City of London Corporation
The City of London Corporation and the Mayor and Commonalty and Citizens of the City of London, is the municipal governing body of the City of London, the historic centre of London and the location of much of the United Kingdom's financial sector. In 2006 the name was changed from Corporation of London to avoid confusion with the wider London local government, the Greater London Authority. Both businesses and residents of the City, or "Square Mile", are entitled to vote in elections, in addition to its functions as the local authority – analogous to those undertaken by the 32 boroughs that administer the rest of the Greater London region – it takes responsibility for supporting the financial services industry and representing its interests; the corporation's structure includes the Lord Mayor, the Court of Aldermen, the Court of Common Council, the Freemen and Livery of the City. The rights and privileges of the City of London are enshrined in the Magna Carta’s clause 9 - as enumerated in 1297 - and, along with clauses 1 and 29, it remains in statute.
In Anglo-Saxon times, consultation between the City's rulers and its citizens took place at the Folkmoot. Administration and judicial processes were conducted at the Court of Husting and the non-legal part of the court's work evolved into the Court of Aldermen. There is no surviving record of a charter first establishing the Corporation as a legal body, but the City is regarded as incorporated by prescription, meaning that the law presumes it to have been incorporated because it has for so long been regarded as such; the City of London Corporation has been granted various special privileges since the Norman Conquest, the Corporation's first recorded Royal Charter dates from around 1067, when William the Conqueror granted the citizens of London a charter confirming the rights and privileges that they had enjoyed since the time of Edward the Confessor. Numerous subsequent Royal Charters over the centuries extended the citizens' rights. Around 1189, the City gained the right to have its own mayor being advanced to the degree and style of Lord Mayor of London.
Over time, the Court of Aldermen sought increasing help from the City's commoners and this was recognised with commoners being represented by the Court of Common Council, known by that name since at least as far back as 1376. The earliest records of the business habits of the City's Chamberlains and Common Clerks, the proceedings of the Courts of Common Council and Aldermen, begin in 1275, are recorded in fifty volumes known as the Letter-Books of the City of London; the City of London Corporation had its privileges stripped by a writ quo warranto under Charles II in 1683, but they were restored and confirmed by Act of Parliament under William III and Mary II in 1690, after the Glorious Revolution. With growing demands on the Corporation and a corresponding need to raise local taxes from the commoners, the Common Council grew in importance and has been the principal governing body of the City of London since the 18th century. In January 1898, the Common Council gained the full right to collect local rates when the City of London Sewers Act 1897 transferred the powers and duties of the Commissioners of Sewers of the City of London to the Corporation.
A separate Commission of Sewers was created for the City of London after the Great Fire in 1666, as well as the construction of drains it had responsibility for the prevention of flooding. The individual commissioners were nominated by the Corporation, but it was a separate body; the Corporation had earlier limited rating powers in relation to raising funds for the City of London Police, as well as the militia rate and some rates in relation to the general requirements of the Corporation. The Corporation is unique among British local authorities for its continuous legal existence over many centuries, for having the power to alter its own constitution, done by an Act of Common Council. Local government legislation makes special provision for the City to be treated as a London borough and for the Common Council to act as a local authority; the Corporation does not have general authority over the Middle Temple and the Inner Temple, two of the Inns of Court adjoining the west of the City which are historic extra-parochial areas, but many statutory functions of the Corporation are extended into these two areas.
The Chief Executive of the administrative side of the Corporation holds the ancient office of Town Clerk of London. Because of its accumulated wealth and responsibilities the Corporation has a number of officers and officials unique to its structure who enjoy more autonomy than most local council officials, each of whom has a separate budget: The Town Clerk, the Chief Executive; the Chamberlain, the City Treasurer and Finance Officer. The City Remembrancer, responsible for protocol, security issues as well as legislative matters that may affect the Corporation and is qualified; the City Surveyor, provides guidance to combine the fund management of a major central London commercial property portfolio extending to over 16 million square feet of space, with the management of the City’s 600 operational properties stretching across Greater London, including Guildhall, The Mansion House, Central Criminal Court. The Comptroller and City Solicitor; the Recorder of London, the senior judge at the Central Criminal Court'Old Bailey', technically a member of the Court of Aldermen.
