Miyako is a city located in Iwate Prefecture, Japan. As of 1 April 2017, the city had an estimated population of 54,573, a population density of 43.3 persons per km2. The total area of the city is 1,259.15 square kilometres. Miyako is located in central Iwate Prefecture, bordered by the Pacific Ocean to the east, with the main urban area fronting on Miyako Bay, it is connected to Morioka by an east-west train line and highway and the coastal highway goes through the town. The city has a small port but much of the shipping traffic is taken by larger cities along the coast. Parts of the coastal area of the city are within the borders of the Sanriku Fukkō National Park, part of the mountainous interior is within Hayachine Quasi-National Park. Over 80% of the city area is covered by mountains and forest; the easternmost point of Honshu island is at Cape Todo in Miyako. Iwate Prefecture Morioka Hanamaki Tōno Iwaizumi Yamada Ōtsuchi Miyako has a humid climate characterized by mild summers and cold winters.
The average annual temperature in Miyako is 10.9 °C. The average annual rainfall is 1282 mm with September as the wettest month and February as the driest month; the temperatures are highest on average in August, at around 22.9 °C, lowest in January, at around 0.2 °C. Per Japanese census data, the population of Miyako has declined over the past 40 years; the area of present-day Miyako was part of ancient Mutsu Province, has been settled since at least the Jōmon period. The area was inhabited by the Emishi people, came under the control of the Yamato dynasty during the early Heian period with the construction a fortified settlement on the coast. During the Muromachi period, the area came under the control of the Nambu clan, was the main seaport for Morioka Domain during the Edo period under the Tokugawa shogunate. During the Boshin War of the Meiji restoration, the Battle of Miyako Bay was one of the major naval engagements of the war. Under the Meiji period establishment of the modern municipalities system, the towns of Miyako and Kuwagasaki were established within Higashihei District.
The area was devastated by a 18.9 metres tsunami in 1896, which killed 1859 inhabitants. Higashihei District became part of Shimohei District on April 1, 1897. Miyako and Kuwagasaki merged on April 1, 1924. On March 3, 1933, much of the town was destroyed by the 1933 Sanriku earthquake, which killed 911 people and destroyed over 98% of the buildings in the town. Miyako attained city status on June 20, 1940. On June 6, 2005, Miyako absorbed the town of Tarō, village of Niisato, more than doubling the old city's size. On January 1, 2010, Miyaki absorbed the village of Kawai. On March 11, 2011, Miyako was devastated by a tsunami caused by the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake. Only about 30–60 boats survived from the town's 960 ship fishing fleet. A subsequent field study by the University of Tokyo's Earthquake Research Institute revealed that the waters had reached at least 37.9 metres above sea level equaling the 38.2 metres meter record of the 1896 Sanriku earthquake tsunami. The final reported death toll from the disaster was 420 confirmed dead, 92 missing, 4005 buildings destroyed.
Some of the most iconic footage of the tsunami broadcast worldwide, was shot in Miyako. It shows a dark black wave cresting and overflowing a floodwall and tossing cars, followed by a fishing ship capsizing as it hit the submerged floodwall and crushed as it was forced beneath a bridge. Miyako has a mayor-council form of government with a directly elected mayor and a unicameral city legislature of 28 members; the local economy of Miyako is based on commercial fishing and food processing. Miyako Junior College Miyako has 21 public elementary schools and 11 public junior high schools operated by the city government; the city has five public high schools operated by the Iwate Prefectural Board of Education and one private high school. Iwate Prefecture operates one special education school. East Japan Railway Company – Yamada Line Kuzakai - Matsukusa - Hiratsuto - Kawauchi - Hakoishi - Rikuchū-Kawai - Haratai - Moichi - Hikime - Kebaraichi - Sentoku - Miyako - Sokei - Tsugaruishi Sanriku Railway – Kita-Rias Line Miyako - Yamaguchi Danchi - Ichinowatari - Sabane - Tarō - Settai National Route 45 National Route 106 National Route 340 Port of Miyako Jōdogahama Sanriku Fukkō National Park Cape Todo Mount Hayachine, one of the 100 Famous Japanese Mountains Sakiyama Shell Mound, a Jōmon-period National Historic Site Yantai, Shandong province, China friendship city since April 1, 1966 Benguet, friendship city since August 7, 1992 Nobutoshi Hikage – judoka Toshio Fujiwara – kick-boxer Tokuichiro Tamazawa – politician Miyako was the filming location for Yorokobi mo kanashimi mo ikutoshitsuki starring Hideko Takamine in 1957.
