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A handbag known as a purse in North American English, is a handled medium-to-large bag used to carry personal items. The term "purse" referred to a small bag for holding coins. In many English-speaking countries it is still used to refer to a small money bag. A "handbag" is a larger accessory, such as personal items. American English uses the terms purse and handbag interchangeably; the term handbag began appearing in the early 1900s. It was most used to refer to men's hand-luggage. Women's bags grew larger and more complex during this period, the term was attached to the accessory. "Pocketbook" is another term for a woman's hand bag, most used on the East Coast of the United States in the mid-twentieth century. Early modern Europeans wore purses for one sole purpose: to carry coins. Purses were made of soft fabric or leather and were worn by men as as ladies. In the 17th century, young girls were taught embroidery as a necessary skill for marriage. By the late 18th century, fashions in Europe were moving towards a slender shape for these accessories, inspired by the silhouettes of Ancient Greece and Rome.

Women wanted purses that would not be bulky or untidy in appearance, so reticules were designed. Reticules were made of fine fabrics like velvet, carried with wrist straps. First becoming popular in France, they crossed over into Britain, where they became known as "indispensables." Men, did not adopt the trend. They used pockets, which became popular in men's trousers; the modern purse, pouch or handbag came about in England during the Industrial Revolution, in part due to the increase in travel by railway. In 1841 the Doncaster industrialist and confectionery entrepreneur Samuel Parkinson ordered a set of travelling cases and trunks and insisted on a travelling case or bag for his wife's particulars after noticing that her purse was too small and made from material that would not withstand the journey, he stipulated that he wanted various handbags for his wife, varying in size for different occasions and asked that they be made from the same leather, being used for his cases and trunks to distinguish them from the then-familiar carpetbag and other travellers' cloth bags used by members of the popular classes.

H. J. Cave obliged and produced the first modern set of luxury handbags, as we would recognize them today, including a clutch and a tote; these are now on display in the Museum of Purses in Amsterdam. H. J. Cave did continue to sell and advertise the handbags, but many critics said that women did not need them and that bags of such size and heavy material would'break the backs of ladies.' H. J. Cave ceased to promote the bags after 1865, concentrating on trunks instead, although they continued to make the odd handbag for royalty, celebrities or to celebrate special occasions, the Queen's 2012 Diamond Jubilee being the most recent. However, H. J. Cave resumed handbag production in 2010. During the 1940s, the rationing of textiles for World War II led to the manufacturing of handbags made in materials like raffia or crocheted from yarn; some women crocheted their own small handbags from commercial patterns during this period. The oldest known purse dates back more than 5000 years, was a pouch worn by a man, Ötzi the Iceman.

Men once carried coin purses. In early Modern Europe, when women's fashions moved in the direction of using small ornamental purses, which evolved into handbags, men's fashions were moving in another direction. Men's trousers replaced men's breeches during the course of the 18th and 19th centuries, pockets were incorporated in the loose, heavy material; this enabled men to continue carrying coins, paper currency, in small leather wallets. Men's pockets were plentiful in 19th century and 20th century trousers and coats, to carry possessions, such as pipes and knives, they were an item mended by their wives. Men's purses were revived by designers in the 1970s in Europe. Since the 1990s, designers have marketed a more diverse range of accessory bags for men; the names man bag, man-purse and murse have been used. The designs common in the U. S. are variations on backpacks or messenger bags, have either a masculine or a more unisex appearance, although they are more streamlined than a backpack and less bulky than a briefcase.

These bags are called messenger bags or organizer bags. In many other countries, it is common for men to carry small rectangular shoulder bags made of leather; the leather satchel is common. Men's designer bags are produced by well-known companies such as Prada, Louis Vuitton and Bottega Veneta in a variety of shapes and sizes; the global men's bag and small leather goods trade is a $4-billion-a-year industry. Sales of men's accessories including "holdall" bags are increasing in North America; as a fashion accessory, handbags can be categorized according to the silhouette of the bag, as well as the type of handle. The current popular handbag silhouettes are: Baguette: a small, rectangular shape purse, resembling a French loaf of bread Barrel: shaped like a barrel or closed tube with shoulder-length straps Bowling bag purse: a popular 1990s "retro" style for younger women, modelled after American bags used to carry bowling balls Bucket bag: a round bag, shaped like a bucket, medium-size or large, with shoulder straps and a drawstring closure Clutch: a handbag without handles with detachable chain strap, rectangular in shape an evening bag but used during the day as well Doctor's bag

