The Institution of Engineers Australia shortened to IEAust and/or trading as Engineers Australia, is a professional body and not-for-profit organisation dedicated to being the national forum for the advancement of the engineering field within Australia and a member of Washington Accord. As of 2017, it has around 100,000 members in nine geographic Divisions and five international chapters from all engineering disciplines, including 41,000 Students, 4,400 Engineering Technologists and Engineering Associates, 55,600 Professional Engineers; the members all belong to one or more of nine Colleges covering the different fields of engineering practice. 20,000 members are Chartered Engineers. Engineers Australia's wholly owns Engineering Education Australia and EngInsure. Engineers Australia had a publishing subsidiary Engineers Media which published the organisation's main magazine. Engineers Media ceased operations at the end of August 2015 after the magazine "create" was outsourced to a commercial publisher, Mahlab Media.
The organisation began after World War I, following recognition of the need for a single body to represent engineers, rather than the numerous smaller organisations that existed then. The first council meeting was held in 1919, electing Professor William Warren of the University of Sydney as the first President. On 1 May 1926 the Institution was incorporated as a company limited by guarantee and on 10 March 1938 His Majesty King George the Sixth granted a charter of incorporation to the Institution reconstituting it as a body corporate and politic by Royal Charter; the National Congress is a representative body of some 35 members, which elects and monitors the Board of Engineers Australia. The responsibilities and structure of National Congress are determined by the Royal Charter and By-laws; the Board is Engineers Australia's governing body. It has six members and its role is comparable to that of a company board, it appoints and liaises with the Chief Executive Officer, sets regulations and policies, sets strategic directions, monitors the organisation's financial sustainability and performance.
Each of Engineers Australia's nine divisions is led by a division committee of the division members. A division committee is responsible to and under the direction of the Board. A division group delivers specific services to the members of the Division, within a specific field of practice, area of interest or geographic area; each of Engineers Australia's nine colleges is led by a College Board of the college members. College Boards are under the direction of the Board; the patron of Engineers Australia is the Governor-General of Australia, Sir Peter Cosgrove AK MC. Engineers Australia is the designated assessing authority for engineering occupations as listed by the Department of Immigration and Border Protection. Engineers Australia offers several grades of memberships: Affiliate or Companion: Open to those involved in Engineering but not eligible for the grades below. Grade of Student: Free for students undertaking an Australian accredited or recognised course in engineering. Grade of Graduate: Open to those who have completed an Engineers Australia accredited or recognised tertiary qualification in engineering.
Graduate memberships are available in the following categories: Professional Engineer, Engineering Technologist, Engineering Associate. Grade of Member: Open to those who hold an Engineers Australia accredited or recognised tertiary qualification in engineering, have now gained a number of years experience in the engineering industry; the following categories are available: Professional Engineer, Engineering Technologist, Engineering Associate. Grade of Fellow: Practitioners who have been recognised as being amongst the true leaders of the industry and profession. Fellow membership grades include: Fellow, Technologist Fellow, Associate Fellow. Grade of Honorary Fellow: A person who has rendered conspicuous service to the profession of engineering or is eminent in engineering or an allied science, or is a distinguished person whom the Council desires to honour, either for having rendered conspicuous service to the Australian people or in recognition of outstanding achievement. Membership numbers are determined by the National Council and was set to 200 in 2013.
Chartered Status: In Australia, the award of Chartered Engineer Status is exclusive to Engineers Australia. Professional engineers with Chartered Status enjoy recognition by government and the general public worldwide. Chartered Status is open to those in the Member and Honorary Fellow grades of each occupational category. Fellows of the Institution of Engineers Australia include: Members comes from a variety of occupations and specialisations; these standards are concerned with three occupational categories: professional engineer, engineering technologist, engineering associate. The titles of Chartered Professional Engineer, Chartered Engineering Technologist and Chartered Engineering Associate are available to members of Engineers Australia who have demonstrated the required competencies. To be recognised as part as a member, individuals must complete formal educational qualifications formal educational qualifications in engineering, after qualifying, must undertake continuing professional development in their chosen field of engineering to ensure their training remains up to date.
