Hampden Park

Hampden Park is a football stadium in the Mount Florida area of Glasgow, Scotland. The 51,866-capacity venue serves as the national stadium of football in Scotland, it is the normal home venue of the Scotland national football team and Scottish League Two club Queen's Park. Hampden hosts the latter stages of the Scottish Cup and Scottish League Cup competitions and has been used for music concerts and other sporting events, such as when it was reconfigured as an athletics stadium for the 2014 Commonwealth Games. There were two 19th century stadia called Hampden Park, built on different sites. A stadium on the present site was first opened on 31 October 1903. Hampden was the biggest stadium in the world when it was opened, with a capacity in excess of 100,000; this was increased further between 1927 and 1937, reaching a peak of 150,000. The record attendance of 149,415, for a Scotland v England match in 1937, is the European record for an international football match. Tighter safety regulations meant that the capacity was reduced to 81,000 in 1977.

The stadium has been renovated since with the most recent work being completed in 1999. The stadium houses the offices of the Scottish Football Association and Scottish Professional Football League. Hampden has hosted prestigious sporting events, including three European Cup / Champions League finals, two Cup Winners' Cup finals and a UEFA Cup final. Hampden is a UEFA category four stadium and it is served by the nearby Mount Florida and King's Park railway stations. Queen's Park, the oldest club in Scottish football, have played at a venue called Hampden Park since October 1873; the first Hampden Park was overlooked by a nearby terrace named after Englishman John Hampden, who fought for the roundheads in the English Civil War. Queen's Park played at the first Hampden Park for 10 years beginning with a Scottish Cup tie on 25 October 1873; the ground hosted the first Scottish Cup Final, in 1874, a Scotland v England match in 1878. The club moved to the second Hampden Park, 150 yards from the original, because the Cathcart District Railway planned a new line through the site of the ground's western terrace.

A lawn bowling club at the junction of Queen's Drive and Cathcart Road marks the site of the first Hampden. The second Hampden Park opened in October 1884, it became a regular home to the Scottish Cup Final, but Celtic Park shared some of the big matches including the Scotland v England fixture in 1894. In the late 1890s, Queen's Park requested more land for development of the second Hampden Park; this was refused by the landlords. Henry Erskine Gordon agreed to sell 12 acres of land off Somerville Drive to Queen's Park in November 1899. James Miller designed twin grandstands along the south side of the ground with a pavilion wedged in between; the natural slopes were shaped to form banks of terracing, designed by Archibald Leitch. Construction of the new ground took over three years to complete. In response, the terraces at Hampden were set in the earthwork and innovative techniques were used to control spectators. Third Lanark A. C. renamed it Cathkin Park. The club rebuilt the ground from scratch due to a failure to agree a fee for the whole stadium.

Third Lanark went out of business in 1967 and Cathkin Park is now a public park with much of the original terracing still evident. Hampden Park was the biggest stadium in the world from its opening in 1903 until it was surpassed by the Maracanã in 1950. Along with Celtic Park and Ibrox, the city of Glasgow possessed the three largest football stadia in the world at the time Hampden opened. In the stadium's first match, on 31 October 1903, Queen's Park defeated Celtic 1–0 in the Scottish league; the first Scottish Cup Final played at the ground was an Old Firm match in 1904, attracting a record Scottish crowd of 64,672. The first Scotland v England match at the ground was played in April 1906 with 102,741 people in attendance, which established Hampden as the primary home of the Scotland team. Attendances continued to increase during the remainder of the 1900s, as 121,452 saw the 1908 Scotland v England match; the two Old Firm matches played for the 1909 Scottish Cup Final attracted a total of 131,000.

After the second match there was a riot because there was confusion over what would happen next when the second match ended in a draw. The fans believed that the replay would be played to a conclusion and demanded that a period of extra time be played; the Scottish Cup trophy was withheld. In response to the riot, the Scottish Football Association decided to stop using Hampden as the Scottish Cup Final venue. Queen's Park conducted extensive ground improvements after the 1909 riot. A new world record of 127,307 were in attendance to see Scotland play England in 1912. A fire in 1914 destroyed the pavilion, replaced by a four-storey structure with a press box on the roof; the Scottish Cup Final returned to Hampden in 1920, when a large crowd of 95,000 saw Kilmarnock win the cup against Albion Rovers. Record crowds attended the 1925 Scottish Cup Final, a 5–0 win for Celtic against Rangers, the 1927 Scotland v England match, England's first win in the stadium. Hampden became the sole venue of the Scottish Cup Final after 1925 except in the 1990s when it was being renovated.

