The Hamzanama or Dastan-e-Amir Hamza narrates the legendary exploits of Amir Hamza, or Hamza ibn Abdul-Muttalib, an uncle of Muhammad, a historical figure, though most of the stories are fanciful, "a continuous series of romantic interludes, threatening events, narrow escapes, violent acts". The Hamzanama chronicles the fantastic adventures of Hamza as he and his band of heroes fight against the enemies of Islam; the stories, from a long-established oral tradition, were written down in Persian, the language of the courts of the Persianate world, in multiple volumes. Most of the characters of the Hamzanama are fictitious. In the West the work is best known for the enormous illustrated manuscript commissioned by the Mughal Emperor Akbar in about 1562; the Hamzanama contains 46 volumes and has 4800 pages. It is said; the text augmented the story. The dastan about Amir Hamza persists far and wide up to Bengal and Arakan, as the Mughals controlled those territories. Though the first Mughal Emperor, described the Hamzanama as "one long far-fetched lie.
He commissioned his court workshop to create an illustrated manuscript of the Hamzanama early in his reign, conceived on such an unusually large scale that it took fourteen years, from about 1562 to 1577, to complete. Apart from the text, it included 1400 full page Mughal miniatures of an unusually large size, nearly all painted on tightly-woven cotton cloth; the work was bound in 14 volumes. After the early pages, where various layouts were experimented with, one side of most folios has a painting, about 69 cm x 54 cm in size, done in a fusion of Persian and Mughal styles. On the other side is the text in Persian in Nasta'liq script, arranged so that the text is opposite the matching picture in most openings of the book; the size of the commission was unprecedented, stretched the huge imperial workshop. According to contemporary accounts, about thirty main artists were used, over a hundred men worked on the various aspects of the book in all. According to Badauni and Shahnawaz Khan the work of preparing the illustrations was supervised by Mir Sayyid Ali and subsequently by Abdus Samad, the former being replaced as head of the workshop because the pace of production was too slow.
After seven years only four volumes were completed, but the new head was able to galvanize production and complete the ten volumes in another seven years, without any loss of quality. Indeed, "the pages are the most exciting and innovative in the work"; the colophon of this manuscript is still missing. None of the folios of this manuscript so far found is signed, though many have been attributed to different artists. Compared to Akbar's Tutinama, a smaller commission begun and completed while the Hamzanama commission was in progress, the manuscript shows a much greater fusion of the styles of Indian and Persian miniatures. Though the elegance and finish may seem closer to Persian works, the compositional style and narrative drama owe more to Indian tradition. Between them, these two manuscripts are the key works in the formation of the Mughal miniature style. At some early point, the manuscript became dispersed, only a little over a hundred of the paintings survive; the largest group of 61 images is in the Museum of Applied Arts, with the rest spread over many collections.
The Victoria and Albert Museum possess 27 images, bought in Kashmir, the British Museum in London has one. The MAK organized in 2009 the exhibition GLOBAL:LAB, Art as a Message. Asia and Europe 1500-1700. Other recent exhibitions dedicated to the manuscript have been at the Victoria and Albert Museum in 2003 and in 2002/2003 at the Smithsonian in Washington D. C. which transferred to the Brooklyn Museum in New York. Pages from Akbar's copy The Dastan-e-Amir Hamza existed in several other illustrated manuscript versions. One version by Navab Mirza Aman Ali Khan Ghalib Lakhnavi was printed in 1855 and published by the Hakim Sahib Press, India; this version was embellished by Abdullah Bilgrami and published by the Naval Kishore Press, Lucknow, in 1871. Two English language translations have been published; the first is available in an expanded version on the website of the translator Frances Pritchett, of Columbia University. Pritchett's former student at Columbia University, Pasha Mohamad Khan, who teaches at McGill University, researches qissa/dastan and the art of dastan-goi, including the Hamzanama.
