The French Revolution was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies beginning in 1789. The Revolution overthrew the monarchy, established a republic, catalyzed violent periods of political turmoil, culminated in a dictatorship under Napoleon who brought many of its principles to areas he conquered in Western Europe and beyond. Inspired by liberal and radical ideas, the Revolution profoundly altered the course of modern history, triggering the global decline of absolute monarchies while replacing them with republics and liberal democracies. Through the Revolutionary Wars, it unleashed a wave of global conflicts that extended from the Caribbean to the Middle East. Historians regard the Revolution as one of the most important events in human history; the causes of the French Revolution are still debated among historians. Following the Seven Years' War and the American Revolution, the French government was in debt, it attempted to restore its financial status through unpopular taxation schemes, which were regressive.
Leading up to the Revolution, years of bad harvests worsened by deregulation of the grain industry and environmental problems inflamed popular resentment of the privileges enjoyed by the aristocracy and the Catholic clergy of the established church. Some historians hold something similar to what Thomas Jefferson proclaimed: that France had "been awakened by our Revolution." Demands for change were formulated in terms of Enlightenment ideals and contributed to the convocation of the Estates General in May 1789. During the first year of the Revolution, members of the Third Estate took control, the Bastille was attacked in July, the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen was passed in August, the Women's March on Versailles forced the royal court back to Paris in October. A central event of the first stage, in August 1789, was the abolition of feudalism and the old rules and privileges left over from the Ancien Régime; the next few years featured political struggles between various liberal assemblies and right-wing supporters of the monarchy intent on thwarting major reforms.
The Republic was proclaimed in September 1792 after the French victory at Valmy. In a momentous event that led to international condemnation, Louis XVI was executed in January 1793. External threats shaped the course of the Revolution; the Revolutionary Wars beginning in 1792 featured French victories that facilitated the conquest of the Italian Peninsula, the Low Countries and most territories west of the Rhine – achievements that had eluded previous French governments for centuries. Internally, popular agitation radicalised the Revolution culminating in the rise of Maximilien Robespierre and the Jacobins; the dictatorship imposed by the Committee of Public Safety during the Reign of Terror, from 1793 until 1794, established price controls on food and other items, abolished slavery in French colonies abroad, de-established the Catholic church and created a secular Republican calendar, religious leaders were expelled, the borders of the new republic were secured from its enemies. After the Thermidorian Reaction, an executive council known as the Directory assumed control of the French state in 1795.
They suspended elections, repudiated debts, persecuted the Catholic clergy, made significant military conquests abroad. Dogged by charges of corruption, the Directory collapsed in a coup led by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1799. Napoleon, who became the hero of the Revolution through his popular military campaigns, established the Consulate and the First Empire, setting the stage for a wider array of global conflicts in the Napoleonic Wars; the modern era has unfolded in the shadow of the French Revolution. All future revolutionary movements looked back to the Revolution as their predecessor, its central phrases and cultural symbols, such as La Marseillaise and Liberté, fraternité, égalité, ou la mort, became the clarion call for other major upheavals in modern history, including the Russian Revolution over a century later. The values and institutions of the Revolution dominate French politics to this day; the Revolution resulted in the suppression of the feudal system, emancipation of the individual, a greater division of landed property, abolition of the privileges of noble birth, nominal establishment of equality among men.
The French Revolution differed from other revolutions in being not only national, for it intended to benefit all humanity. Globally, the Revolution accelerated the rise of democracies, it became the focal point for the development of most modern political ideologies, leading to the spread of liberalism, radicalism and secularism, among many others. The Revolution witnessed the birth of total war by organising the resources of France and the lives of its citizens towards the objective of military conquest; some of its central documents, such as the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, continued to inspire movements for abolitionism and universal suffrage in the next century. Historians have pointed to many events and factors within the Ancien Régime that led to the Revolution. Rising social and economic inequality, new political ideas emerging from the Enlightenment, economic mismanagement, environmental factors leading to agricultural failure, unmanageable national debt, political mismanagement on the part of King Louis XVI have all been cited as laying the groundwork for the Revolution.
