling of the drawbar derives from the stop system in pipe organs, in which the physical length of the pipe corresponds to the pitch produced. Most Hammonds contain nine drawbars per manual.

The drawbar marked "8′" generates the fundamental of the note being played, the drawbar marked "16′" is an octave below, the drawbars marked "4′", "2′" and "1′" are one and three octaves above, respectively. The other drawbars generate various other subharmonics of the note. While each individual drawbar generates a pure sound similar to a flute or electronic oscillator, more complex sounds can be created by mixing the drawbars in varying amounts; some drawbar settings have associated with certain musicians. A popular setting is 888000000, has been identified as the "classic" Jimmy Smith sound. In addition to drawbars, many Hammond tonewheel organ models include presets, which make predefined drawbar combinations available at the press of a button. Console organs have one octave of reverse colored keys to the left of each manual, with each key activating a preset; the two right-most preset keys activate the corresponding set of drawbars for that manual, while the other preset keys prod

Pantherophis alleghaniensis

Pantherophis alleghaniensis called the eastern ratsnake, is a nonvenomous colubrid species endemic to North America. Additional common names for the eastern rat snake include black rat snake, pilot snake, pilot black snake, chicken snake. Pantherophis alleghaniensis is found in the United States east of the Apalachicola River in Florida, east of the Chattahoochee River in Georgia, east of the Appalachian Mountains, north to southeastern New York and western Vermont, eastern Pennsylvania, South Carolina, North Carolina, south to the Florida Keys. In the Florida Panhandle, it hybridizes with the gray rat snake. Adult snakes measure 90 to 180 cm in total length, with a few exceeding 200 cm; the longest recorded total length to date is 230 cm. Adults are shiny black dorsally, with white chin and throat; the belly has an irregular black and white checkerboard pattern, becoming uniformly slate gray towards the tail. Juveniles have dark dorsal blotches on a grayish ground color; the ventral pattern in juveniles is the same as in adults.

The eyes are round with a black pupil, in juveniles but not always present in adults, a distinct white margin. The dorsal scales are weakly keeled, are arranged in 23 to 27 rows at midbody. Males and females have the same coloration. Males have proportionally longer tails compared to females; the eastern rat snake occurs in a variety of habitats. These include farmlands, hardwood forests, forested wetlands and fields adjacent to forests, isolated urban woodlots and backyards that support populations of prey species. Eastern rat snakes do well in early successional and edge habitats. An arboreal species, the snakes can get into human residences, where they may live in attics undetected. At the northern limits of their range, distribution appears to be restricted by the availability of suitable hibernating sites. In these climates, the snakes require southern exposures to receive maximal thermal benefit from the winter sun and to provide basking areas in early spring and late fall; the eastern rat snake is active at night during the summer, diurnal in the spring and fall.

It is a terrestrial burrower and an excellent climber, it may enter water. It is found under rocks and boards, in trees under bark and within knot holes and palm fronds; the snake is a constrictor, adults eat endotherms while young eat ectotherms. The diet includes rodents, lizards and birds and their eggs; the snakes can eat young chickens and chicks, hence the common name chicken snake. Rat snakes are most vulnerable to predators as juveniles. Predators of P. alleghaniensis include hawks, great horned owls, foxes and domestic cats. Adult eastern rat snakes have few known predators other than humans; when frightened, a rat snake will freeze. If harassed, it will produce a foul-smelling musk to deter predators. If provoked further, it may coil, shake its tail, snap at its attacker; the snakes hibernate in deep crevices. They may congregate in the same dens with other species of snakes, such as copperheads, eastern racers and timber rattlesnakes. In Northern climes, the snakes are active from mate in May or June.

