Hampshire is a county in southern England. The county town is the city of Winchester, its two largest cities and Portsmouth, are administered separately as unitary authorities. First settled about 14,000 years ago, Hampshire's history dates to Roman Britain, when its chief town was Winchester; when the Romans left Britain, the area was infiltrated by tribes from Scandinavia and mainland Europe, principally in the river valleys. The county was recorded in the 11th century Domesday Book, divided into 44 hundreds. From the 12th century, the ports grew in importance, fuelled by trade with the continent and cloth manufacture in the county, the fishing industry, a shipbuilding industry was established. By the 16th century, the population of Southampton had outstripped that of Winchester. By the mid-19th century, with the county's population at 219,210 in more than 86,000 dwellings, agriculture was the principal industry and 10 per cent of the county was still forest. Hampshire played a crucial military role in both World Wars.

The Isle of Wight part of Hampshire, became a separate ceremonial county in 1974. The county's geography is varied, with upland to 286 metres and south-flowing rivers. There are areas of downland and marsh, two national parks: the New Forest, part of the South Downs, which together cover 45 per cent of Hampshire. Hampshire is one of the most affluent counties in the country, with an unemployment rate lower than the national average, its economy derived from major companies, maritime and tourism. Tourist attractions include the national parks and the Southampton Boat Show; the county is known as the home of writers Jane Austen and Charles Dickens, the childhood home of Florence Nightingale and the birthplace of engineer Isambard Kingdom Brunel. Hampshire takes its name from the settlement, now the city of Southampton. Southampton was known in Old English as Hamtun meaning "village-town", so its surrounding area or scīr became known as Hamtunscīr; the old name was recorded in the Domesday book as Hantescire, from this spelling, the modern abbreviation "Hants" derives.

From 1889 until 1959, the administrative county was named the County of Southampton and has been known as Southamptonshire. Hampshire was the departure point of some of those who left England to settle on the east coast of North America during the 17th century, giving its name in particular to the state of New Hampshire; the towns of Portsmouth, New Hampshire and Portsmouth, Virginia take their names from Portsmouth in Hampshire. The region is believed to have been continuously occupied since the end of the last Ice Age about 12,000 BCE. At this time, Britain was still attached to the European continent and was predominantly covered with deciduous woodland; the first inhabitants were Mesolithic hunter-gatherers. The majority of the population would have been concentrated around the river valleys. Over several thousand years, the climate became progressively warmer, sea levels rose. Notable sites from this period include Bouldnor Cliff. Agriculture had arrived in southern Britain by 4000 BCE, with it a neolithic culture.

Some deforestation took place at that time, although during the Bronze Age, beginning in 2200 BCE, this became more widespread and systematic. Hampshire has few monuments to show from these early periods, although nearby Stonehenge was built in several phases at some time between 3100 and 2200 BCE. In the late Bronze Age, fortified hilltop settlements known as hillforts began to appear in large numbers in many parts of Britain including Hampshire, these became more and more important in the early and middle Iron Age. By this period, the people of Britain predominantly spoke a Celtic language, their culture shared much in common with the Celts described by classical writers. Hillforts declined in importance in the second half of the second century BCE, with many being abandoned. Around this period, the first recorded invasion of Britain took place, as southern Britain was conquered by warrior-elites from Belgic tribes of northeastern Gaul - whether these two events are linked to the decline of hillforts is unknown.