Over the course of the 18th century, there emerged what the philosopher Jürgen Habermas called the idea of the "public sphere" in France and elsewhere
Pirmasens is an independent town in Rhineland-Palatinate, near the border with France. It was famous for the manufacture of shoes; the surrounding rural district was called Landkreis Pirmasens from 1818 until 1997, when it was renamed to Südwestpfalz. Pirmasens can be mistaken with Primasens, of which means a first sense in Latin-derived languages; the first mention of "Pirminiseusna", a colony of Hornbach Abbey, dates from 860. The name derives from the founder of the cloister. During the period it was under rule of the Bishopric of Metz. Homepage of the Protestant church communities and Brenschelbach Hornbach: The history of the monastery of Hornbach</ref> It was passed to Diocese of Speyer in last quarter of 11th century before capturing by County of Saarbrücken in 1100. In 1182, County of Saarbrücken was divided by Simon II and Henry I, were sons of Simon I. Pirmasens was given to latter and Henry I's dominion was named as County of Zweibrücken, he built Lemberg Castle for protecting his dominion in 1198.
During the period Pirmasens was formal jurisdiction in Bishop of Metz. But, parish administration of Pirmasens was passed to monastery of Hornbach after confirmation of John, Bishop of Metz in 1225. In 1297, County of Zweibrücken was divided and Pirmasens was passed to County of Zweibrücken-Bitsch, Eberhard I's dominion, he traded some localities with Duke Frederick III of Lorraine and took lordship of Bitsch at same year. In this period village of Pirmasens was part of Reischsamt of Lemberg. In 1525, during German Peasants' War, Pirmasens was looted by peasants of Bitsch. In 1560, Ludowika Margaretha of Zweibrücken-Bitsch, was daughter of Count James of Zweibrücken-Bitsch, was the last male member of the House of Zweibrücken, was married of Philip V, Count of Hanau-Lichtenberg. In 1570, County of James of Zweibrücken-Bitsch died without male heir and Countess Ludowika Margaretha inherited the County of Bitsch, the Lordship of Ochsenstein and half the Lordship of Lichtenberg. James's older brother, Simon V Wecker, had died in 1540 without a male heir.
A dispute about the inheritance erupted between the husbands of Ludowika Margaretha and her cousin Amalie, Philip V of Hanau-Lichtenberg and Philip I of Leiningen-Westerburg, respectively. Formally, the County of Bitsch and district of Lemberg were fiefs of the Duchy of Lorraine and such fiefs could only be inherited in the male line. Philip V was successful in the dispute with Philip I about Zweibrücken-Bitsch. However, he introduced the Lutheran confession in his newly gained territories in 1572; this made the Catholic Duke of Lorraine unhappy. The Duke terminated the fief and in July 1572 Lorraine troops occupied the county. Since Philip V's army was no match for Lorraine, he took his case to the Imperial Chamber Court in Speyer. During the trial, Lorraine argued that, firstly, a significant part of the territory of Zweibrücken-Bitsch had been obtained in an exchange with Lorraine in 1302 and, the Counts of Leiningen had sold their hereditary claims to Lorraine in 1573. In 1604, Hanau-Lichtenberg and Lorraine decided to settle out of court.
In a treaty signed in 1606, it was agreed that Bitsch would revert to Lorraine and Hanau-Lichtenberg would retain Lemberg. This was reasonable, as it corresponded to the religious realities of the territories. Thus, Pirmasens was part of County of Hanau-Lichtenberg. Before the Thirty Years War, Pirmasens had 59 families and about 235 inhabitants resident, whereas in Lemberg were counted 54 families; when counting is assumed that at that time there was a family of four to five people. In 1622, Pirmasens and Lemberg were ravaged by Spaniards and Croatian horsemen of the Imperial troops; the imperial army set fire to the village. The church was destroyed in a fire, after the withdrawal of the troops, Pirmasenser began to rebuild it, it was again ravaged by imperial troops under Matthias Gallas. They looted Lemberg Castle, burned in 1636; the headquarters of the Lutheran parish of Lemberg was moved to Pirmasens. But, it was damaged in it. In 1657, only 9 families were lived in it. However, the population increased by immigration Reformed Swiss, Catholic Tyrolean and families from Franconia and Württemberg so that in 1661 in Pirmasens 21 families were counted.