Staines-upon-Thames is a town on the River Thames in Surrey, England. Part of Middlesex, it was known to the Romans as Pontes or Ad Pontes as Stanes and subsequently Staines; the town is inside the M25 motorway, 17 miles south-west of Charing Cross. It is within the London Commuter Belt and the Greater London Urban Area, adjoins part of the Green Belt. Passing along the edge of the town and crossing Staines Bridge is the Thames Path National Trail. Parts of the large Staines-upon-Thames post town are whole villages: Laleham and Wraysbury; the post town includes, due to the long association of Staines Bridge with a medieval causeway on the opposite bank of the river, half of a large part of a neighbouring town, namely Egham Hythe, which contains a significant business area within the county, some of the town's oldest listed buildings. The longstanding parish boundaries are those of a strip parish that ranges from 12 to 17 metres above sea level, it has no remaining woods, but a large number of parks, leisure centres, a football club which has reached Conference level and some multinational research/technology company offices.
The centre of Heathrow airport is 3 miles to the north-east and Staines railway station is a main stop on the London Waterloo to Reading line and Windsor & Eton Riverside line. The name derives from Old English stānas. Evidence of neolithic settlement has been found at Yeoveney on Staines Moor. There has been a crossing of the River Thames at Staines since Roman times; the emperor Claudius invaded Britain in AD 43. Staines was settled the same year. Within a decade, the first Staines Bridge was constructed as a crossing for the Devil's Highway between Londinium and Calleva Atrebatum; the Romans knew the place as Pontes or Ad Pontes and it was mentioned in the early 3rd-century Antonine Itinerary. The Roman name implies the existence of more than one bridge; the Middlesex section of the Domesday Book records the manor "Stanes" as a property held by Westminster Abbey. It had 6 mills worth £ 3, 4s, 0d, it rendered £35. A boundary stone on the bank of the River Thames dated 1280 still remains, indicating the western limit of the City of London's jurisdiction over the Thames.
Although familiarly known as the'London Stone', it is not to be confused with the more famous – and more ancient – London Stone in Cannon Street in the City of London. The barons assembled at Staines before they met King John at Runnymede in 1215, Stephen Langton held a consecration there shortly after the sealing of Magna Carta. Sir Thomas More was tried in 1535 in a Staines public house, to avoid the outbreak of plague in London at that time. Kings and other important people must have passed through the town on many occasions: the church bells were rung several times in 1670, for instance, when the king and queen went through Staines. Between 1642 and 1648 during the Civil War, there were skirmishes on Staines Moor and numerous troop movements over Staines Bridge; the parish remained agricultural until the mid-19th century. Staines was a regular staging post with coaching inns, it was used for an overnight horse change on The Trafalgar Way in 1805, announcing the victory over the combined French and Spanish fleet and the death of Nelson.
Samuel Lewis mentions the place in his 1848 Topographical Dictionary of England, saying that "The town, much improved of late, consists principally of one wide street, containing several good houses, terminating at the river." In the 19th century the Church of England lost all relief functions. However, as Staines's local government is unparished, the parish boundary of the village of Laleham is the one used in road signs and official naming. Stanwell, forming its own wards, lost land in and around Leaside, north of the River Ash in the 20th century to Staines. Laleham remains as at the mid 19th century a long tranche beginning east of the north-south Sweep's Ditch which runs south to the tip of the Penton Hook peninsula of the River Thames. Spelthorne Borough Council is one of the few Surrey districts divided equally in terms of number of councillors per wards yet the population of Laleham is insufficient to elect three councillors. Laleham does share a post town, has a large sports ground named after Laleham and Staines.