Queen's Park purchased more land in 1923 to bring the total to 33 acres. 25,000 places were added to the terraces and rigid crush barriers were installed in 1927. World record crowds attended Scotland matches against England in 1931 and 1933. In 1933, who had beaten Scotland 5–0 in Vie

Fat Leonard scandal

The Fat Leonard scandal is a corruption scandal and ongoing investigation within the United States Navy involving ship support contractor Glenn Defense Marine Asia, a subsidiary of the Glenn Marine Group. The Washington Post called the scandal "perhaps the worst national-security breach of its kind to hit the Navy since the end of the Cold War." At the heart of the scandal was Glenn Defense Marine Asia, a firm run by Leonard Glenn Francis, a Malaysian national known as "Fat Leonard" for his over 350 pound weight. Francis provided at least a half million dollars in cash, plus travel expenses, luxury items, prostitutes to a large number of U. S. uniformed officers of the United States Seventh Fleet, who in turn gave him classified material about the movements of U. S. ships and submarines, confidential contracting information, information about active law enforcement investigations into Glenn Defense Marine Asia. Francis "exploited the intelligence for illicit profit, brazenly ordering his moles to redirect aircraft carriers to ports he controlled in Southeast Asia so he could more bilk the Navy for fuel, barges, food and sewage removal."

The Navy, through GDMA employed divers to search harbors for explosives. He directed them to author "Bravo Zulu" memos, an informal term for a letter of commendation from the Navy given to civilians who have performed outstanding services for the Navy, in order to bolster GDMA's credibility for jobs "well done"; the first activities of the conspiracy were confirmed to have existed in 2006 when Francis recruited numerous Navy personnel to engage in corruption, including directing contracts toward his firm, disfavoring competitors, inhibiting legitimate fiscal and operational oversight. The initial co-conspirators labelled themselves "the cool kids" and "the wolf pack."U. S. federal prosecutors filed criminal charges against 33 people in connection with the Fat Leonard scandal. Of those, 22 pleaded guilty: Francis himself, four of his top aides, 17 Navy officials. Nine others are awaiting trial in U. S. district court in San Diego. Separately, five Navy officers were charged with crimes under the Uniform Code of Military Justice and have been subject to court-martial proceedings.

An additional civilian pleaded guilty to a scandal-related crime in Singapore court. Suffering health problems, Francis was hospitalized and released in March 2018. Rather than returning to the custody of the U. S. Marshals Service, he was granted a medical furlough and allowed to stay in San Diego at a private residence owned by one of his physicians, under 24-hour surveillance for which his family paid. At a deposition taken in 2018 in the David A. Morales case, Francis said he is being treated for kidney cancer. In 1989, when he was 21, Francis had been sentenced to three years in jail in Malaysia for firearms possession. In 2006, Dave Schauss, a NCIS investigator, became suspicious of GDMA contracts, but Francis was alerted by an informant, Paul Simpkins, to the scrutiny. Simpkins, a decorated veteran of the U. S. Air Force employed as a civilian contracting officer by the Navy in Singapore, managed to quash any inquiry and had Schauss' position eliminated. "What else could I have done to expose this racket?," Schauss asked.

Exposed as a whistleblower, he said officers, "made my life hell" after discovering he had attempted to initiate an investigation of GDMA. In 2007, the Navy's Inspector General forwarded a document claiming GDMA was grossly overcharging the Navy for providing port security but NCIS may have failed to follow up the warning. According to a senior Navy officer, "Everybody knew, under investigation." "Everybody knew that nothing happened with those investigations." After that, the Manila NCIS office got an anonymous letter and documents, alleging GDMA had overcharged for fees, armed guards and other services during a Subic Bay, Philippines port visit by the Fred Stockham container support ship. "I hope you share the same concern when reading these documents and take swift action to stamp out this fraud and abuse," the letter said. Manila's NCIS agents forwarded the paperwork to the Navy's Singapore contracting office, but it had been infiltrated by GDMA's moles, they claimed the allegations were false, closing the case.