However, during Franco-Dutch War, Louis XIV sent troops to the Palatinate under his marshall Turenne for relieve fortress of Landau and reinforce imperial ones. In 1677 Pirmasens burned, it was under French rule until 1679. In 1691, only 16 people were lived in village of Pirmasens. During the Nine Years' War, it was sacked by French troops under General de Ezéchiel Mélac, who devastated the Palatinate in 1689. At same time the Lemberg Castle was still habitable after the destruction of the Thirty Years' War destroyed. Thus, administrative centre of Reichsamt Lemberg was moved to Pirmasens in 1697. So, Pirmasens elevated to town status. In 1736, Johann Reinhard III, who last count of Hanau-Lichtenberg, died without male heir and the duchy was passed to Landgrave Ludwig IX of Hesse-Darmstadt, son of Countess Charlotte of Hanau-Lichtenberg, sole heir of County of Hanau Lichtenberg and Ludwig VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt. In 1763 Pirmasens is chartered by landgrave Ludwig IX. In 1793 it was the location of the Battle of Pirmasens between Prussia and Braunschweig against the French Corps of the Vosges.
The French lost the battle, but their opponents' divisions enabled them to return and occupy Pirmasens by the end of the year: between 1798 and 1814, the town was included in the French département of Mont-Tonnerre ("Donnersberg-Départemen
County of Hanau
The County of Hanau was a territory within the Holy Roman Empire, evolved out of the Lordship of Hanau in 1429. From 1456 to 1642 and from 1685 to 1712 it was divided into the County of Hanau-Münzenberg and the County of Hanau-Lichtenberg. After both lines became extinct the County of Hanau-Münzenberg was inherited by the Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel, the County of Hanau-Lichtenberg by the Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt in 1736. In 1429 Emperor Sigismund of the Holy Roman Empire declared Reinhard II. of Hanau a count, so his possessions, the Lordship of Hanau, became the County of Hanau. The main part of it was positioned to the north of the river Main stretching from the West of Frankfurt am Main eastwards through the valley of the river Kinzig to Schlüchtern and into the Spessart mountains to Partenstein. Not correct the title County of Hanau is used in literature sometimes for its territorial predecessor, the Lordship of Hanau; this elevation in rank was an outer sign for the political and economical success of Reinhard II.
Only one year after the death of Reinhard II his son and successor, Reinhard III died too, leaving as heir his son Philipp I a boy four years of age. It was in no way certain; this was a threat to the further existence of the family of the counts of Hanau. The only other living male of the family was Philipp I, a brother to Reinhard III and uncle to Philipp I. Due to the Hanau Statute of Primogeniture of 1375 only the eldest son of a reigning count of Hanau was allowed to marry and produce offspring able to inherit the title and county; this caused a conflict within the family producing two parties: The mother of Philipp I, Countess Palatine Margaret of Mosbach, her father, Otto I, Count Palatine of Mosbach, on one side insiting on the Statute of Primogeniture. Their interest lay in securing the whole, undivided inheritance for Philipp I. On the other side stood Philipp I and most of the influential persons and institutions in the county, including its four towns; the conflict lasted until 1457.