It instead forms one half of the ward Riverside and Laleham, parts A and D of Spelthorne's 009 division in the United Kingdom Census 2011. The town was a major producer of linoleum after the formation of the Linoleum Manufacturing Company in 1864 by its inventor, Frederick Walton. Linoleum was a major employer in the area until the 1960s. In 1876 about 220 and in 1911 about 350 people worked in the plant. By 1957 it employed some 300 people and in 1956 the factory produced about 2675 m2 of linoleum each week; the term'Staines Lino' became a worldwide name but the factory was closed around 1970 and is the site is now occupied by the Two Rivers shopping centre, completed about 2000. A bronze statue of two lino workers in Staines High Street commemorates the Staines Lino Factory; the Spelthorne Museum has a display dedicated to the Linoleum Manufacturing Company. The Lagonda car factory was on the site of Sainsbury's supermarket in Egham Hythe; the town was the site of the Staines air disaster in 1972, at the time the worst air crash in Britain until the Lockerbie disaster of 1988.
(Since the Lockerbie crash was a terrorist act in Scotland, the Staines cras
Kingston upon Thames
Kingston upon Thames known as Kingston, is an area of southwest London, England, 10 miles southwest of Charing Cross. It is the administrative centre of the Royal Borough of Kingston upon Thames, identified as a major metropolitan centre in the London Plan. Kingston is about 33 feet above sea level, it is notable as the ancient market town. Kingston was part of a large ancient parish in the county of Surrey and the town was an ancient borough, reformed in 1835. Since 1965 Kingston has been a part of Greater London, it has been the location of Surrey County Hall from 1893, extraterritorially in terms of local government administration. Most of the town centre is part of the KT1 postcode area, but some areas north of Kingston railway station have the postcode KT2 instead; the 2011 Census recorded the population of the town itself, comprising the four wards of Canbury, Grove and Tudor, as 43,013. Kingston was called Cyninges tun in AD 838, Chingestune in 1086, Kingeston in 1164, Kyngeston super Tamisiam in 1321 and Kingestowne upon Thames in 1589.
The name means ` the king's manor or estate' from the Old English words tun. It was the earliest royal borough; the first surviving record of Kingston is from AD 838 as the site of a meeting between King Egbert of Wessex and Ceolnoth, Archbishop of Canterbury. Kingston lay on the boundary between the ancient kingdoms of Wessex and Mercia, until in the early tenth century when King Athelstan united both to create the kingdom of England; because of the town's symbolic location, several tenth-century kings were crowned in Kingston, Æthelstan in 925, Eadred in 946 and Æthelred in 978. Other kings who may have been crowned there are Edward the Elder in 902, Edmund in 939, Eadwig in 956, Edgar in about 960 and Edward the Martyr in 975, it was thought that the coronations were conducted in the chapel of St Mary, which collapsed in 1730, a large stone recovered from the ruins has been regarded since the 18th century as the Coronation Stone. It was used as a mounting block, but in 1850 it was moved to a more dignified place in the market before being moved to its current location in the grounds of the guildhall.
For much of the 20th century, Kingston was a major military aircraft manufacturing centre specialising in fighter aircraft – first with Sopwith Aviation, H G Hawker Engineering Hawker Aircraft, Hawker Siddeley and British Aerospace. The renowned Sopwith Camel, Hawker Fury, Hurricane and Harrier were all designed and built in the town and examples of all of these aircraft can be seen today at the nearby Brooklands Museum in Weybridge. Well known aviation personalities Sydney Camm, Harry Hawker and Tommy Sopwith were responsible for much of Kingston's achievements in aviation. British Aerospace closed its Lower Ham Road factory in 1992; the growth and development of Kingston Polytechnic and its transformation into Kingston University has made Kingston a university town. Kingston upon Thames formed an ancient parish in the Kingston hundred of Surrey; the parish of Kingston upon Thames covered a large area including Hook, New Malden, Richmond, Thames Ditton and East Molesey. The town of Kingston was granted a charter by King John in 1200, but the oldest one to survive is from 1208 and this document is housed in the town's archives.