The educational qualifications required are: Professional engineers, at least the equivalent of a four-year, bachelor's degree in engineering. Engineering technologist, at least the equivalent of a three-year, bachelor's degree in engineering. Engineering associate, at least the equivalent of a two-year, associate degree or a diploma or advanced diploma in engineering There is no formal system of regulation for engineers thro
Wagga Wagga is a major regional city in the Riverina region of New South Wales, Australia. Straddling the Murrumbidgee River, with an urban population of more than 54,000 as at the 2016 census, Wagga Wagga is the state's largest inland city, is an important agricultural and transport hub of Australia; the ninth fastest growing inland city in Australia, Wagga Wagga is located midway between the two largest cities in Australia–Sydney and Melbourne–and is the major regional centre for the Riverina and South West Slopes regions. The central business district is focused around the commercial and recreational grid bounded by Best and Tarcutta Streets and the Murrumbidgee River and the Sturt Highway; the main shopping street of Wagga is Baylis Street which becomes Fitzmaurice Street at the northern end. The city is in an alluvial valley and much of the city has a problem with urban salinity; the original inhabitants of the Wagga Wagga region were the Wiradjuri people. In 1829, Charles Sturt became the first European explorer to visit the future site of the city.
Squatters arrived soon after. The town, positioned on the site of a ford across the Murrumbidgee, was surveyed and gazetted as a village in 1849 and the town grew after. In 1870, the town was gazetted as a municipality. During the negotiations leading to the federation of the Australian colonies, Wagga Wagga was a contender for the site of the capital for the new nation. During World War I the town was the starting point for the Kangaroo recruitment march; the Great Depression and the resulting hardship saw Wagga Wagga become the centre of a secession movement for the Riverina region. Wagga Wagga became a garrison town during World War II with the establishment of a military base at Kapooka and Royal Australian Air Force bases at Forest Hill and Uranquinty. After the war, Wagga Wagga was proclaimed as a city in 1946 and new suburbs were developed to the south of the city. In 1982 the city was amalgamated with the neighbouring Kyeamba and Mitchell Shires to form the City of Wagga Wagga local government area.
Wagga Wagga is at the eastern end of the Riverina region where the slopes of the Great Dividing Range flatten and form the Riverina plain. The city straddles the Murrumbidgee River, one of the great rivers of the Murray-Darling Basin, the city centre is on the southern bank, protected by a levee from potential flooding; the city sits halfway between the largest cities in Australia, being 452 kilometres southwest of Sydney and 456 kilometres northeast of Melbourne with the Sydney–Melbourne railway line passing through. The Sturt Highway, part of Australia's National Highway network, passes through the city on its way from Adelaide to its junction with the main Sydney–Melbourne route, the Hume Highway, a further 45 kilometres east; this location astride some of the major transport routes in the nation has made Wagga Wagga an important heavy truck depot for a number of companies including Toll Holdings. Wagga Wagga itself is the major regional centre for the Riverina and for much of the South West Slopes regions, providing education and other services to a region extending as far as Griffith to the west, Cootamundra to the north and Tumut to the east.
Wagga Wagga is upstream from the Riverina plain in the mid-catchment range of the Murrumbidgee River in an alluvial valley confined by low bedrock hills. Much of Wagga Wagga is on heavy clay soils in a large drainage basin with a small catchment discharge point. Groundwater therefore cannot leave leading to Wagga Wagga having a problem with waterlogged soil and soil salination. Urban salination in Wagga Wagga is now the subject of a large multi-pronged approach to prevent further salination and reclaim salt-affected areas; the location of Wagga Wagga's Central business district was well established by the late 1800s and remains focused around the commercial and recreational grid bounded by Best and Tarcutta Streets and the Murrumbidgee River and the Sturt Highway. The main shopping street of Wagga Wagga is Baylis Street which becomes Fitzmaurice Street at the northern end; the Wollundry Lagoon is the water focus of the city centre and has been a key element in the development and separation of the north and south parts of the city centre.