In 1458 this led to the solution Philipp I wished: The administrative District of Babenhausen –, all the territory of the county south of the river Main – was separated from the county and given to Philipp I. It became the nucleus of the county of Hanau-Lichtenberg; the remaining county was called Hanau-Münzenberg to distinguish the two counties. In 1642 the last male member of the Hanau-Münzenberg family, Count Johann Ernst, died; the next male of kin was Friedrich Casimir, Count of Hanau-Lichtenberg still a minor under the guardianship of Georg II of Fleckenstein-Dagstuhl. The relation to count Johann Ernst was quite remote and the inheritance endangered in more than one way; the inheritance happened during the final years of Thirty Years' War, the feudal Overlords enemy to Hanau, tried to hold back fiefs traditionally held by Hanau-Münzenberg, the county of Hanau-Münzenberg was of Reformed Confession, Friedrich Casimir and the county of Hanau-Lichtenberg were Lutheran and to reach the capital of Hanau-Münzenberg, the town of Hanau, proved to be difficult for the heir: Friedrich Casimir only managed by travelling in disguise.
Georg II of Fleckenstein-Dagstuhl managed the succession of Friedrich Casimir by two treaties: Parties to the first one of 1642 were Friedrich Casimir and the wealthy bourgoisie of Hanau. The count granted the reformed faith as state religion within Hanau-Münzenberg only reserving Lutheran services for himself and his court. Therefore, the citizens of Hanau – by far the strongest power within the devasteted county – sopported the accession of Friedrich Casimir. Parties to the second one of 1643 were Friedrich Casimir and Landgravine Amalie Elisabeth, née countess of Hanau-Münzenberg, daughter to Philipp Ludwig II, she granted diplomatic support against the still resistend overlords. Therefore, Friedrich Casimir granted – should the house of Hanau be without male heirs – the inheritance of Hanau-Münzenberg to the descendants of Amalie Elisabeth; that happened in 1736. These treaties secured the unification of the two Hanau counties under one ruler and saved Hanau-Münzenberg as a unit. Against the treaty of accession between Friedrich Casimir and his Hanau subjects he tried to enlarge the influence of the Lutherans within Hanau-Münzenberg: The first twenty years of his reign the Lutheran services were limited to the chapel in his castle in Hanau.
But due to growing numbers from 1658-1662 an own church building for the Lutherans was erected in the town against the protest of the reformed majority, the Johanneskirche. Both parties struggled against each other for decades, tried to prevent – unsuccessfully – mixed marriages and fought one another. An additional treaty of 1670 allowed the Lutherans their own church; this resulted in two parallel churches within the county of Hanau-Münzenberg each one having its own administration. Therefore, a lot of villages in Hanau-Münzenberg had a set of reformed church, school and cemetery and another one for the Lutherans. Only the Enlightenment and the economic crises of the Napoleonic Wars let to the Hanau Union which ended this double structure in 1818. Sibylle Christine of Anhalt-Dessau, the widow of Count Philipp Moritz, the ruling count until 1638 had received Steinau Castle as her widow seat; as widow of a ruling count, she could raise substantial claims against the county. To avoid this, it was decided to marry Friedrich Casimir to the widow, 44 years old at the time 20 years older than he.
An added advantage of this marriage was that she was a Calvinist whi
The County of Zweibrücken-Bitsch was a territory of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation, created between 1286 and 1302 from the eastern part of the old County of Zweibrücken and the Barony of Bitche in Lorraine. It continued to exist until 1570 and was divided amongst its heirs when the counts died out; when the land of Zweibrücken was divided amongst the sons of Count Henry II of Zweibrücken, the district of Lemberg and Lemberg Castle went to the elder son, Eberhard I from 1286. His portion included Morsberg and Saargemünd. In 1297 he swapped these three castles with Duke Frederick III of Lorraine and received in return the castle and lordship of Bitsch as a fief; this exchange of territory was further defined in 1302. From on, Eberhard called himself the Count of Zweibrücken and Lord of Bitsch; because he and his descendants bore the comital title, the new territory was called the County of Zweibrücken-Bitsch. Other lands were managed jointly by Eberhard I and his younger brother, Walram I, given the Amt of Zweibrücken.