Other charters were issued by kings, including Edward IV's charter that gave the town the status of a borough in 1481. The borough covered a much smaller area than the ancient parish, although as new parishes were split off the borough and parish became identical in 1894; the borough was reformed by the Municipal Corporations Act 1835, becoming the Municipal Borough of Kingston-upon-Thames. It had been known as a Royal borough through custom and the right to the title was confirmed by George V in 1927. Kingston upon Thames has been the seat of Surrey County Council since it moved from Newington in 1893. In 1965 the local government of Greater London was reorganised and the municipal borough was abolished, its former area was merged with that of the Municipal Borough of Surbiton and the Municipal Borough of Malden and Coombe, to form the London Borough of Kingston upon Thames. At the request of Kingston upon Thames London Borough Council another Royal Charter was granted by Queen Elizabeth II entitling it to continue using the title "Royal Borough of Kingston upon Thames" for the new borough.
Kingston was built at the first crossing point of the Thames upstream from London Bridge and a bridge still exists at the same site. It was this ` great bridge'. Kingston was occupied by the Romans, it was either a royal residence or a royal demesne. There is a record of a council held there in 838, at which Egbert of Wessex, King of Wessex, his son Ethelwulf of Wessex were present. In the Domesday Book it was held by William the Conqueror, its domesday assets were: a church, five mills, four fisheries worth 10s, 27 ploughs, 40 acres of meadow, woodland worth six hogs. It rendered £31 10s. In 1730 the chapel containing the royal effigies collapsed, burying the sexton, digging a grave, the sexton's daughter and another person; the daughter was her father's successor as sexton. Kingston sent members to early Parliaments, until a petition by the inhabitants prayed to be relieved from the burden. Another chapel, the collegiate chapel of St Mary Magdalene, The Lovekyn Chapel, still exists, it was founded in 1309 by a former mayor of London, Ed
Walton Bridge is a road bridge across the River Thames in England, carrying the A244 between Walton-on-Thames and Shepperton, crossing the Thames on the reach between Sunbury Lock and Shepperton Lock. The bridge is the first Thames road bridge, on both banks upstream of Greater London; the bridge is the sixth on the site. Before the first bridge, the site had a ferry dating at least to the 17th century. Near Walton Bridge, removed when the first bridge was built in 1750, were several barrows. Spear heads and earthenware vessels are said by J. Douglas to have been found in them. From Elmbridge ferries run by operators under a Crown-granted monopoly, subject to conditions, existed since the Stuart period: as follows: The two remaining join those in London and seasonal visitor services in Oxford. Land near the relevant site was said in 1633 to have been washed away, reflecting the lack of the additional river channels at Windsor and Weybridge, lack of weirs and former marshiness of the double bend of the river known as Cowey Sale and opposing small meander of land, Thames Meadow on the north bank.
A Shepperton ferry is recorded in the 15th century --. In 1747 Samuel Dicker, local landowner and MP for Plymouth, obtained permission to build a bridge at Walton, it was designed by William Etheridge and built by White of Weybridge to consist of "timbers tangent to a circle of 100 feet diameter" and was built so that a single timber could be extracted and repaired without disturbing the rest of the bridge. Old Walton Bridge was completed in August 1750 and acquired some fame, meriting an article in the Gentleman's Magazine, a report in Daniel Defoe's Tour in 1753 and a painting by Canaletto in 1754; the painting, which shows the rococo-style of this bridge, is in Dulwich Picture Gallery. Queens College, Cambridge record that its Mathematical Bridge resembles this much grander structure by Etheridge — unlike Walton Bridge, Etheridge's bridge there has been rebuilt twice to his design, having encountered minor wood rot, but has never collapsed; the timber structure stood 33 years, that is, until 1783.