Most residential growth in Wagga Wagga has been on the higher ground to the south of the city centre, with the only residential areas north of the Murrumbidgee being the flood prone suburb of North Wagga Wagga and the university suburb of Estella. Major industrial areas of Wagga Wagga include the northern suburb of Bomen and the eastern suburb of East Wagga Wagga. Thomas Mitchell, the surveyor who served under Lord Wellington named many of the streets after Peninsula War veterans. Wagga Wagga cool to cold winters. Under the Köppen climate classification, the city has a humid subtropical climate, albeit having a semi-arid influence due to its vegetation. At an elevation of 147 metres above sea level, Wagga Wagga has four distinct seasons. Winters can be cold by Australian standards with the mean maximum temperature falling in July to 12.7 °C and a mean minimum of 2.8 °C. The lowest temperature recorded at Wagga was −6.3 °C on 21 August 1982. Fog and heavy frosts are common in the winter while snow is a rare occurrence.
By contrast, summers in Wagga Wagga are warm to hot, with mean maximum temperatures ranging between 29 and 32 °C. The hottest temperature on record is 45.2 °C on 7 February 2009. Relative humidity is low in the summer months with a 3 pm average of around 30%. Wagga Wagga has 124.3 clear days annually. In 2009 the city recorded anomalous maximum of 25.03 °C, 2.33 °C above the country's average of
Roads & Traffic Authority
The Roads & Traffic Authority is a former Australian government agency in New South Wales, responsible for major road infrastructure, licensing of drivers, registration of motor vehicles. The RTA directly managed State roads and provided funding to local councils for regional and local roads. In addition, with assistance from the Federal Government, the RTA previously managed the NSW national highway system; the agency was replaced by NSW Roads and Maritime Services. The Department of Main Roads was created in November 1932; the DMR undertook works across NSW. The DMR was responsible for many ferries and New South Wales bridges. In January 1989 of the Department of Main Roads, Department of Motor Transport, the Traffic Authority were amalgamated into the Roads and Traffic Authority under the Transport Administration Act, No. 109, 1989. On 1 November 2011, the Roads and Traffic Authority in turn was merged with NSW Maritime to become Roads and Maritime Services. Planning and co-ordination functions were transferred to Transport for NSW.
The Roads and Traffic Authority is divided up into six regions: Sydney region encompasses the area of the Sydney metropolitan and the Blue Mountains areas The Hunter Region encompasses the Hunter Region, Central Coast and the southern portion of the Mid North Coast Northern Region extends from about Taree to the Queensland border, goes as far inland as Tamworth, called "New England" Southern Region encompasses the land south east of the ACT and the Illawarra area near Wollongong South West Region encompasses the land west of the Australian Capital Territory to the South Australia border, extending from the Murray River up to around West Wyalong called the Riverina Western Region encompasses the remaining section in the west & north west of the state Roads and Traffic Authority managed 4,787 bridges and 17,623 km of state roads and highways, including 3,105 km of national highways, employs 6,900 staff in more than 180 offices throughout NSW, including 129 Motor Registries Offices. The Roads and Traffic Authority is responsible for the registration of vehicles and the issuing of Drivers licences in New South Wales, including testing and administering of licences.
Additionally, the RTA produces photo cards for identification of non-drivers and issues photographic firearms licences for the New South Wales Police Firearms Registry, security licences for the New South Wales Police, Commercial Agents & Private Inquiry Agents cards and Mobility Parking Permits. Key road building projects that the Roads and Traffic Authority is undertaking either directly, through contractors or via public/private partnerships, include: On-going completion of a four-lane dual carriageway of the Princes Highway from the Jervis Bay turnoff to link up with the Sydney Orbital Network near Mascot and on-going completion of the upgrading of the Pacific Highway to continuous dual carriageway standard between the Sydney Newcastle Freeway and the Queensland border, by 2020. Within NSW, the Transport Management Centre is responsible for managing special events and unplanned incidents and disseminating information to motorists, it is the central point for identifying and directing the response to incidents such as crashes and spills.