Media related to Miyako, Iwate at Wikimedia Commons Official Website
Tōhoku Main Line
The Tōhoku Main Line is a 575.7 km long railway line in Japan operated by the East Japan Railway Company. Although the line starts from Tokyo Station in Chiyoda, most of the long-distance trains begin at Ueno Station in Taitō, pass through such cities as Saitama, Utsunomiya and Sendai, before reaching the end of the line in Morioka; the line extended to Aomori, but was truncated upon the extension of the Tōhoku Shinkansen beyond Morioka, which parallels the Tōhoku Main Line. The 159.9 km long portion of the line between Ueno Station and Kuroiso Station in Nasushiobara, Tochigi is referred to as the Utsunomiya Line. A portion of the Tōhoku Main Line is shared with the Keihin-Tōhoku Line and the Saikyō Line; these lists are separated by service patterns provided on the Tōhoku Main Line. The section between Ueno and Kuroiso is known as the Utsunomiya Line. ●: All rapid trains stop *: Some rapid trains stop |: All rapid trains pass A: Aterui H: Hamayuri ●: All rapid trains stop |: All rapid trains pass KiHa 100 series E531 series EMUs 701 series EMUs 719 series EMUs E721 series/ SAT721 series EMUs HB-E210 series DMUs - Senseki-Tohoku Line 701 series EMUs The construction of the Tōhoku Main Line began in the Kantō region and extended to the north end of Honshu, the city of Aomori.
It is one of oldest railway lines in Japan, with construction beginning in the late 19th century. Until November 1, 1906, the current Tōhoku Main Line was run by a private company Nippon Railway. In 1883, the first segment between Ueno and Kumagaya opened. In 1885, it was extended to Utsunomiya. Following construction of the Tone River Bridge in 1886, Utsunomiya and Ueno were directly connected; the line extended further to the north. In 1891, the segment between Morioka and Aomori opened, creating the longest continuous railway line in Japan. After 1906, the line was nationalized and became the Tohoku Main Line operated by the Ministry of Railways; when Tokyo Station opened in 1925, the Tōhoku Main Line was extended from Ueno to the new station. Until the 1950s, this segment was used and many trains ran through both the Tōkaidō Main Line and Tohoku Main Line. However, when the Tohoku Shinkansen opened, it occupied land used for the tracks of mid and long-distance Tohoku Main Line trains; as a result, only a small number of commuter lines such as the Keihin-Tohoku Line now operate to Tokyo from the north, making Tokyo Station's status as part of the Tōhoku Main Line somewhat circumspect.
This is set to change in March 2015 when the under-construction Ueno-Tokyo Line is completed, facilitating through service between the Tōkaidō Line and the Utsunomiya and Joban Lines. In 2002, the Tohoku Shinkansen was extended from Morioka to Hachinohe and the operations of the local track segment between those two cities was turned over to Iwate Ginga Railway and Aoimori Railway. With the extension of the Tōhoku Shinkansen to Shin-Aomori station in 2010, the segment between Hachinohe and Aomori was delegated to the Aoimori Railway Company; the shortened Tōhoku Main Line is now the second-longest line in Japan, after the Sanin Main Line. The Tokyo to Omiya section was double-tracked between 1892 and 1896, extended to Furukawa in 1908, Koyama the following year, to Utsunomiya in 1913; the Iwanuma - Sendai - Iwakiri section was double-tracked between 1920 & 1923 and the Utsunomiya - Iwanuma section between 1959 and 1964. The Iwakiri - Morioka - Aomori section was double-tracked between 1951 and 1968, including the 17 km realigned section between Iwakiri and Atago in 1962.