A report on the condition of the bridge in 1778 suggested that decay in the wooden frame made it unsuitable for use and it was dismantled five years later. The second bridge made of stone was permitted, with additional tolls, under an Act of Parliament obtained by the nephew of Mr Dicker, Dicker Sanders and designed by James Paine, whose bridge Chertsey Bridge still stands; this was opened in 1788. This bridge inspired three paintings by Turner in 1805 of different scenes featuring the bridge following some sketches which have been preserved. Most of Turner’s river tour of 1805 concentrated on the Thames, with a few paintings of the Wey at that time; the bridge lasted much longer than its predecessor, but part of it collapsed in 1859. A ferry crossing was revived until the completion of the third bridge in 1864; the third bridge, built 1863–64, was an iron girder lattice bridge on stone piers. At the same time, a brick viaduct was constructed to span the flood plain to the south of the river; the bridge was freed of tolls in about 1870.
The third bridge was damaged during the Second World War in 1940 leading to a permanent weight restriction. To alleviate this a fourth temporary bridge was constructed and the third bridge was relegated to use by cyclists and pedestrians. Robbins described it in 1953 as "an ungracious structure of iron lattice girders" in his county history. Assisted by the weight restriction and metal design it was longer-lasting than the previous two bridges but was demolished in 1985; the fourth bridge was constructed in 1953 on the downstream side of the old bridge, using a construction designed by A. M. is called a Callender-Hamilton bridge. The fourth bridge was retained for use by cyclists and pedestrians when the fifth bridge was completed in 1999. In 1999, while the fourth bridge remained standing for use by pedestrians and cyclists, another temporary structure, the fifth bridge, on the site of the original bridges, was opened for vehicular traffic; this had several problems and had to be resurfaced a number of times causing traffic disruptions.
The poor architecture of these two co-existing bridges led to demands for construction of the sixth bridge. Together, the old bridges faced heavy criticism as had the existence of a rusting, less strong, military style foot and cycle bridge and engineers predicted structural weakness by 2015, hence the plans for a new bridge. In 2003 a political impetus grew for rebuilding and was a key local election issue for councillors seeking to run for Elmbridge Borough Council and Surrey County Council combined with the Heart of Walton Development, not yet complete; the sixth bridge was opened on 22 July 2013. A public inquiry rejected some aspects of the original plan but approval of the funding arrangements was confirmed on 29 December 2010. After extensive preparatory work in 2011, the main construction works began on 9 January 2012, building completed in July 2013; the bridge replaced the two extant bridges. The new £32.4 million bridge has no piers in the river, thus opening up views along the river and improving navigation for boats.
The constructor completed the removal of the old bridges in November 2013 and was set to complete surrounding landscaping works in August 2014. The bridge is used on an unsigned but map-marked cyclists' variation
Reinforced concrete is a composite material in which concrete's low tensile strength and ductility are counteracted by the inclusion of reinforcement having higher tensile strength or ductility. The reinforcement is though not steel reinforcing bars and is embedded passively in the concrete before the concrete sets. Reinforcing schemes are designed to resist tensile stresses in particular regions of the concrete that might cause unacceptable cracking and/or structural failure. Modern reinforced concrete can contain varied reinforcing materials made of steel, polymers or alternate composite material in conjunction with rebar or not. Reinforced concrete may be permanently stressed, so as to improve the behaviour of the final structure under working loads. In the United States, the most common methods of doing this are known as pre-tensioning and post-tensioning. For a strong and durable construction the reinforcement needs to have the following properties at least: High relative strength High toleration of tensile strain Good bond to the concrete, irrespective of pH, similar factors Thermal compatibility, not causing unacceptable stresses in response to changing temperatures.
Durability in the concrete environment, irrespective of corrosion or sustained stress for example. François Coignet was the first to use iron-reinforced concrete as a technique for constructing building structures. In 1853, Coignet built the first iron reinforced concrete structure, a four-story house at 72 rue Charles Michels in the suburbs of Paris. Coignet's descriptions of reinforcing concrete suggests that he did not do it for means of adding strength to the concrete but for keeping walls in monolithic construction from overturning. In 1854, English builder William B. Wilkinson reinforced the concrete roof and floors in the two-storey house he was constructing, his positioning of the reinforcement demonstrated that, unlike his predecessors, he had knowledge of tensile stresses. Joseph Monier was a French gardener of the nineteenth century, a pioneer in the development of structural and reinforced concrete when dissatified with existing materials available for making durable flowerpots, he was granted a patent for reinforced flowerpots by means of mixing a wire mesh to a mortar shell.