These were not apportioned until 1333. Walram inherited Stauf Castle and the town and abbey of Hornbach. Eberhard received Thaleischweiler and part-ownership of the castles of Landeck and Lindelbronn. In the period that followed the counts of Bitsch succeeded in acquiring a few other properties, but only in the immediate vicinity; when their Zweibrücken cousins died out in 1394, they did receive parts of the inheritance, but not the County of Zweibrücken because the last count had sold his county in 1385 to Electoral Palatinate. In the 16th century, Count James succeeded for the last time in establishing a clear concentration of power in northern Alsace and southern Palatinate: in 1559 he obtained the Barony of Ochsenstein because the side line of Zweibrücken-Bitsch-Ochsenstein, that had existed since 1485, had died out. Because, James as well as his brother Simon V Wecker had each only produced a daughter, a dispute broke out in 1570 after James' death between the husbands of the two cousins, Count Philip I of Leiningen-Westerburg and Count Philip V of Hanau-Lichtenberg.
Whilst Philip V of Hanau-Lichtenberg was able to overpower Philip I, his immediate introduction of Lutheranism in the course of the Reformation made himself an enemy of the powerful, Roman Catholic Duchy of Lorraine under Duke Charles III, who had the suzerainty of Bitsch. In July 1572 troops of Lorraine occupied the county; because Philip V could not match Lorraine's military might, he sought legal redress. During the subsequent trial before the Reichskammergericht, Lorraine was able to point both to the exchange agreement of 1302 as well as the fact that, in 1573, it had purchased the hereditary rights of the counts of Leiningen. In 1604 there was a contractual agreement between Lorraine; this saw the Amt of Lemberg going to the County of Hanau-Lichtenberg and the Amt of Bitsch to the Duchy of Lorraine. 13 May 1297 – 1321: Eberhard Ihis grandparents were Count Henry I and his wife, Hedwig of Lorraine, a daughter of Frederick of Bitsch.1321–1355: Simon I m Agnes of Lichtenberg 1355–1400: John I 1400–1418: John IIinitially ruled jointly with his brother, Simon III Wecker 1418–1474: Frederickhis brother, Henry I, married Cunigunde of Ochsenstein and founded the side line of Zweibrücken-Bitsch-Ochsenstein1474–1499: Simon IV Wecker m Elisabeth of Lichtenberg: b 1444, d 1495, daughter-heir 1499–1532: Reinhard, Lord of Lichtenberg and Bitsch, Count of Zweibrücken m Anna of Dhaun, daughter of John VI, Wild-Rhine Count of Dhaun and Kirburg and Joanna of Salm.
Hans-Walter Herrmann: Die Grafschaft Zweibrücken-Bitsch. In: Kurt Hoppstädter, Hans-Walter Herrmann: Geschichtliche Landeskunde des Saarlandes. Vol. 2: Von der fränkischen Landnahme bis zum Ausbruch der französischen Revolution. Saarbrücken, 1977, pp. 323–332. ISBN 3-921870-00-3 Johann Georg Lehmann: Urkundliche Geschichte der Grafschaft Hanau-Lichtenberg. Mannheim, 1862. Detlev Schwennicke: Europäische Stammtafeln, Vol. XVII – Zwischen Maas und Rhein. Frankfurt, 1998, pp. 148–149
Louis XIV of France
Louis XIV, known as Louis the Great or the Sun King, was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who reigned as King of France from 1643 until his death in 1715. Starting on 14 May 1643 when Louis was 4 years old, his reign of 72 years and 110 days is the longest recorded of any monarch of a sovereign country in European history. In the age of absolutism in Europe, Louis XIV's France was a leader in the growing centralisation of power. Louis began his personal rule of France in 1661, after the death of his chief minister, the Italian Cardinal Mazarin. An adherent of the concept of the divine right of kings, Louis continued his predecessors' work of creating a centralised state governed from the capital, he sought to eliminate the remnants of feudalism persisting in parts of France and, by compelling many members of the nobility to inhabit his lavish Palace of Versailles, succeeded in pacifying the aristocracy, many members of which had participated in the Fronde rebellion during Louis' minority. By these means he became one of the most powerful French monarchs and consolidated a system of absolute monarchical rule in France that endured until the French Revolution.