List of wettest tropical cyclones in the United States

Tropical cyclones move into the contiguous United States from the Atlantic Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico, the eastern Pacific Ocean. The highest rainfall totals in the country have been measured across the Gulf Coast and lower portions of the Eastern Seaboard. Intermediate amounts have been measured across the Southwest, New England, the Midwest; the northern Great Plains and Pacific Northwest have received the lowest amounts, as those regions lie exceptionally far from the breeding grounds of Atlantic and Eastern Pacific tropical cyclones. The wettest tropical cyclone in the United States storm on record is Hurricane Harvey, which dumped 60.58 in of rain on Southeast Texas in 2017. Tropical Storm Claudette holds the national 24-hour rainfall record: 42.00 in in Texas. Here are the 10 highest rainfall amounts from tropical cyclones in the United States since 1950, including territories. Here are the 10 highest rainfall amounts from tropical cyclones in the contiguous United States since 1950. Amelia 1978 held the record until Hurricane Harvey dropped 60.58 inches in 2017.

The wettest tropical cyclone to hit the state of Alabama was Hurricane Danny, which stalled over Mobile Bay for over 24 hours. No storm has affected Alaska as a tropical cyclone, but extratropical remnants of tropical cyclones have brought heavy rainfall to the state. Examples include the extratropical remnants of Hurricane Fico in 1978. Tropical cyclones affect the island chain with tropical storm-force winds once every three years, on average; the wettest known cyclone to affect the island group occurred early in 1966, when nearly 19 inches fell at Vaipito. Hurricane Nora was the last tropical cyclone to enter the United States from Mexico at tropical storm strength; the rainfall which fell across the Harquahala Mountains led to the state's 24-hour rainfall record. Although having weakened by the time it reached the state, the slow movement of Hurricane Barry over Arkansas led to a widespread and significant flooding event. Murfreesboro saw the greatest rainfall accumulation at 14.58 inches, the highest total recorded from a tropical cyclone in the state of Arkansas.

One of five known eastern Pacific tropical cyclones to bring tropical storm-force winds to the Southwest, Hurricane Kathleen accelerated northward ahead of an upper level trough, spreading heavy rains into the transverse ranges of southern California. Few tropical cyclone remnants originating from the eastern Pacific make it as far north as Colorado. Javier dropped locally heavy rainfall exceeding 4 inches over the higher terrain of western Colorado in 2004. While Hurricane Diane is wettest known tropical cyclone to impact New England, the 1938 New England hurricane produced the most rain in the state of Connecticut. Nonetheless, the flood from Hurricane Diane led to a significant death toll from Pennsylvania eastward through southern New England. A large swath of heavy rainfall spread associated with a predecessor rainfall event fell before 1933 Chesapeake–Potomac hurricane arrived in Delaware. Over four days, a total of 13.24 inches of rain fell in Bridgeville, the most known associated with a tropical cyclone anywhere in Delaware.

The heaviest rainfall to occur in 24 hours was measured in Yankeetown during Hurricane Easy in 1950, which caused 38.70 inches of precipitation. This is the highest known point storm total maximum related to any tropical cyclone which has impacted Florida, by itself would be the highest known rainfall total for any month, or any 24 hour period, from any location within Florida; this rainfall amount remained the national 24-hour rainfall record until Tropical Storm Claudette's landfall in 1979. Tropical Storm Alberto in 1994 looped across central Georgia, leading to 24-hour rainfall amounts exceeding 20 inches across central sections of the state, it became the wettest tropical cyclone on record for the state of Georgia, eclipsing the record set in 1929. Super Typhoon Pamela was not only a wet tropical cyclone for the island of Guam, but a destructive one as well. Since Pamela, wooden structures across Guam have been replaced by concrete structures in order to better weather typhoons; this island state sees rainfall from the remains of former eastern and central Pacific tropical cyclones.