The 7 km Tokyo to Tabata section was electrified at 1,500 V DC in 1909, extended to Akabane in 1928, Omiya in 1932 and Kuroiso in 1959. Electrification was continued north at 20 kV AC, reaching Fukushima in 1960, Sendai in 1961, Morioka in 1965, Aomori in 1968. Hasuda Station: The Bushu Railway operated a 17 km line to Kamine from 1924 until 1938. Mamada Station: A 2 km 610 mm gauge handcar line to Omoigawa operated between 1899 and 1917. Hoshakuji Station: A 12 km line servicing the Utsunomiya Army Airfield operated between 1942 and 1945. Ujiie Station: An 8 km 610 mm gauge handcar line operated to Kitsuregawa between 1902 and 1918. Yaita Station: The Tobu Railway opened the 24 km 762 mm gauge Tobu Yaita Line to Shin Takatoku on 1 March 1924; the line was converted to 1,067 mm gauge in 1929, closed on 30 June 1959. Nishi-Nasuno Station: A 15 km line was opened by the Shiobara Railway to Shiobara in 1912; the line was electrified at 550 V DC in 1921, closed in 1936. The Higashino Railway opened a 24 km line to Nasu Ogawa between 1918 and 1924, the line closing in 1968.
At Otawara Station, it connected with the 762 mm horse-drawn tramway mentioned below for the three years they were both open. A 5 km 762 mm gauge handcar line to Otawara opened in 1908. In 1917, it was converted to a horse-drawn tramway, but closed in 1921. At Otawara Station, it connected with the Higashino Railway line mentioned above. Shirakawa Station: A 23 km line to Iwaki Tanakura was opened by the Shirotana Railway in 1916; the line was nationalised in 1941, closed in 1944. Plans to reopen the line in 1953 resulted in a decision to convert the line to a dedicated busway, which opened in 1957. Koriyama Station: The Fukushima Prefectural Government operated a 13 km 762 mm gauge line to Miharu between 1891 and 1914. Matsukawa Station: A 12 km line to Iwashiro Kawamata operated from
Dairy farming is a class of agriculture for long-term production of milk, processed for eventual sale of a dairy product. Although any mammal can produce milk, commercial dairy farms are one-species enterprises. In developed countries, dairy farms consist of high producing dairy cows. Other species used in commercial dairy farming include goats and camels. In Italy, donkey dairies are growing in popularity to produce an alternative milk source for human infants. While cattle were domesticated as early as 11,000 years ago as a food source and as beasts of burden, the earliest evidence of using domesticated cows for dairy production is the seventh millennium BC - the early Neolithic era - in northwestern Anatolia. Dairy farming developed elsewhere in the world in subsequent centuries: the sixth millennium BC in eastern Europe, the fifth millennium BC in Africa, the fourth millennium BC in Britain and Northern Europe. In the last century or so larger farms specialising in dairy alone have emerged.
Large scale dairy farming is only viable where either a large amount of milk is required for production of more durable dairy products such as cheese, etc. or there is a substantial market of people with cash to buy milk, but no cows of their own. In the 1800s von Thünen argued that there was about a 100-mile radius surrounding a city where such fresh milk supply was economically viable. Centralized dairy farming as we understand it developed around villages and cities, where residents were unable to have cows of their own due to a lack of grazing land. Near the town, farmers could make some extra money on the side by having additional animals and selling the milk in town; the dairy farmers would bring it to market on a wagon. Until the late 19th century, the milking of the cow was done by hand. In the United States, several large dairy operations existed in some northeastern states and in the west, that involved as many as several hundred cows, but an individual milker could not be expected to milk more than a dozen cows a day.