It passes on information to the public through the media, the RTA call centre and variable message signs along routes. In 1999 the NSW Transport Management Centre established Traffic Commander and Traffic Emergency Patrol services throughout the Greater Urban Area of Sydney to provide 24-hour 365-day-a-year coverage to "Manage the traffic arrangements around an incident scene and return the road to normal operating conditions with the utmost urgency."Traffic Commanders take command of traffic management arrangements at an incident and liaise with other response agencies such as the Police, assist in clearing the road and minimising the effects and disruption to traffic. Traffic Emergency Patrols vans patrol major road routes and respond to unplanned incidents with the aim of returning the road to normal operating conditions as soon as possible. Both Traffic Commanders and TEP units carry a wide array of traffic management devices such as traffic cones, barrier boards and road signage. Both are permitted to use and display red and blue emergency lighting and are designated as'emergency vehicles'.
Dual carriageway completion on the whole Hume Highway and the Great Western Highway. Lawrence Hargrave Drive North Kiama Bypass Sydney Orbital Network; as part of its duty to provide major road infrastructure, the RTA is responsible for the provision of several car ferries. These ferries are all toll-free, include: Berowra Waters Ferry, across Berowra Waters Lawrence Ferry, across the Clarence River Mortlake Ferry, across the Parramatta River in Sydney Sackville Ferry, across the Hawkesbury River near the village of Sackville Speewa Ferry, across the Murray River between New South Wales and Victoria Ulmarra Ferry, across the Clarence River Webbs Creek Ferry, across the Hawkesbury River in the village of Wisemans Ferry Wisemans Ferry, across the Hawkesbury River in the village of Wisemans Ferry Wymah Ferry, across the Murray River between New South
The Olympic Highway is a rural road in the central western and south-eastern Riverina regions of New South Wales, Australia. The 318-kilometre highway services rural communities and links the Hume Highway with the Mid-Western Highway and provides part of an alternate road link between Sydney and Albury via Bathurst and Cowra as well as servicing Wagga Wagga, linking with the Sturt Highway. A series of trunk routes, the road was named the Olympic Way on 5 July 1963, in honour of part of the path that the Olympic Torch took on its journey from Cowra to Albury for the 1956 Melbourne Olympic Games, it was renamed as the Olympic Highway in 1996, the route between Wagga Wagga and Cowra was used for torch relay for the 2000 Sydney Olympic Games. In spite of its name, the road is not an official highway as classified by NSW Roads & Maritime Services, yet considered a rural road; the Olympic Highway carries the A41 shield for its entire length, the majority of, a single carriageway and includes wider sections within urban areas and some passing lanes.
Where the road passes through suburban areas it accommodates both parking and pedestrian needs of the town shopping centre and highway through traffic. A 2-kilometre section of the highway through Wagga Wagga is a four-lane divided urban road where the highway is concurrent with the Sturt Highway; the highway runs north-south aligned to sections of the Sydney–Melbourne and the Blayney–Demondrille railway lines. The Olympic Highway parallels the Hume Highway to the east and the Newell Highway to the west; the Olympic shares a short concurrency with the Sturt Highway in Wagga Wagga. At its northern terminus in Cowra, the Olympic Highway adjoins the Mid-Western Highway that, from the northeast carries the A41 shield from Bathurst and, from the west carries the State Route B64 shield to Grenfell; the Olympic Highway heads south by west through Koorawatha, Cootamundra, Wagga Wagga, Culcairn towards its southern terminus via a trumpet interchange with the Hume Highway located 18 kilometres north of Albury at Table Top.
The only major river crossing is the Murrumbidgee River, crossed between Boorooma and Wagga via the Gobbagombalin Bridge, at 1.4 kilometres long believed to be the longest continuous-span viaduct in New South Wales, situated about 6 kilometres northwest of the Wagga CBD and opened on 26 July 1997. Prior to the completion of the "Gobba" Bridge, the Olympic Highway followed a route that took it through the Wagga central business district via the Hampden Bridge, a wooden Allan Truss bridge, opened in 1895 and demolished in 2014. Highways in Australia Highways in New South Wales Media related to Olympic Highway at Wikimedia Commons
University of Tasmania
The University of Tasmania is a public research university located in Tasmania, Australia. Founded in 1890, it was the fourth university to be established in Australia. Christ College, one of the university's residential colleges, was founded in 1846 and is the oldest tertiary institution in the country; the University of Tasmania is a sandstone university and is a member of the international Association of Commonwealth Universities and the Association of Southeast Asian Institutions of Higher Learning. The university offers various undergraduate and graduate programs in a range of disciplines, has links with 20 specialist research institutes, cooperative research centres and faculty based research centres; the university's Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies have contributed to the university's multiple 5 rating scores for excellence in research awarded by the Australian Research Council. The University delivers tertiary education at the Australian Maritime College, the national centre for maritime education and research.