It is active earlier in the South. Rat snakes reach sexual maturity in their fourth year; the snakes start to breed in June, earlier in the South. Males may combat other males before breeding. About five weeks after mating, the female lays 5 to 27 eggs in hollow standing and fallen trees and mulch heaps, sawdust piles, decomposing logs. Incubation is about two months, eggs hatch from July through September. Hatchlings are just over a foot long at birth, with the distinct gray and black pattern characteristic of juveniles. Pantherophis alleghaniensis has sometimes been considered a subspecies of Pantherophis obsoletus, to which it is related; this species has been placed in the genus Elaphe, but recent phylogenetic analyses have resulted in its transfer to Pantherophis. Holbrook JE. North American Herpetology. Vol. I. Philadelphia: J. Dobson. 120 pp.. Jan G, Sordelli F. Iconographie générale des Ophidiens: Vingt-quatrième livraison. Paris: Baillière. Index + Plates I-VI... Pantherophis alleghaniensis at the Reptile Database.

Accessed 29 November 2008

Adams, Minnesota

Adams is a city in Adams Township, Mower County, United States. The population was 787 at the 2010 census. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.01 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2010, there were 787 people, 304 households, 188 families living in the city; the population density was 779.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 330 housing units at an average density of 326.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 98.3% White, 0.5% from other races, 1.1% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.7% of the population. There were 304 households of which 28.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.7% were married couples living together, 7.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.6% had a male householder with no wife present, 38.2% were non-families. 34.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 20.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.30 and the average family size was 2.95.

The median age in the city was 46.6 years. 21.3% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 53.6 % female. As of the census of 2000, there were 800 people, 329 households, 208 families living in the city; the population density was 791.6 people per square mile. There were 351 housing units at an average density of 347.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 99.25% White, 0.12% Native American, 0.38% Asian, 0.25% from other races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.62% of the population. There were 329 households out of which 24.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.6% were married couples living together, 5.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.5% were non-families. 35.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 24.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.21 and the average family size was 2.85. In the city, the population was spread out with 20.9% under the age of 18, 6.5% from 18 to 24, 19.3% from 25 to 44, 17.0% from 45 to 64, 36.4% who were 65 years of age or older.

The median age was 49 years. For every 100 females, there were 87.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 80.9 males. The median income for a household in the city was $31,289, the median income for a family was $38,125. Males had a median income of $31,083 versus $22,639 for females; the per capita income for the city was $16,550. About 4.4% of families and 6.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.8% of those under age 18 and 8.2% of those age 65 or over. The village of Adams was platted on January 1868 by Selah Chamberlain. A two-room public school was built in 1869 and was expanded to four rooms; the village was incorporated on March 2, 1887. A water works system was installed in the summer of 1897. A volunteer fire department was established as Adams Hose Co. No. 1 in 1898. A sewage system was installed in 1902. A Catholic school was built in 1903 and half of the public school students started attending there relieving overcrowding; the sewage system was updated in 1958.

The town is in the Southland school district, is home to the varsity fields for the teams. Hubert H. Peavey, Wisconsin politician Harvey B. Sathre, Minnesota politician Mill on the Willow: A History of Mower County, Minnesota by various authors. Library of Congress No. 84-062356 Adams official website

Make-up artist

A make-up or makeup artist is an artist whose medium is the human body, applying makeup and prosthetics on others for theatre, film, fashion and other similar productions including all aspects of the modeling industry. Awards given for this profession in the entertainment industry include the Academy Award for Best Makeup and Hairstyling, entertainment industry awards such as the Emmy Awards, the Golden Globes. In some countries professional licenses are required by agencies in order for them to hire the MUA. Bigger production companies have in-house makeup artists on their payroll although most MUA's are freelance and their times remain flexible depending on the projects. FashionFashion makeup is used in magazine photography as well as on the fashion runway. Avant-garde makeup is an applicable technique used for projects that require experimental themes. Fashion makeup is commonly used in television and film ranging for the natural prime look to more sophisticated applications such as color balance.

Theatrical makeupStage makeup is used as a method in conjunction with stage lighting to highlight the actors' faces in order to make expressions visible to the audience from moderate distances. This includes defining the eyes and lips as well as the highlights and lowlights of the facial bones. Special make-up effects The use of special effects techniques enhancing physical features to exhibit metaphysical characteristics as well as fantasy makeup; the use of prosthetics and plaster casting are required for projects that entails non-human appearances. Accents such as theatrical blood and ooze are techniques applicable to this type of makeup. AirbrushingThe use of an airbrush, a small air-operated device that sprays various media some products and water-based makeup by a process of nebulization; the earliest record of this type of cosmetic application dates back to the 1925 film version of Ben-Hur, it has been re-popularized by the advent of HDTV and digital photography, where the camera focuses on higher depths of detail.