Smaller operations predominated. For most herds, milking took place indoors twice a day, in a barn with the cattle tied by the neck with ropes or held in place by stanchions. Feeding could occur with milking in the barn, although most dairy cattle were pastured during the day between milkings; such examples of this method of dairy farming are difficult to locate, but some are preserved as a historic site for a glimpse into the days gone by. One such instance, open for this is at Point Reyes National Seashore. Dairy farming has been part of agriculture for thousands of years, it has been one part of small, diverse farms. In the last century or so larger farms concentrating on dairy production emerged. Large scale dairy farming is only viable where either a large amount of milk is required for production of more durable dairy products such as cheese, etc. or there is a substantial market of people with cash to buy milk, but no cows of their own. Dairy farms were the best way; the first milking machines were an extension of the traditional milking pail.
The early milker device sat on the floor under the cow. Following each cow being milked, the bucket would be dumped into a holding tank; these were introduced in the early 20th century. This developed into the Surge hanging milker. Prior to milking a cow, a large wide leather strap called a surcingle was put around the cow, across the cow's lower back; the milker device and collection tank hung underneath the cow from the strap. This innovation allowed the cow to move around during the milking process rather than having to stand still over a bucket on the floor; the next innovation in automatic milking was the milk pipeline, introduced in the late 20th century. This uses a permanent milk-return pipe and a second vacuum pipe that encircles the barn or milking parlor above the rows of cows, with quick-seal entry ports above each cow. By eliminating the need for the milk container, the milking device shrank in size and weight to the point where it could hang under the cow, held up only by the sucking force of the milker nipples on the cow's udder.
The milk is pulled up into the milk-return pipe by the vacuum system, flows by gravity to the milkhouse vacuum-breaker that puts the milk in the storage tank. The pipeline system reduced the physical labor of milking since the farmer no longer needed to carry around huge heavy buckets of milk from each cow; the pipeline allowed barn length to keep increasing and expanding, but after a point farmers started to milk the cows in large groups, filling the barn with one-half to one-third of the herd, milking the animals, emptying and refilling the barn. As herd sizes continued to increase, this evolved into the more efficient milking parlor. Innovation in milking focused on mechanizing the milking parlor to maximize the number of cows per operator which streamlined the milking process to permit cows to be milked as if on an assembly line, to reduce physical stresses on the farmer by putting the cows on a platform above the person milking the cows to eliminate having to bend over. Many older and smaller farms still have tie-stall or stanchion barns, but worldwide a majority of commercial farms have parlors.
In herringbone and parallel parlors, the milker milks one row at a time. The milker will move a row of cows from the holding yard into the milking parlor, milk each cow in that row. Once all of the milking machines have been removed from the milked row, the milker releases the cows
The Meiji period, or Meiji era, is an era of Japanese history which extended from October 23, 1868 to July 30, 1912. This era represents the first half of the Empire of Japan, during which period the Japanese people moved from being an isolated feudal society at risk of colonisation by European powers to the new paradigm of a modern, industrialised nationstate and emergent great power, influenced by Western scientific, philosophical, political and aesthetic ideas; as a result of such wholesale adoption of radically-different ideas, the changes to Japan were profound, affected its social structure, internal politics, economy and foreign relations. The period corresponded to the reign of Emperor Meiji and was succeeded upon the accession of Emperor Taishō by the Taishō period. On February 3, 1867, the 14-year-old Prince Mutsuhito succeeded his father, Emperor Kōmei, to the Chrysanthemum Throne as the 122nd emperor. On November 9, 1867, then-shōgun Tokugawa Yoshinobu tendered his resignation to the Emperor, formally stepped down ten days later.
Imperial restoration occurred the next year on January 3, 1868, with the formation of the new government. The fall of Edo in the summer of 1868 marked the end of the Tokugawa shogunate, a new era, was proclaimed; the first reform was the promulgation of the Five Charter Oath in 1868, a general statement of the aims of the Meiji leaders to boost morale and win financial support for the new government. Its five provisions consisted of: Establishment of deliberative assemblies. Implicit in the Charter Oath was an end to exclusive political rule by the bakufu, a move toward more democratic participation in government. To implement the Charter Oath, a rather short-lived constitution with eleven articles was drawn up in June 1868. Besides providing for a new Council of State, legislative bodies, systems of ranks for nobles and officials, it limited office tenure to four years, allowed public balloting, provided for a new taxation system, ordered new local administrative rules; the Meiji government assured the foreign powers that it would follow the old treaties negotiated by the bakufu and announced that it would act in accordance with international law.