In 2007 Musharraf Ali Farooqi, a Pakistani-Canadian author, translated the Ghalib Lakhnavi/Abdulla Bilgriami version into English. A Pakistani author Maqbool Jahangir wrote Dastan-e-Amir Hamza for children in the Urdu language, his version was published by Ferozsons. The story is performed in Indonesian puppet theatre, where it is called Wayang Menak. Here, Hamzah is known as Wong Agung Jayeng Rana or Amir Ambyah. Beach, Milo Cleveland, Early Mughal painting, Harvard University Press, 1987, ISBN 0-674-22185-0, ISBN 978-0-674-22185-7 "Grove", Oxford Art Online, "Indian sub. §VI, 4: Mughal ptg styles, 16th–19th centuries", restricted access. Titley, Norah M. Persian Miniature Painting, its Influence on the Ar
This is the order of battle of Allied and Japanese forces during the Admiralty Islands campaign of 1944. The Allied Task Force BREWER for the occupation of the Admiralty Islands consisted of: All US Army unless otherwise noted 1st Cavalry Division 1st Cavalry Brigade 5th Cavalry Regiment 12th Cavalry Regiment 2nd Cavalry Brigade 7th Cavalry Regiment 8th Cavalry Regiment 1st Cavalry Division Artillery 61st Field Artillery Battalion 82nd Field Artillery Battalion 99th Field Artillery Battalion 8th Engineer Squadron 1st Medical Squadron 16th Quartermaster Squadron 1st Antitank Troop 1st Signal Troop 27th Ordnance Medium Maintenance Company Alamo Scouts 2nd Battalion, 50th Coast Artillery Regiment 168th Anti-Aircraft Artillery Battalion HQ and HQ Battery, 15th Anti-Aircraft Artillery Group Battery C, 237th Anti-Aircraft Artillery Battalion 211th Coast Artillery Battalion Shore Battalion and Company A, Boat Battalion, 592nd Engineer Boat and Shore Regiment 1 Platoon, 453rd Engineer Depot Company Detachment, 267th Ordnance Medium Maintenance Company 287th Ordnance Medium Maintenance Company 27th Portable Surgical Hospital 30th Portable Surgical Hospital 603rd Medical Clearing Company 58th Evacuation Hospital 28th Malaria Survey Unit 52nd Malaria Control Unit 3526th Quartermaster Truck Company 695th Quartermaster Truck Company 2nd Platoon, 1998th Quartermaster Truck Company 1 Platoon, 3818th Gas Supply Company Detachment, 493rd Quartermaster Depot Supply Company Company C, 267th Quartermaster Service Battalion HQ and 2nd Platoon, 123rd Quartermaster Bakery Company Provisional Bakery Platoon 1 Section, 286th Quartermaster Refrigeration Company 294th Port Company 167th Port Company 466th Amphibious Truck Company Detachment, 94th Chemical Composite Company Section, 1st Platoon, 604th Quartermaster Graves Registration Company Detachment, Company A, 60th Signal Battalion 611th Ordnance Ammunition Company 17th and 19th Radio Station Sections, 832nd Signal Service Company ANGAU Detachment All USN unless otherwise noted Naval Shore Detachment, 7th Fleet No. 9 Naval Advance Unit 17th Naval Construction Regiment No. 40 Communications Unit Hydrographic Survey Unit Advance Echelon LION 4 6 Construction Battalions 3 ACORNs 1 Construction Battalion No. 15 PT Overhaul and Operating Base All RAAF unless otherwise noted No. 73 Wing No. 76 Squadron No. 77 Squadron No. 79 Squadron No. 114 Mobile Fighter Sector HQ No.
152, 340, 345, 346 and 347 Radar Stations No. 73 Wing Signals Station No. 49 Operational Base Unit No. 12 Repair and Salvage Unit No 3 section, 1 Malaria Control Unit No. 77 Medical Clearing Station 12th Air Liaison Party Detachment 7, Transportation and Movements Office Detachment 4, Replenishing Centre Detachment, 16 Store Unit Detachment, 7 Coastal Unit Canteen Unit The Japanese garrison of the Admiralty Islands was expanded in the months prior to the Allied landings. On 2 February 1944 it consisted of: 1st Battalion, 229th Infantry Regiment 2nd Battalion, 1st Independent Mixed Regiment 51st Transport Regiment Elements, 14th Naval Base Force
Netzler & Dahlgren Co AB, or NDC for short, was a Swedish company founded in 1962 by Göran Netzler and Anders Dahlgren. The initial business idea was to build customized electronics equipment. Over the years, NDC evolved into a technology platform provider for AGV builders. Danaher acquired NDC in 2001. NDC began producing specially built electronics equipment on a small scale for a variety of industries, for example and marine; the number of owners grew in the 1960s to include Arne Nilsson and Jan Jutander. At the beginning of the 1970s, NDC had some 30 employees and started to attract big companies such as Getinge, Tetra Pak and Volvo; the first AGV project was for the Volvo Kalmar Assembly plant in 1972. NDC was involved in producing the AGV prototypes but was considered too small to take on the total project, they were, commissioned to deliver all the drives. At that time, the Volvo plant was a revolution in the automotive industry, introducing a new way of working. In 1976, Tetra Pak installed twenty AGVs in their plant in Sweden.
NDC provided the electronics, Tellus the mechanics and ErgoData the control system. The project was a success, Tetra Pak began to introduce AGVs in their plants worldwide. NDC was involved in many AGV projects for Tetra Pak during the 1970s and 1980s, saw its chance to expand the business into something more. In the early 1980s, NDC made the strategically important decision to focus on creating a generic controls platform for AGV builders. Driven by the development of computer technology, it was now possible for NDC to offer the flexibility that AGV builders needed to create customized driverless vehicles; the new NDC business model was born: “Generic technology to be applied by others.” The first partner was the French company Lamson Saunier Duval, the number of partners grew into two digits. NDC spent a lot of time educating partners on all the possibilities of generic technology; the new business model paved the way for international expansion with NDC subsidiaries in Italy, the Czech Republic and the United States.
The American NDC subsidiary, NDC Automation Inc. had its own subsidiary in Australia. NDC Automation Inc. went public on March 28, 1990, subsequently changed its name to Transbotics in 2001. Laser technology took off in many industrial applications in the 1980s, NDC started to explore the potential. In 1991, NDC introduced laser technology as AGV navigation for a Tetra Pak factory in Singapore. Tetra Pak appreciated the ease-of-change to new working patterns with laser navigation and began a worldwide plant upgrade to laser navigation. NDC named their navigation technology Lazerway. In the 1990s, AGVs increased in complexity. By focusing on being a technology platform provider, NDC could stay strong in an AGV industry that had split into new categories such as mobile robots. After the Danaher acquisition in 2001, NDC was named Danaher Motion and on transformed into the Kollmorgen brand; the NDC brand name is now the name of the technology platform: NDC Solutions. As of July 2016, Kollmorgen is part of Fortive Corporation