However, despite Hawaii's location in the subtropics, direct impacts by tropical cyclones are infrequent due to the protective influence of the Central Pacific Tropical Upper Tropospheric Trough, which dissipates systems approaching Hawaii. Hurricane Hiki in 1950 led to significant rainfall in the mountains, with 52 inches of rainfall reported; this was the most rainfall reported to have been produced by a tropical cyclone within the United States until surpassed by Hurricane Harvey in 2017. Impacts from tropical cyclones in the Pacific Northwest are rare. Most the remains of Olivia moved through the region in 1982, spurring spotty moderate to heavy rainfall across Idaho. Hurricane Audrey directed moisture up to a front to its north across the Midwest during late June 1957 as it transitioned into an extratropical cyclone. Heavy rains fell across central Illinois, leading to the wettest known event to be associated with a tropical cyclone or its remains across Illinois. To Illinois, Indiana experienced its wettest tropical cyclone in 1957 with the arrival of Hurricane Audrey.

In 1979, Hurricane Bob produced considerable flooding in the state. Hurricane Carla was a large hurricane that moved into Texas during September 1961; as it transitioned into an extratropical cyclone across the Great Plains and Midwest, heavy rain fell in a band on the poleward side of a frontal boundary extending northeast from Carla, leading to

2008 Buffalo Bills season

The 2008 Buffalo Bills season was the 39th season for the team in the National Football League and their 49th season overall. The team finished with a record of 7–9 for the third consecutive year, it started the season 5–1 before a 2–8 stretch to finish the season. After a 5–1 beginning to the season, starting quarterback Trent Edwards suffered a concussion in week 5 at Arizona after an Adrian Wilson hit. Edwards had started the year throwing 4 touchdowns and two interceptions through the first five games. After the injury, he threw 7 touchdowns and 8 interceptions, before missing two of the final four games of the season with a groin injury. After their 4–0 start, the Bills won only three of their final 12 games of the year. Despite strong years from second-year running back Marshawn Lynch and wide receiver Lee Evans, the team was eliminated from playoff contention in week 15, which secured their ninth straight year without a playoff appearance. Head coach Dick Jauron entered his third year with the Bills.

Turk Schonert began his first year as offensive coordinator, having been promoted from quarterbacks coach after the departure of previous offensive coordinator Steve Fairchild after the 2007 season. Buffalo found some impact players in the 2008 NFL Draft. Leodis McKelvin was named to the Sporting News All-NFL team in his rookie year. Demetress Bell won a starting job at offensive tackle in Buffalo, a position he held for four seasons. Stevie Johnson had a breakout year in 2010; as part of the five-year Toronto deal the Bills will play a pre-season game every other year there. This season's pre-season game in Toronto was week 2. Green background indicates win. Red background indicates loss. An asterisk indicates games moved to Sunday Night Football due to flex scheduling. One regular season home game per year will be played at the Rogers Centre in Toronto, Ontario as part of a five-year deal. For 2008, December 7's matchup with the Miami Dolphins was staged in Toronto; the Bills began their 2008 campaign at home against the Seattle Seahawks.

In the first quarter, Buffalo drew first blood as running back Marshawn Lynch got a 21-yard touchdown run. In the second quarter, the Bills increased their lead with wide receiver/punt returner Roscoe Parrish returning a punt 63 yards for a touchdown; the Seahawks responded with quarterback Matt Hasselbeck completing a 20-yard touchdown pass to wide receiver Nate Burleson. Buffalo closed out the half with kicker Rian Lindell getting a 38-yard field goal. In the third quarter, Seattle responded with kicker Olindo Mare nailing a 45-yard field goal. Afterwards, Buffalo dug into their bag of tricks. Appearing to attempt a 32-yard field goal, holder Brian Moorman completed a 19-yard touchdown pass to defensive end Ryan Denney; the Bills pulled away with quarterback Trent Edwards completing a 30-yard touchdown pass to tight end Robert Royal. With this win, the Bills started their season with a 1–0 record. Coming off an impressive home win over the Seahawks, the Bills flew to Jacksonville Municipal Stadium for a Week 2 duel with the Jacksonville Jaguars.