Mutsuhito, to reign until 1912, selected a new reign title—Meiji, or Enlightened Rule—to mark the beginning of a new era in Japanese history. To further dramatize the new order, the capital was relocated from Kyoto, where it had been situated since 794, to Tokyo, the new name for Edo. In a move critical for the consolidation of the new regime, most daimyōs voluntarily surrendered their land and census records to the Emperor in the abolition of the Han system, symbolizing that the land and people were under the Emperor's jurisdiction. Confirmed in their hereditary positions, the daimyo became governors, the central government assumed their administrative expenses and paid samurai stipends; the han were replaced with prefectures in 1871, authority continued to flow to the national government. Officials from the favored former han, such as Satsuma, Chōshū, Hizen staffed the new ministries. Old court nobles, lower-ranking but more radical samurai, replaced bakufu appointees and daimyo as a new ruling class appeared.
In as much as the Meiji Restoration had sought to return the Emperor to a preeminent position, efforts were made to establish a Shinto-oriented state much like it was 1,000 years earlier. Since Shinto and Buddhism had molded into a syncretic belief in the prior one-thousand years and Buddhism had been connected with the shogunate, this involved the separation of Shinto and Buddhism and the associated destruction of various Buddhist temples and related violence. Furthermore, a new State Shinto had to be constructed for the purpose. In 1871, the Office of Shinto Worship was established, ranking above the Council of State in importance; the kokutai ideas of the Mito school were embraced, the divine ancestry of the Imperial House was emphasized. The government supported a small but important move. Although the Office of Shinto Worship was demoted in 1872, by 1877 the Home Ministry controlled all Shinto shrines and certain Shinto sects were given state recognition. Shinto was released from Buddhist administration and its properties restored.
Although Buddhism suffered from state sponsorship of Shinto, it had its own resurgence. Christianity was legalized, Confucianism remained an important ethical doctrine. However, Japanese thinkers identified with Western ideology and methods. A major proponent of representative government was Itagaki Taisuke, a powerful Tosa leader who had resigned from the Council of State over the Korean affair in 1873. Itagaki sought peaceful, rather than rebellious, he started a school and a movement aimed at establishing a constitutional monarchy and a legislative assembly. Such movements were called People's Rights Movement. Itagaki and others wrote the Tosa Memorial in 1874, criticizing the unbridled power of the oligarchy and calling for the immediate establishment of representative government. Between 1871 and 1873, a series of land and tax laws were enacted as the basis for modern fiscal policy. Private ownership was legalized, deeds were issued, lands were assessed at fair market value with taxes paid in cash rather than in k
The Nanbu clan was a Japanese samurai clan who ruled most of northeastern Honshū in the Tōhoku region of Japan for over 700 years, from the Kamakura period through the Meiji Restoration of 1868. The Nanbu claimed descent from the Seiwa Genji of Kai Province and were thus related to the Takeda clan; the clan moved its seat from Kai to Mutsu Province in the early Muromachi period, were confirmed as daimyō of Morioka Domain under the Edo-period Tokugawa shogunate. The domain was in constant conflict with neighboring Hirosaki Domain, whose ruling Tsugaru clan were once Nanbu retainers. During the Boshin War of 1868–69, the Nanbu clan fought on the site of the Ōuetsu Reppan Dōmei, supporting the Tokugawa regime. After Meiji Restoration, the Nanbu clan had much of its land confiscated, in 1871, the heads of its branches were relieved of office. In the Meiji period, the former daimyō became part of the kazoku peerage, with Nanbu Toshiyuki receiving the title of hakushaku; the main Nanbu line survives to the present day.