In 1877, Monier was granted another patent for a more advanced technique of reinforcing concrete columns and girders with iron rods placed in a grid pattern. Though Monier undoubtedly knew reinforcing concrete would improve its inner cohesion, it is less known if he knew how much reinforcing improved concrete's tensile strength. Before 1877 the use of concrete construction, though dating back to the Roman Empire, having been reintroduced in the early 1800s, was not yet a proven scientific technology. American New Yorker Thaddeus Hyatt published a report titled An Account of Some Experiments with Portland-Cement-Concrete Combined with Iron as a Building Material, with Reference to Economy of Metal in Construction and for Security against Fire in the Making of Roofs and Walking Surfaces where he reported his experiments on the behavior of reinforced concrete, his work played a major role in the evolution of concrete construction as a proven and studied science. Without Hyatt's work, more dangerous trial and error methods would have been depended on for the advancement in the technology.
Ernest L. Ransome was an English-born engineer and early innovator of the reinforced concrete techniques in the end of the 19th century. With the knowledge of reinforced concrete developed during the previous 50 years, Ransome innovated nearly all styles and techniques of the previous known inventors of reinforced concrete. Ransome's key innovation was to twist the reinforcing steel bar improving bonding with the concrete. Gaining increasing fame from his concrete constructed buildings, Ransome was able to build two of the first reinforced concrete bridges in North America. One of the first concrete buildings constructed in the United States, was a private home, designed by William Ward in 1871; the home was designed to be fireproof for his wife. G. A. Wayss was a pioneer of the iron and steel concrete construction. In 1879, Wayss bought the German rights to Monier's patents and in 1884, he started the first commercial use for reinforced concrete in his firm Wayss & Freytag. Up until the 1890s, Wayss and his firm contributed to the advancement of Monier's system of reinforcing and established it as a well-developed scientific technology.
One of the first skyscrapers made with reinforced concrete was the 16-story Ingalls Building in Cincinnati, constructed in 1904. The first reinforced concrete building in Southern California was the Laughlin Annex in Downtown Los Angeles, constructed in 1905. In 1906, 16 building permits were issued for reinforced concrete buildings in the City of Los Angeles, including the Temple Auditorium and 8-story Hayward Hotel. On April 18, 1906 a magnitude 7.8 earthquake struck San Francisco. The strong ground shaking and subsequent fire killed thousands; the use of reinforced concrete after the earthquake was promoted within the U. S. construction industry due to its non-combustibility and perceived superior seismic performance relative to masonry. In 1906, a partial collapse of the Bixby Hotel in Long Beach killed 10 workers during construction when shoring was removed prematurely; this event spurred a scrutiny of concrete erection practices and building inspections. The structure was constructed of reinforced concrete frames with hollow clay tile ribbed flooring and hollow clay
Bushy Park in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames is the second largest of London's Royal Parks, at 445 hectares in area, after Richmond Park. The park, most of, open to the public, is north of Hampton Court Palace and Hampton Court Park and is a few minutes' walk from the west side of Kingston Bridge, it is surrounded by Teddington, Hampton Hill and Hampton Wick and is within the post towns of Hampton and Teddington, those of East Molesey and Kingston upon Thames taking the remainder. In September 2014 most of it was designated a biological Site of Special Scientific Interest together with Hampton Court Park and Hampton Court Golf Course as Bushy Park and Home Park SSSI; the park is Grade I listed on the Register of Historic Parks and Gardens. The area now known as Bushy Park has been settled for at least the past 4,000 years: the earliest archaeological records that have been found on the site date back to the Bronze Age. There is evidence that the area was used in the medieval period for agricultural purposes.