The university is regarded for its commitment to excellence in teaching. It was ranked in the top 10 research universities in Australia and in the top two per cent of universities worldwide in the Academic Ranking of World Universities; the University of Tasmania was established on 1 January 1890, after the abolition of overseas scholarships freed up funds. It took over the role of the Tasmanian Council for Education. Richard Deodatus Poulett Harris, who had long advocated for the establishment of the university, became its first warden of the senate; the first degrees to graduates admitted ad eundem gradum and diplomas were awarded in June 1890. The university was offered an ornate sandstone building on the Queens Domain in Hobart the High School of Hobart, though it was leased by others until mid-1892; this became known as University House. Three lecturers began teaching 11 students from 22 March 1893, once University House had been renovated. Parliamentarians branding it an unnecessary luxury made the university's early existence precarious.
The institution's encouragement of female students fuelled criticism. James Backhouse Walker, a local lawyer and Vice-Chancellor, mounted a courageous defence. By the First World War there were over 100 students, several Tasmanian graduates were influential in law and politics. According to Chancellor Sir John Morris, from 1918 until 1939 the institution still'limped along'. Distinguished staff had been appointed, such as historian William Jethro Brown and mathematicians Alexander McAulay and his son Alexander Leicester McAulay, classicist RL Dunbabin, philosopher and polymath Edmund Morris Miller. Housed in the former Hobart High School, facilities were outgrown, but the state government was slow to fund a new campus. In 1914 the university petitioned King George V for Letters Patent; the Letters Patent, sometimes called the Royal Charter, granted the university's degrees status as equivalent to the established universities of the United Kingdom, where such equivalents existed. During the Second World War, while the Optical Munitions Annexe assisted the war effort, local graduates, replacing soldier academics, taught a handful of students.
New post-war staff, many with overseas experience, pressed for removal to adequate facilities at Sandy Bay on an old rifle range. Chancellor Sir John Morris Chief Justice, though a dynamic reformer, antagonised academics by his authoritarianism. Vice-Chancellor Torliev Hytten, an eminent economist, saw contention peak while the move to Sandy Bay was delayed. In a passionate open letter to the premier, Philosophy Professor Sydney Orr goaded the government into establishing the 1955 Royal Commission into the university; the commission's report demanded extensive reform of governing council. Staff were delighted. On 10 May 1949, the university awarded its first Doctor of Philosophy to Joan Munro Ford. Ford worked as a research biologist in the University of Tasmania's Department of Physics between 1940 and 1950. In early 1956 Orr was summarily dismissed for his alleged though denied seduction of a student. A ten-year battle involved academics in Australia and overseas. Orr lost an unfair dismissal action in the Supreme Court of Tasmania and the High Court of Australia.
The Tasmanian Chair of Philosophy was boycotted. In 1966 Orr received some financial compensation from the University, which established a cast-iron tenure system; the latter disappeared with the federal reorganisation of higher education in the late 1980s. In the early 1960s The University of Tasmania at last transferred to a purpose-built new campus at Sandy Bay, though many departments were housed in ex-World War II wooden huts, it profited from increasing federal finance following the 1957 Murray Report. Medical and Agricultural Schools were established and the sciences obtained adequate laboratories. Physics achieved world recognition in astronomy, while other departments attracted good scholars and graduates were celebrated in many fields. Student facilities improved remarkably; the 1965 Martin Report established a traditional role for universities, a more practical role for colleges of advanced education. The Tasmanian Government duly created the Tasmanian College of Advanced Education in 1966 sited on Mount Nelson above the university.