Louis encouraged and benefited from the work of prominent political and cultural figures such as Mazarin, Louvois, the Grand Condé, Turenne, Sébastien Le Prestre de Vauban, André Charles Boulle, Molière, Boileau, La Fontaine, Marais, Le Brun, Bossuet, Le Vau, Charles, Claude Perrault, Le Nôtre. Under his rule, the Edict of Nantes, which granted rights to Huguenots, was abolished; the revocation forced Huguenots to emigrate or convert in a wave of dragonnades, which managed to destroy the French Protestant minority. During Louis' long reign, France was the leading European power, it fought three major wars: the Franco-Dutch War, the War of the League of Augsburg, the War of the Spanish Succession. There were two lesser conflicts: the War of Devolution and the War of the Reunions. Warfare defined the foreign policy of Louis XIV, his personality shaped his approach. Impelled "by a mix of commerce and pique", Louis sensed that warfare was the ideal way to enhance his glory. In peacetime he concentrated on preparing for the next war.
He taught his diplomats that their job was to create tactical and strategic advantages for the French military. Louis XIV was born on 5 September 1638 in the Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, to Louis XIII and Anne of Austria, he was named Louis Dieudonné and bore the traditional title of French heirs apparent: Dauphin. At the time of his birth, his parents had been married for 23 years, his mother had experienced four stillbirths between 1619 and 1631. Leading contemporaries thus regarded him as his birth a miracle of God. Sensing imminent death, Louis XIII decided to put his affairs in order in the spring of 1643, when Louis XIV was four years old. In defiance of custom, which would have made Queen Anne the sole Regent of France, the king decreed that a regency council would rule on his son's behalf, his lack of faith in Queen Anne's political abilities was his primary rationale. He did, make the concession of appointing her head of the council. Louis' relationship with his mother was uncommonly affectionate for the time.
Contemporaries and eyewitnesses claimed. Both were interested in food and theatre, it is likely that Louis developed these interests through his close relationship with his mother; this long-lasting and loving relationship can be evidenced by excerpts in Louis' journal entries, such as: "Nature was responsible for the first knots which tied me to my mother. But attachments formed by shared qualities of the spirit are far more difficult to break than those formed by blood." It was his mother who gave Louis his belief in the absolute and divine power of his monarchical rule. During his childhood, he was taken care of by the governesses Françoise de Lansac and Marie-Catherine de Senecey. In 1646, Nicolas V de Villeroy became the young king's tutor. Louis XIV became friends with Villeroy's young children François de Villeroy, divided his time between the Palais-Royal and the nearby Hotel de Villeroy. On 14 May 1643, with Louis XIII dead, Queen Anne had her husband's will annulled by the Parlement de Paris.
This action made Anne sole Regent of France. Anne exiled some of her husband's ministers, she nominated Brienne as her minister of foreign affairs. Anne nominated Saint Vincent de Paul as her spiritual adviser, which helped her deal with religious policy and the Jansenism question. Anne kept the direction of religious policy in her hand until 1661. Anne wanted to give her son a victorious kingdom, her rationales for choosing Mazarin were his ability and his total dependence on her, at least until 1653 when she was no longer regent. Anne protected Mazarin by arresting and exiling her followers who conspired against him in 1643: the Duke of Beaufort and Marie de Rohan, she left the direction of the daily administration of policy to Cardinal Mazarin. The best example of Anne's statesmanship and the partial change in her heart towards her native Spain is seen in her keeping of one of Richelieu's men, the Chancellor of France Pierre Séguier, in his post. Séguier was the pers
Grand Duchy of Baden
The Grand Duchy of Baden was a state in the southwest German Empire on the east bank of the Rhine. It existed between 1806 and 1918, it came into existence in the 12th century as the Margraviate of Baden and subsequently split into different lines, which were unified in 1771. It became the much-enlarged Grand Duchy of Baden through the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1803–1806 and was a sovereign country until it joined the German Empire in 1871, remaining a Grand Duchy until 1918 when it became part of the Weimar Republic as the Republic of Baden. Baden was bordered to the north by the Grand Duchy of Hessen-Darmstadt. After World War II, the French military government in 1945 created the state of Baden out of the southern half of the former Baden, with Freiburg as its capital; this portion of the former Baden was declared in its 1947 constitution to be the true successor of the old Baden. The northern half of the old Baden was combined with northern Württemberg, becoming part of the American military zone, formed the state of Württemberg-Baden.