When Henry VIII took over Hampton Court Palace from Cardinal Thomas Wolsey in 1529, the King named three parks that make up modern-day Bushy Park and a small area beside: Hare Warren, Middle Park and Bushy Park. A keen hunter, he established them as deer-hunting grounds, his successors less involved in traditional sporting activities, added a number of picturesque features, including the Longford River, a 19-km canal built on the orders of Charles I of England to provide water to Hampton Court, the park's various ponds. This period saw the construction of the main thoroughfare, Chestnut Avenue, which runs from Park Road in Teddington to the Lion Gate entrance to Hampton Court Palace in Hampton Court Road; this avenue and the Arethusa'Diana' Fountain were designed by Sir Christopher Wren as a grand approach to Hampton Court Palace. The park has long been popular with locals, but attracts visitors from further afield. From the mid-19th century until World War II, Londoners came here to celebrate Chestnut Sunday and to see the abundant blossoming of the trees along Chestnut Avenue.
The customs were resurrected in 1993 by Colin and Mu Pain. Among those who served as ranger was King William IV, while Duke of Clarence. To ensure his consort Queen Adelaide, could remain at their long-time home after his death, he appointed her as his successor as ranger, after whose death the position was left vacant and fell into disuse. During World War I, Bushy Park housed the King's Canadian Hospital, between the wars it hosted a camp for undernourished children. During World War II, General Dwight D. Eisenhower planned the D-Day landings from Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force at Camp Griffiss in the Park. A memorial by Carlos Rey dedicated to the Allied troops who fell on D-Day now marks the spot where General Eisenhower's tent stood; the nearby Eisenhower House is named in the General's honour. From May 1942, a group of temporary buildings on the north-east of the park, codenamed Widewing, hosted the de facto headquarters of the US Eighth Air Force under Generals Carl Spaatz and Ira Eaker.
Spaatz went on to command the US Army Air Forces throughout the European Theatre of Operations and in early 1944 became commander of the newly formed US Strategic Air Forces in Europe at Widewing. Known by its US Army code, AAF-586, Camp Griffiss/Widewing was confused with the wartime headquarters of VIII Fighter Command at Bushey Hall, near Watford, Hertfordshire. Created for royal sports, Bushy Park is now home to Teddington Rugby Club, Teddington Hockey Club, four cricket clubs, including Teddington Town Cricket Club, Hampton Wick Royal Cricket Club, Teddington Cricket Club and Hampton Hill Cricket Club, it has fishing and model boating ponds, horse rides, formal plantations of trees and other plants, wildlife conservation areas and herds of both red deer and fallow deer. The park contains several lodges and cottages, Bushy House, the National Physical Laboratory at the Teddington end, the Royal Paddocks, two areas of allotments: the Royal Paddocks Allotments at Hampton Wick and the Bushy Park Allotments at Hampton Hill.
The original Parkrun began in Bushy Park in October 2004 as the'Bushy Park Time Trial' Bushy Parkrun. It is a free timed 5K run that takes place every Saturday morning at 9 am, attracting up to 1500 runners each week. Events take place annually on Christmas Day and New Year's Day; as part of an upgrade of the park facilities, the new Pheasantry Café was added, the restored and reconstructed Upper Lodge Water Gardens were opened in October 2009. The work was supported by the Heritage Lottery Fund; the closest railway stations are Hampton Court in East Molesey to the south, Hampton Wick to the east and Fulwell to the north, Hampton to the west. All are within a 10- to 20-minute walk. Transport for London bus routes 216 and 411 pass the Hampton Court Gate on Hampton Court Road. R70, R68 and 285 buses stop near the two Hampton Hill Gates off the High Street, while the R68 serves the Blandford Road Gate before continuing to Hampton Court Green via Hampton Hill. To the north the main Teddington gate on Park Road and a second on Sandy Lane are only served by a half-hourly 481 bus service.
But the main gate is best reached, either on foot or by bike, from Teddington's town centre, served by the 33, 281, 285, 481, R68 and X26 services.