It incorporated The School of Art, the Conservatorium of Music and the Hobart Teachers College. In 1971, a Launceston campus of the TCAE was announced; these were fateful de
New South Wales
New South Wales is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south, South Australia to the west, its coast borders the Tasman Sea to the east. The Australian Capital Territory is an enclave within the state. New South Wales' state capital is Sydney, Australia's most populous city. In September 2018, the population of New South Wales was over 8 million, making it Australia's most populous state. Just under two-thirds of the state's population, 5.1 million, live in the Greater Sydney area. Inhabitants of New South Wales are referred to as New South Welshmen; the Colony of New South Wales was founded as a penal colony in 1788. It comprised more than half of the Australian mainland with its western boundary set at 129th meridian east in 1825; the colony included the island territories of New Zealand, Van Diemen's Land, Lord Howe Island, Norfolk Island. During the 19th century, most of the colony's area was detached to form separate British colonies that became New Zealand and the various states and territories of Australia.
However, the Swan River Colony has never been administered as part of New South Wales. Lord Howe Island remains part of New South Wales, while Norfolk Island has become a federal territory, as have the areas now known as the Australian Capital Territory and the Jervis Bay Territory; the prior inhabitants of New South Wales were the Aboriginal tribes who arrived in Australia about 40,000 to 60,000 years ago. Before European settlement there were an estimated 250,000 Aboriginal people in the region; the Wodi Wodi people are the original custodians of the Illawarra region of South Sydney. Speaking a variant of the Dharawal language, the Wodi Wodi people lived across a large stretch of land, surrounded by what is now known as Campbelltown, Shoalhaven River and Moss Vale; the Bundjalung people are the original custodians of parts of the northern coastal areas. The European discovery of New South Wales was made by Captain James Cook during his 1770 survey along the unmapped eastern coast of the Dutch-named continent of New Holland, now Australia.
In his original journal covering the survey, in triplicate to satisfy Admiralty Orders, Cook first named the land "New Wales", named after Wales. However, in the copy held by the Admiralty, he "revised the wording" to "New South Wales"; the first British settlement was made by. After years of chaos and anarchy after the overthrow of Governor William Bligh, a new governor, Lieutenant-Colonel Lachlan Macquarie, was sent from Britain to reform the settlement in 1809. During his time as governor, Macquarie commissioned the construction of roads, wharves and public buildings, sent explorers out from Sydney and employed a planner to design the street layout of Sydney. Macquarie's legacy is still evident today. During the 19th century, large areas were successively separated to form the British colonies of Tasmania, South Australia and Queensland. Responsible government was granted to the New South Wales colony in 1855. Following the Treaty of Waitangi, William Hobson declared British sovereignty over New Zealand in 1840.
In 1841 it was separated from the Colony of New South Wales to form the new Colony of New Zealand. Charles Darwin visited Australia in January 1836 and in The Voyage of the Beagle records his hesitations about and fascination with New South Wales, including his speculations about the geological origin and formation of the great valleys, the aboriginal population, the situation of the convicts, the future prospects of the country. At the end of the 19th century, the movement toward federation between the Australian colonies gathered momentum. Conventions and forums involving colony leaders were held on a regular basis. Proponents of New South Wales as a free trade state were in dispute with the other leading colony Victoria, which had a protectionist economy. At this time customs posts were common on borders on the Murray River. Travelling from New South Wales to Victoria in those days was difficult. Supporters of federation included the New South Wales premier Sir Henry Parkes whose 1889 Tenterfield Speech was pivotal in gathering support for New South Wales involvement.
Edmund Barton to become Australia's first Prime Minister, was another strong advocate for federation and a meeting held in Corowa in 1893 drafted an initial constitution. In 1898 popular referenda on the proposed federation were held in New South Wales, South Australia and Tasmania. All votes resulted in a majority in favour, but the New South Wales government under Premier George Reid had set a requirement for a higher "yes" vote than just a simple majority, not met. In 1899 further referenda were held in the same states as well as Queensland. All resulted in yes votes with majorities increased from the previous year. New South Wales met the conditions; as a compromise to the question on where the capital was to be located, an agreement was made that the site was to be within New South Wales but not closer than 100 miles from Sydney, while the provisional capital would be Melbourne. The area that now forms the Australian Capital Territory was ceded by New South Wales when Canberra was selected.