Mike Lang, a contracting officer who worked there from 2006 to 2008, said, "They'd always side with Glenn Defense and paint us as troublemakers. They'd say,'Why are you harassing our contractors? You're making my job hard'." Two officials from that office and his subordinate, Sharon Gursharan Kaur, a civilian Navy contracting officer, as well as a former GDMA employee, were sentenced to six years and 33 months the latter doing her time in Singapore. NCIS opened and closed as many as 27 investigations without taking action against GDMA. NCIS has yet to provide an explanation for this lack of action in a significant fraud investigation. Documents obtained by the Washington Post via Freedom of Information Act Requests revealed that after al-Qaeda committed the October 2000 suicide attack on the USS Cole and the September 11, 2001 attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, the Navy's Economic Crimes unit was reduced from a staff of 140 to only nine persons, most having been reassigned to focus on terrorism.

At least 27 separate investigations had been opened, but closed without action, thanks to the intervention of senior Navy personnel who were in league with Francis. The lack of enthusiasm for oversight might have been motivated in part by GDMA's demonstrable ability to deliver the sometimes complex level of


Cviček is a Slovenian wine from the Lower Carniola region of Slovenia. It is a unique wine, composed of different grape varieties including both white and red grape species, it has a low alcoholic content of 8.5% to 10%. Despite its long history of being known as a sour and poor wine, it has become a popular drink with both local people and visitors to the region. In the Middle Ages the Lower Carniola was a constituent part of the March of Carniola, its wine was named Marvin, mentioned by Valvasor, a seventeenth-century Slovenian historian. With the abolition of old viticultural system, people started to neglect vineyards, vine decay grew larger and larger and concomitantly, wine quality started to drop gradually. Becoming more and more sour, people referred to it as cviček and somehow the name stuck also because of the synonymous German expression zwikt. After gaining independence the people living in Lower Carniola began to defend the quality of the wine, today it has become a popular casual drink for locals and visitors alike.

Cviček is produced by a complex process where a mixture of different varieties of grapes are added together to create the final product. The main ingredient of the wine is Žametna Črnina, it is an old wine type which requires a lot of sun. Despite this, it does not contain a high amount of sugar but does have enough acidic qualities to be the basic ingredient. Žametna is the oldest type of grape vine in Europe, being at least 400 years old, it grows in the ancient part of Maribor. Modra Frankinja or Blue Franconian, as it is known, is another wine which makes up Cviček and this gives the wine its full flavour. Kraljevina, is added, a white wine and is used to change the acidity level so that the wine is more drinkable. Laški Rizling, or Italian Riesling, can be added; this is because there is no exact formula to Cviček and so every Cviček Winemaker has their own taste of Cviček, unique to their vineyard. The alcohol level can be altered but can not be any more than 10% volume, it can be an issue during hot seasons which creates more sugar in the grapes, because this means a higher alcohol volume during the wine making process.

To counterbalance this, the amount of Žametovka is increased as this has a much lower alcohol content. It is common for Cviček to have a characteristic acidity; some might say it would be inappropriate to make it sweeter in order to gain wider acceptance, but acidic taste goes great with traditional hearty Slovenian food. As with other red wines, a number of health effects are claimed. Among other wines, it has a low level of sugar and a low alcohol level; this means it can be drunk by diabetics, the calorie content is low by comparison with most other wines. Some examples of health claims for red wine include reduced cardiovascular risks. Regular consumption has been claimed to prevent heart attacks. Several studies have concluded that regular consumption of red wine such as Cviček improves the antioxidant activity of the blood and prevents the aggregation of blood platelets, thus reducing the risk for a stroke or heart attack. In that sense, ethyl alcohol in the wine acts to a solvent. Scientists examining cancer occurrence and development have found many anti-tumour substances in red wine