Both Baden and Württemberg-Baden became states of West Germany upon its formation in 1949. In 1952 Baden merged with Württemberg-Hohenzollern to form Baden-Württemberg; this is the only merger of states that has taken place in the history of the Federal Republic of Germany. The unofficial anthem of Baden is called "Badnerlied" and consists of four or five traditional verses. However, over the years, many more verses have been added – there are collections with up to 591 verses of the anthem. Baden came into existence in the 12th century as the Margraviate of Baden and subsequently split into various smaller territories that were unified in 1771. In 1803 Baden was raised to Electoral dignity within the Holy Roman Empire. Upon the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, Baden became the much-enlarged Grand Duchy of Baden. In 1815 it joined the German Confederation. During the Revolutions of 1848 in the German states, Baden was a centre of revolutionist activities. In 1849, in the course of the Baden Revolution, it was the only German state that became a republic for a short while, under the leadership of Lorenzo Brentano.
The revolution in Baden was suppressed by Prussian troops. The Grand Duchy of Baden remained a sovereign country until it joined the German Empire in 1871. After the revolution of 1918, Baden became part of the Weimar Republic as the Republic of Baden; when the French Revolution threatened to overflow into the rest of Europe in 1792, Baden joined forces against France, its countryside was devastated once more. In 1796, the margrave Charles Frederick, Grand Duke of Baden, was compelled to pay an indemnity and cede his territories on the left bank of the Rhine to France. Fortune, soon returned to his side. In 1803 owing to the good offices of Alexander I, emperor of Russia, he received the bishopric of Konstanz, part of the Rhenish Palatinate, other smaller districts, together with the dignity of a prince-elector. Changing sides in 1805, he fought for Napoleon, with the result that, by the peace of Pressburg in that year, he obtained the Breisgau and other territories at the expense of the Habsburgs.
In 1806, he joined the Confederation of the Rhine, declared himself a sovereign prince, became a grand duke, received additional territory. The Baden contingent continued to assist France, by the Peace of Vienna in 1809, the grand duke was rewarded with accessions of territory at the expense of the Kingdom of Württemberg. Having quadrupled the area of Baden, Charles Frederick died in June 1811, was succeeded by his grandson, Grand Duke of Baden, married to Stéphanie de Beauharnais, a cousin of Empress Josephine's first husband, adopted by Napoleon I. Charles fought for his father-in-law until after the Battle of Leipzig in 1813, when he joined the Allies. In 1815 Baden became a member of the German Confederation established by the Act of 8 June, annexed to the Final Act of the Congress of Vienna of 9 June. However, in the haste of winding up the Congress, the question of the succession to the grand duchy did not get settled, a matter that would soon become acute; the treaty of 16 April 1816, by which the territorial disputes between Austria and Bavaria were settled, guaranteed the succession of the Baden Palatinate to King Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria, upon the expected event of the extinction of the line of Zähringen.