In the years after World War I, the high prices enjoyed durin
Road transport or road transportation is a type of transport by using roads. Transport on roads can be grouped into the transportation of goods and transportation of people. In many countries licensing requirements and safety regulations ensure a separation of the two industries. Movement along roads may be by animal such as horse or oxen. Standard networks of roads were adopted by Romans, Persians and other early empires, may be regarded as a feature of empires. Cargo may be transported by trucking companies, while passengers may be transported via mass transit. Defined features of modern roads include defined lanes and signage. Within the United States, roads between regions are connected via the Interstate Highway System; the nature of road transportation of goods depends, apart from the degree of development of the local infrastructure, on the distance the goods are transported by road, the weight and volume of an individual shipment, the type of goods transported. For short distances and light, small shipments a van or pickup truck may be used.
For large shipments if less than a full truckload a truck is more appropriate.. In some countries cargo is transported by road in horse-drawn carriages, donkey carts or other non-motorized mode. Delivery services are sometimes considered a separate category from cargo transport. In many places fast food is transported on roads by various types of vehicles. For inner city delivery of small packages and documents bike couriers are quite common. People are transported on roads. Special modes of individual transport by road such as cycle rickshaws may be locally available. There are specialist modes of road transport for particular situations, such as ambulances; the first methods of road transport were horses, oxen or humans carrying goods over dirt tracks that followed game trail. The Persians built a network of Royal Roads across their empire. With the advent of the Roman Empire, there was a need for armies to be able to travel from one region to another, the roads that existed were muddy, which delayed the movement of large masses of troops.
To resolve this issue, the Romans built lasting roads. The Roman roads used deep roadbeds of crushed stone as an underlying layer to ensure that they kept dry, as the water would flow out from the crushed stone, instead of becoming mud in clay soils; the Islamic Caliphate built tar-paved roads in Baghdad. As states developed and became richer with the Renaissance, new roads and bridges began to be built based on Roman designs. Although there were attempts to rediscover Roman methods, there was little useful innovation in road building before the 18th century. Starting in the early 18th century, the British Parliament began to pass a series of acts that gave the local justices powers to erect toll-gates on the roads, in exchange for professional upkeep; the toll-gate erected at Wade's Mill became the first effective toll-gate in England. The first scheme that had trustees who were not justices was established through a Turnpike Act in 1707, for a section of the London-Chester road between Foothill and Stony Stafford.
The basic principle was that the trustees would manage resources from the several parishes through which the highway passed, augment this with tolls from users from outside the parishes and apply the whole to the maintenance of the main highway. This became the pattern for the turnpiking of a growing number of highways, sought by those who wished to improve flow of commerce through their part of a county; the quality of early turnpike roads was varied. Although turnpiking did result in some improvement to each highway, the technologies used to deal with geological features and the effects of weather were all in their infancy. Road construction improved initially through the efforts of individual surveyors such as John Metcalf in Yorkshire in the 1760s. British turnpike builders began to realize the importance of selecting clean stones for surfacing while excluding vegetable material and clay, resulting in more durable roads. By the late 18th and early 19th centuries, new methods of highway construction had been pioneered by the work of three British engineers, John Metcalf, Thomas Telford and John Loudon McAdam, by the French road engineer Pierre-Marie-Jérôme Trésaguet.
The first professional road builder to emerge during the Industrial Revolution was John Metcalf, who constructed about 180 miles of turnpike road in the north of England, from 1765. He believed a good road should have good foundations, be well drained and have a smooth convex surface to allow rainwater to drain into ditches at the side, he understood the importance of good drainage, knowing it was rain that caused most problems on the roads. Pierre-Marie-Jérôme Trésaguet established the first scientific approach to road building in France at the same time, he wrote a memorandum on his method in 1775. It involved a layer of large rocks, covered by a layer of smaller gravel; the lower layer improved on Roman practice in that it was based on the understanding that the purpose of this layer is to transfer the weight of the road and its traffic to the ground, while protecting the ground from deformation by spreading the weight evenly. Therefore, the sub-base did not have to be a self-supporting structure.
The upper running surface provided a smooth surface for vehicles while protecting the large stones of the sub-base. The surveyor and engineer Thomas Telford made substantial advances in the engineering of new roads and the construction of bridges, his method of road building involved the digging of a large trench in