The Nanbu clan claimed descent from the Seiwa Genji of Kai Province. Minamoto no Yoshimitsu was awarded Kai Province following the Gosannen War, his great-grandson Nobuyoshi took the surname Takeda. Another great grandson, took the name "Nanbu", after the location of his estates in Kai Province, which are now part of the town of Nanbu, Yamanashi. Nanbu Mitsuyuki joined Minamoto no Yoritomo at the Battle of Ishibashiyama and served in various mid-level positions within the Kamakura shogunate and is mentioned several times in the Azuma Kagami, he accompanied Yoritomo in the conquest of the Hiraizumi Fujiwara in 1189, was awarded with vast estates in Nukanobu District the extreme northeast of Honshū, building Shōjujidate Castle in what is now Nanbu, Aomori. The area was dominated by horse ranches, the Nanbu grew powerful and wealthy on the supply of warhorses; these horse ranches were fortified stockades, numbered one through nine, were awarded to the six sons of Nanbu Mitsuyuki, forming the six main branches of the Nanbu clan.
During the Nanboku-chō period following the fall of the Kamakura shogunate in 1333, Nanbu Motoyuki accompanied Kitabatake Akiie north when he was appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Defense of the North, Shugo of Mutsu Province. Nanbu Motoyuki established Ne Castle, intended to be a center for the imperial government administration in the area; this marked the official transfer of the seat of the Nanbu clan from Kai Province to Mutsu. Nanbu Motoyuki was under allegiance to the Southern Court; the two branches of the clan made peace with each other in 1393. Although the Nanbu clan by the time of the 24th hereditary chieftain Nanbu Harumasa controlled seven districts of northern Mutsu province, the clan was more of a loose collection of competing branches without strong central authority; this weakness was exploited by the Ōura clan, a cadet branch of the Nanbu, who revolted in 1572. Ōura Tamenobu was vice-district magistrate under the Nanbu clan's local magistrate Ishikawa Takanobu. Tamenobu attacked Kitabatake Akimura and took Namioka Castle.
The Ōura clan's fight against the Nanbu clan, beginning with Nanbu Nobunao, would continue in the ensuing two centuries. In 1590, Tamenobu pledged fealty to Toyotomi Hideyoshi; as the Ōura fief had been in the Tsugaru region on the northwestern tip of Honshū, the family changed its name to "Tsugaru". After the death of Nanbu Harumasa in 1582, the clan split into several competing factions. In 1590, the Sannohe faction led by Nanbu Nobunao organized a coalition of most of the Nambu clans and pledged allegiance to Toyotomi Hideyoshi at the Siege of Odawara. In return, he was recognized as chieftain of the Nanbu clans, confirmed as daimyō of his existing holdings. However, Kunohe Masazane, who felt that he had a stronger claim to the title of clan chieftain rose in rebellion; the Kunohe Rebellion was swiftly suppressed and Hideyoshi compensated the Nanbu for the loss of Tsugaru with the addition of the districts of Hienuki and Waga as compensation. Nanbu Nobunao relocated his seat from Sannohe Castle to the more central location of Morioka, began work on Morioka Castle and its surrounding castle town in 1592.