As a counter to this, in 1817, the Grand Duke Charles issued a pragmatic sanction declaring the counts of Höchberg, the issue of a morganatic marriage between the grand-duke Charles Frederick and Luise Geyer von Geyersberg, capable of succeeding to the crown. A controversy between Bavaria and Baden ensued, only decided in favour of the Höchberg claims by a treaty signed by Baden and the four great powers at Frankfurt on 10 July 1819. Meanwhile, the dispute had wide-ranging effects. In order to secure popular support for the Höchberg heir, in 1818 Grand Duke Charles granted to the grand duchy, under Article XIII of the Act of Confederation, a liberal constitution, under which two chambers were constituted and their assent declared necessary for legislation and taxation; the outcome was important far beyond the narrow limits of the duchy, as all of Germany watc
Johann Reinhard II, Count of Hanau-Lichtenberg
Count Johann Reinhard II of Hanau-Lichtenberg was a younger son of Count Philipp Wolfgang of Hanau-Lichtenberg and Countess Johanna of Oettingen-Oettingen. Although he was a younger son and never a reigning count, he is referred to as Johann Reinhard in the relevant literature, he was the grandson of reigning Johann Reinhard I, Count of Hanau-Lichtenberg and the father of reigning Johann Reinhard III, Count of Hanau-Lichtenberg, but he never reigned himself. To indicate that he was not ruling Count, the ordinal number is sometimes placed in parenthesis after his name, he was sent, together with his brother Johann Philipp, on a Grand Tour to Germany, the Netherlands, England and Switzerland. He visited the Reichstag in Nuremberg in 1650, devoted to the problems of enforcing the Peace of Westphalia, his father's testament awarded him the District of Lichtenau in Hesse and Bischofsheim am Hohen Steg as a residence. In 1653, he participated in the Reichstag in Regensburg. Johann Reinhard was buried in the vault in Lichtenberg Castle.
Two funeral sermons were published: one by Georg Linus, General Superintendent of the county of Hanau, with a contribution of Philipp Jacob Spener and another which included a contribution by Quirinus Moscherosch. On 19 October 1659, he married in Bischweiler Countess Palatine Anna Magdalena of Birkenfeld-Bischweiler, they had five children: Johanna Magdalena. She is said to have been buried in the St. Mary's Church in Hanau married on 5 December 1685 to Count Johann Karl August. Louise Sophie married on 27 September 1697 to Count Friedrich Ludwig of Nassau-Saarbrücken-Ottweiler Franziska Albertina. Furthermore, Johann Reinhard had an extramarital affair with Maria Magdalena von Lindenau. Maria Magdalena was the daughter of Lieutenant Colonel von Lindenau who had earlier served in the Swedish army and was appointed commander of the Fortress Hanau as successor of Johann Winter von Güldenborn. After his death, he was succeeded by Karl Kasimir von Landras. Johann Reinhard and Maria Magdalena had at least one son: Johann Reinhard von Lichtenfels Johann Reinhard von Lichtenfels resided in Duisburg in 1680.
The latest evidence comes from 1689. Johan Reinhard von Lichtenfels served in the military of the Roman Catholic Bishopric of Münster and died without heirs. Georg Friedrich Dhein: Sammlungen zur Hanauer Geschichte, 7 volumes, unpublished.. Reinhard Dietrich: Die Landesverfassung in dem Hanauischen = Hanauer Geschichtsblätter, vol. 34, Hanau, 1996, ISBN 3-9801933-6-5 Katalog der Leichenpredigten und sonstigen Trauerschriften im Hessisches Staatsarchiv Darmstadt = Marburger Personalschriftenforschungen, vol. 13, Sigmaringen, 1991. Rudolf Lenz: Katalog der Leichenpredigten und sonstigen Trauerschriften in der Hessischen Hochschul- und Landesbibliothek Darmstadt = Marburger Personalschriftenforschungen, vol 11, Sigmaringen, 1990. Wilhelm Morhardt: Hanau alt's - in Ehren b'halt's - Die Grafen von Hanau-Lichtenberg in Geschichte und Geschichten = Babenhausen einst und jetzt, vol. 10, Babenhausen, 1984. Reinhard Suchier: Genealogie des Hanauer Grafenhauses, in: Festschrift des Hanauer Geschichtsvereins zu seiner fünfzigjährigen Jubelfeier am 27.
August 1894, Hanau, 1894. Reinhard Suchier: Die Grabmonumente und Särge der in Hanau bestatteten Personen aus den Häusern Hanau und Hessen, in: Programm des Königlichen Gymnasiums zu Hanau, Hanau, 1879, p. 1 - 56. Ernst J. Zimmermann: Hanau Stadt und Land, 3rd ed. Hanau, 1919, reprinted 1978