Liquid foundations that are high in coverage but thin in consistency are applied with the airbrush for full coverage without a heavy build-up of product. Bridal makeupBridal makeup is a new segment in a makeup artist's repertoire. From ethnic, to glamorous, to contemporary, makeup artists are now an important part of wedding planning in Asia, Europe and North America. High definitionThis is an art which involves the use of light reflectors and ingredients such as minerals to give the skin a flawless finish; this was developed due to the further development of high definition mediums and the cost implications of airbrush makeup. In 1955 the Bollywood group Cine Costume Make-Up Artist & Hair Dressers' Association created a rule that did not allow women to obtain memberships as makeup artists. However, in 2014 the Supreme Court of India ruled that this rule was in violation of the Indian constitutional guarantees granted under Article 14, 19 and Article 21; the judges of the Supreme Court of India stated that the ban on women makeup artist members had no "rationale nexus" to the cause sought to be achieved and was "unacceptable and inconsistent" with the constitutional rights guaranteed to the citizens.

The Court found illegal the rule which mandated that for any artist, female or male, to work in the industry, they must have domicile status of five years in the state where they intend to work. In 2015 it was announced that Charu Khurana had become the first woman to be registered by the Cine Costume Make-Up Artist & Hair Dressers' Association. In June 2014, the Cine Costume Make-Up Artist & Hair Dressers' Association authorised an official protest on the movie set of Bang Bang! in protest of a foreign makeup artist, Daniel Bauer working on the movie for its lead actress, Katrina Kaif. The CCMAA and 15 of its members protested on the movie set as Daniel Bauer was not registered with the Union, despite the Union banning foreign artists working in Bollywood; the issue was resolved with the CCMAA granting Daniel Bauer full membership Makeup artists are not only a part of Bollywood but Marathi Film industry. The great Dadasaheb Phalke created first movie in India named Raja Harishchandra, in 1913.

During this period Dadasaheb created male actors look like female actress with dressing. Today there are many makeup artist in marathi film industry which are recreating the best illusions on screen. Kevyn Aucoin Rick Baker Way Bandy Bobbi Brown John Chambers Nina Flowers Joanne Gair Huda Kattan Jack Pierce Pat McGrath Ve Neill Dick Smith Marco Castro Lon Chaney Lisa Eldridge Jeffree Star NikkieTutorials James Charles Kelly Hanna Gucci Westman Charlotte Tilbury BBC Blast - Becoming a makeup artist

601 Assault Helicopter Battalion

The 601 Assault Helicopter Battalion is a helicopter unit of the Argentine Army. This battalion is the main helicopter unit of the Argentine Army Aviation and is based at Campo de Mayo, Buenos Aires; the unit is composed by Bell Aerospatiale Puma helicopters. It is organised in two assault companies; the battalion works with the infantry unit 601 Air Assault Regiment based at Campo de Mayo. The unit took part in the Falklands War in 1982 with its original name "601 Combat Aviation Battalion". Rapid Deployment Force 601 Air Assault Regiment Argentine Army Aviation Official website Official website Article in "La Nación" newspaper

Tara Lyn Hart (album)

Tara Lyn Hart is the debut album by Canadian country music artist Tara Lyn Hart. It was released by Epic Records on October 5, 1999; the album peaked at number 30 on the RPM Country Albums chart. "Stuff That Matters" – 3:28 "One Heart" – 3:38 "Save Me" – 2:54 "What He Used to Do" – 3:34 "Mine All Mine" – 3:22 "You Can Get There from Here" – 3:25 "That's When You Came Along" – 4:06 "Hearts and Arrows" – 4:07 "You Again" – 3:56 "Baby, What About You" – 3:15 "A Rose Is a Rose" – 4:03 "Love Ought to Work That Way" – 3:03 "Greatest Story" – 3:34 "I Will Be Loving You" – 3:31