By the Roman conquest, the oppidum at Venta Belgarum, modern-day Winchester, was the de facto regional administrative centre. Julius Caesar invaded southeastern England in 55 and again in 54 BCE, but he never reached Hampshire. Notable sites from this period include Hengistbury Head, a major port; the Romans invaded Britain again in 43 CE, Hampshire was incorporated into the Roman province of Britannia quickly. It is believed their political leaders allowed themselves to be incorporated peacefully. Venta became the capital of the administrative polity of the Belgae, which included most of Hampshire and Wiltshire and reached as far as Bath. Whether the people of Hampshire played any role in Boudicca's rebellion of 60-61 is not recorded, but evidence of burning is seen in Winchester dated to around this period. For most of the next three centuries, southern Britain enjoyed relati

Crystal Palace and South London Junction Railway

The Crystal Palace and South London Junction Railway was built by the London and Dover Railway from Nunhead to Crystal Palace High Level to serve the Crystal Palace after the building was moved to the area that became known as Crystal Palace from its original site in Hyde Park. The branch line had a chequered history, linked to the Crystal Palace's own precarious financial position, with two periods of closure. Wartime economies led to the line closing from 1917 to 1919. After this first closure, trains from Holborn Viaduct railway station in the City were not reinstated. However, the branch was electrified, as part of a Southern Railway scheme, on 12 July 1925. After electrification all trains operated to Holborn Viaduct. Following the destruction of the Crystal Palace by fire in 1936, the line lost most of its original function of carrying visitors to events in the Palace. Manpower shortages led to a second closure from 1944 to 1946; when services were reintroduced they were lightly used, the line closed on 20 September 1954.

The track was lifted in 1956. Lordship Lane station has found ongoing fame as the subject of one of Camille Pissarro's finest small-scale pictures. Although much of the route of the railway has now been lost to residential development, it can be traced in places. Architectural features remain such as the ornamental portal of the Paxton Tunnel just north of the terminus. Part of the route adjacent to the Horniman Museum and Gardens is now a'Railway Nature Trail', maintained for the museum by the Trust for Urban Ecology; the section between Cox's Walk footbridge and northern entrance to the Crescent Wood tunnel is managed by the London Wildlife Trust as the Sydenham Hill Wood nature reserve. Two tunnel entrances remain at Hillcrest Wood and are known hibernation roosts for the Brown long-eared bat. In the early 1990s, a local amenity group, Friends of the Great North Wood, produced a walking leaflet entitled From the Nun's Head to the Screaming Alice describing a route that follows the line; the walk continues from the site of Crystal Palace High Level past the Crystal Palace Museum to the remaining Crystal Palace railway station.

The line served the following stations: Nunhead Honor Oak Lordship Lane Upper Sydenham Crystal Palace High Level Crystal Palace High Level was in competition with Crystal Palace Low Level station for passenger traffic to the Crystal Palace. Mitchell, V.. Crystal Palace and Catford Loop. Middleton Press. Frith, Mathew; the Railway through Sydenham Hill Wood, From the Nun's Head to the Screaming Alice. The Friends of the Great North Wood and London Wildlife Trust. Available for £1 plus postage from The London Wildlife Trust Jackson, A. A.. London's Local Railways. David & Charles. Smith, W.. "The Crystal Palace Branch". British Railway Journal. Pissarro's Lordship Lane station on Courtauld Institute/Art& Architecture site


The Kaiser-Joseph-Straße in Freiburg im Breisgau is a shopping street of about 900 meters, which runs through the center of Freiburg's historic downtown from north to south. It is one of the most expensive locations in Germany; the street begins in the north of Freiburg at Siegesdenkmal, located on the outskirts of the historic city center. From the central street crossing, at Bertoldsbrunnen, Bertoldstraße branches off westwards and Salzstraße eastwards. On the southern outskirts of the historical city center Kaiser-Joseph-Straße passes through the Martinstor gate and continues on to Kaiserbrücke, which crosses the Dreisam. Like many other streets in downtown Freiburg, Kaiser-Joseph-Straße has a Bächle. Most of the buildings between Siegesdenkmal and Martinstor were destroyed in World War II during an air raid on 27 November 1944; because of the tram, which opened in 1901, the people in charge had to build arcades into the buildings on either side of the street in order to create more space for pedestrian and other traffic, so the tram could continue passing through the Kaiser-Joseph-Straße.