The Nanbu clan sided with Tokugawa Ieyasu's Eastern Army during the Battle of Sekigahara. In the wake of Ieyasu's victory, the Nanbu clan was confirmed in its lordship of Morioka Domain; the kokudaka of the domain was 100,000 koku, but in the Edo era, was doubled in amount. The Nanbu clan retained its holdings for the entirety of the Edo period, surviving until the Meiji Restoration. During the Edo period, two new branches of the Nanbu clan were founded, one at Hachinohe, the other one at Shichinohe. In 1821, the old tensions between the Nanbu and Tsugaru flared once more, in the wake of the Sōma Daisaku Incident, a foiled plot by Sōma Daisaku, a former retainer of the Nanbu clan, to assassinate the Tsugaru lord; the Nanbu clan's territories were among those effected by the Tenpō famine of the mid-1830s. As with many other domains of northern Honshū, the Morioka Domain was assigned by the shogunate to policing portions of the frontier region of Ezochi (
Shizukuishi is a town located in Iwate Prefecture, Japan. As of 1 October 2016, the town had an estimated population of 16,704, a population density of 27.4 persons per km². The total area of the town is 608.82 square kilometres. Shizukuishi is located in the Ōu Mountains of west-central Iwate Prefecture, bordering Akita Prefecture to the west. Mount Iwate, an active volcano, dominates the landscape; the Ōu Mountains form the boundary to the west as well with Akita Komagatake, another active volcano, just across the border in Akita Prefecture. The downtown area is located where the Kakkonda Rivers meet. Gosho Lake was created in 1981 with the completion of Gosho Dam. Iwate Prefecture Morioka Yahaba Shiwa Hanamaki Nishiwaga Takizawa Hachimantai Akita Prefecture Semboku Shizukuishi has a cold humid continental climate characterized by mild summers and cold winters with heavy snowfall; the average annual temperature in Shizukuishi is 9.2 °C. The average annual rainfall is 1469 mm with September as the wettest month and February as the driest month.
The temperatures are highest on average in August, at around 23.2 °C, lowest in January, at around -3.7 °C. Per Japanese census data, the population of Shizukuishi peaked around the year 2000, but has declined since then; the area of present-day Shizukuishi has been inhabited since the earliest times. Archaeologists have found remains dating to the Japanese Paleolithic period; the area come under the control of the Yamato dynasty during the early Heian period under the campaigns of Sakanoue no Tamuramaro, was part of ancient Mutsu Province. The area was a battlefield during the Gosannen War, it came under the control of the Nambu clan, who ruled from Morioka Domain under the Edo period Tokugawa shogunate. In the Meiji period, the villages of Shizukuishi, Gosho and Omyojin within Minami-Iwate District were created on April 1, 1889, with the establishment of the modern municipalities system. Kita-Iwate District and Minami-Iwate Districts merged to form Iwate District on March 29, 1896. Shizukuishi was raised to town status on December 23, 1940.
On April 1, 1955, Shizukuishi merged with Gosho and Omyojin, but lost a portion of its territory in a border adjustment with Morioka City on October 1 of the same year. The All Nippon Airways Flight 58 accident occurred over Shizukuishi on July 30, 1971; the local economy is based on agriculture and seasonal tourism. Koiwai Farm, based in Takizawa, is the largest owned dairy production center in Japan; the farm produces a full range of dairy products distributed throughout the nation. Shizukuishi has ten public elementary schools and one middle schools operated by the town government, one public high school operated by the Iwate Prefectural Board of Education. East Japan Railway Company – Akita Shinkansen Shizukuishi East Japan Railway Company – Tazawako Line Shizukuishi - Harukiba - Akabuchi Japan National Route 46 In winter, numerous ski resorts come to life. Due to the town's rural nature, low income and low population Yoshiaki Tsutsumi, Japan's richest man at the time, was able to build a large ski area and hotel without the kind of "organized opposition of environmentalists" which stymied his plans elsewhere in Japan.
Koiwai Farm is a working tourist attraction. A number of the farm buildings have been named National Tangible Cultural Properties; the farm has been used as a shooting location for television dramas and movies. Every year Koiwai Farm puts on the Koiwai Snow Festival; this festival is noteworthy for its giant snow sculptures. The town is known for its annual hemp festival every year in August which draws "crowds of sightseers". Media related to Shizukuishi, Iwate at Wikimedia Commons Official Website
The Edo period or Tokugawa period is the period between 1603 and 1868 in the history of Japan, when Japanese society was under the rule of the Tokugawa shogunate and the country's 300 regional daimyō. The period was characterized by economic growth, strict social order, isolationist foreign policies, a stable population, "no more wars", popular enjoyment of arts and culture; the shogunate was established in Edo on March 24, 1603, by Tokugawa Ieyasu. The period came to an end with the Meiji Restoration on May 1868, after the fall of Edo. A revolution took place from the time of the Kamakura shogunate, which existed with the Tennō's court, to the Tokugawa, when the samurai became the unchallenged rulers in what historian Edwin O. Reischauer called a "centralized feudal" form of shogunate. Instrumental in the rise of the new-existing bakufu was Tokugawa Ieyasu, the main beneficiary of the achievements of Oda Nobunaga and Toyotomi Hideyoshi. Powerful, Ieyasu profited by his transfer to the rich Kantō area.