Traffic was regulated by traffic lights located at Bertoldsbrunnen. In November 1972, the street became one of the first traffic-calmed areas for pedestrians in Germany. Only tramline 2, tramline 3 in the south, as well as tramline 5 and certain delivery vehicles are allowed to use this street now; these restrictions do not affect the part of Kaiser-Joseph-Straße, located south of Martinstor. The Kaiser-Joseph-Straße was called the "Große Gass", where a weekly market was held in medieval times; this is the reason for the great width compared to other streets in historic downtown. In the 15th century the weekly market was relocated to the area in front of the Freiburg Minster; the connection between the "Große Gass" and the settlements outside the city walls – in the form of the Martinstor – was severed in the 17th century when Sébastien Le Prestre de Vauban had the city fortified and the settlements outside the city walls leveled. Salzstraße was used as an access road from Höllental. For the bridal procession of the future French Queen Marie Antoinette, consisting of 235 people, 57 wagons and 250 draft and saddle horses, the street was not wide enough.

In order to give her a welcome which befitted her social status in spite of this, it was decided that she was to enter the city through the gateway called Breisacher Tor via Gartenstraße on 4 May 1770. For this reason two new streets, "Dreisamstraße" and "Schreiberstraße", were built on the northern bank of the Dreisam. Three arcs of triumph were constructed in honor of the Dauphin of France by three of the city’s greater organisations: one by the City of Freiburg erected at the "Karlskaserne", barracks near the town; the latter was the biggest of them, measuring 18 meters in width. The arc was constructed by Johann Christian Wentzinger, using only plaster. Marie Antoinette stayed at the Kageneckschen House, a locally well-known landmark, on Salzstraße, right before moving on to Schuttern Abbey on the morning of May 6. After a visit from Joseph II in 1777, the thoroughfare was renamed "Kaiserstraße" in his honor. Around 1840, the thoroughfare was extended southwards, starting from the Martinstor down to the Dreisam.

This section was named "Stephanienstraße" in honor of Stéphanie de Beauharnais, Grand Duchess of Baden. As a result, the new quarter built in this context was named "Stephanien-Vorstadt". At the turn of the century, there were two wells on the thoroughfare: the "Fischbrunnen" from the 16th century, superseded by the Bertoldsbrunnen in 1806, the Albert-Ludwig-Brunnen by Alois Knittel from 1868, it was located close to the Siegesdenkmal on the former Kaiser-Wilhelms-Platz. During the time of National Socialism the entirety of the Kaiserstraße, including its extensions to the north and to the south, was renamed Adolf-Hitler-Straße. After the Second World War the part that led from the city center to the Dreisam was called Kaiser-Joseph-Straße, while the northern part of the former Adolf-Hitler-Straße was given the name of Habsburgerstraße, in reference to the Habsburg descent of the emperor. In order to keep the established house numbers, today they start at 143 on the east side and at 166 on the west side of the Kaiser-Joseph-Straße.

Numerous branches of big trading companies own offices on this street. In the 1970s there were five department stores here, at the beginning of the 21st century only two remained. Basler Hof, built by Konrad Stürtzel as a residence in the 15th century, is the only building without any commercial use nowadays, it is one of the most important secular buildings in Freiburg. The name derives from the Basel cathedral chapter who used the residence from 1587 to 1677 when they were forced to relocate to Freiburg as a result of the Reformation in their home town, it serves as the representative official residence of Freiburg's district president. The Kaiser Bridge, which originates from the turn of the century and is located at the other end of the Kaiser-Joseph-Straße, used to be decorated with bronze statues of the Salian Henry V. and Frederick Barbarossa of the House of Hohenstaufen, created by Julius Seitz, as well as statues of Rudolf of Habsburg and Maximilian I. by Fridolin Dietsche. In 1942 they were taken to Hamburg to be melted down.

Although this did not happen until the war had ended, the municipal council voted down a potential recall of the statue