He maintained two million koku of land, a new headquarters at Edo, a strategically situated castle town, had an additional two million koku of land and thirty-eight vassals under his control. After Hideyoshi's death, Ieyasu moved to seize control from the Toyotomi clan. Ieyasu's victory over the western daimyō at the Battle of Sekigahara gave him control of all Japan, he abolished numerous enemy daimyō houses, reduced others, such as that of the Toyotomi, redistributed the spoils of war to his family and allies. Ieyasu still failed to achieve complete control of the western daimyō, but his assumption of the title of shōgun helped consolidate the alliance system. After further strengthening his power base, Ieyasu installed his son Hidetada as shōgun and himself as retired shōgun in 1605; the Toyotomi were still a significant threat, Ieyasu devoted the next decade to their eradication. In 1615, the Tokugawa army destroyed the Toyotomi stronghold at Osaka; the Tokugawa period brought 250 years of stability to Japan.
The political system evolved into what historians call bakuhan, a combination of the terms bakufu and han to describe the government and society of the period. In the bakuhan, the shōgun had national authority and the daimyō had regional authority; this represented a new unity in the feudal structure, which featured an large bureaucracy to administer the mixture of centralized and decentralized authorities. The Tokugawa became more powerful during their first century of rule: land redistribution gave them nearly seven million koku, control of the most important cities, a land assessment system reaping great revenues; the feudal hierarchy was completed by the various classes of daimyō. Closest to the Tokugawa house were the shinpan, or "related houses", they were twenty-three daimyō on the borders of Tokugawa lands. The shinpan held honorary titles and advisory posts in the bakufu; the second class of the hierarchy were the fudai, or "house daimyō", rewarded with lands close to the Tokugawa holdings for their faithful service.
By the 18th century, 145 fudai controlled the greatest assessed at 250,000 koku. Members of the fudai class staffed most of the major bakufu offices. Ninety-seven han formed the tozama, former opponents or new allies; the tozama were located on the peripheries of the archipelago and collectively controlled nearly ten million koku of productive land. Because the tozama were least trusted of the daimyō, they were the most cautiously managed and generously treated, although they were excluded from central government positions; the Tokugawa shogunate not only consolidated their control over a reunified Japan, they had unprecedented power over the emperor, the court, all daimyō and the religious orders. The emperor was held up as the ultimate source of political sanction for the shōgun, who ostensibly was the vassal of the imperial family; the Tokugawa helped the imperial family recapture its old glory by rebuilding its palaces and granting it new lands. To ensure a close tie between the imperial clan and the Tokugawa family, Ieyasu's granddaughter was made an imperial consort in 1619.
A code of laws was established to regulate the daimyō houses. The code encompassed private conduct, dress, types of weapons and numbers of troops allowed. Although the daimyō were not taxed per se, they were levied for contributions for military and logistical support and for such public works projects as castles, roads and palaces; the various regulations and levies not only strengthened the Tokugawa but depleted the wealth of the daimyō, thus weakening their threat to the central administration. The han, once military-centered domains, became mere local administrative units; the daimyō did have full administrative control over their territory and their complex systems of retainers and commoners. Loyalty was exacted from religious foundations greatly weakened by Nobunaga and Hideyoshi, through a variety of control mechanisms. Like Hideyoshi, Ieyasu encouraged foreign trade but was suspicious of outsiders, he wanted to make Edo a major port, but once he learned that the Europeans favored ports in Kyūshū and that China had rejected his plans for official trade, he moved to control existing trade