In the first quarter, Buffalo drew first blood. In the second quarter, the Jaguars responded with kicker Josh Scobee getting a 28-yard field goal; the Bills closed the half with kicker Rian Lindell's a 21-yard field goal. In the third quarter, Jacksonville took the lead with RB Maurice Jones-Drew getting a 2-yard TD run and Scobee getting a 50-yard field goal. In the fourth quarter, the Jaguars increased their lead with Scobee nailing a 39-yard field goal. Buffalo rallied as QB Trent Edwards completed a 7-yard TD pass to rookie WR James Hardy, along with Lindell's yard field goal. With yet another win, the Bills improved to their first 2–0 start since 2003. Coming off their road win over the Jaguars, the Bills went home, donned their throwback uniforms, played a Week 3 duel with the Oakland Raiders. In the first quarter, Buffalo trailed early as Raiders kicker Sebastian Janikowski got a 23-yard and a 35-yard field goal. In the second quarter, the Bills got on the board with RB Marshawn Lynch's 14-yard TD run.

Oakland responded with Janikowski's 32-yard field goal. In the third quarter, the Raiders increased their lead with QB JaMarcus Russell getting a 1-yard TD run. In the fourth quarter, Buffalo began to rally. Oakland responded with Russell completing an 84-yard TD pass to WR Johnnie Lee Higgins. Afterwards, the Bills completed its rally with QB Trent Edwards completing a 14-yard TD pass to WR Roscoe Parrish. Buffalo sealed the win with kicker Rian Lindell nailing the game-winning 38-yard field goal. With the win, the Bills improved to 3–0 for the first time since 1992. With the Patriots' loss to the Dolphins, the Bills are now in first place in the AFC East after 3 weeks. During halftime, former Bills DE Bruce Smith was added to the Bills Wall of Fame. Coming off their last-second home win over the Raiders, the Bills flew to the Edward Jones Dome for a Week 4 interconference duel with the winless St. Louis Rams. In the first quarter, Buffalo drew first blood; the Rams responded with WR Donnie Avery getting a 37-yard TD run.

The Bills answered with Lindell's 35-yard field goal. In the second quarter, St. Louis increased its lead with RB Steven Jackson getting a 29-yard TD run. In the third quarter, Buffalo began to rally. In the fourth quarter, the Bills completed their comeback with CB Jabari Greer retu

Ted Swales

Edwin Essery Swales VC DFC was a South African pilot and Second World War hero. He was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross and posthumously the Victoria Cross. Edwin Essery Swales was one of four children born in Inanda, South Africa to Harry Evelyn Swales, a farmer in the Heatonville district, Olive Miriam Essery. Following the death of her husband in the influenza epidemic of 1918-19, Mrs Swales and her children moved to the Berea, Durban. Here, Edwin Swales attended Durban High School; as a young lad, Edwin had been a Boy Scout, at the 4th Durban Scout Troop. After leaving school, prior to the Second World War, Edwin Swales worked for Barclays Bank in Durban. Swales had joined the Natal Mounted Rifles before the War. With the N. M. R. in the early part of the War, he saw action in North Africa. He transferred to the South African Air Force on 17 January 1942. Swales was very keen on sport and enjoyed rugby, he played for both various military teams. After playing for the DHS 2nd XV, he played rugby for a number of South African and Dominion teams, whilst he was in the United Kingdom, during the War years.

He played for Griquas. He was a reserve for the Natal rugby team, without actually playing for the province, he received his wings at Kimberley on 26 June 1943. On 22 August 1943, he was seconded to the Royal Air Force while retaining his South African Air Force uniform and rank. Following successful period of training on heavy bombers, Swales was posted, in June 1944, to the elite RAF Pathfinder Force, part of No. 8 Pathfinder Group, at Little Staughton, in Huntingdonshire. It was normal for the Pathfinders to accept only experienced pilots who had completed a full tour on bombers. Although Swales had never spent any time as a bomber pilot in a standard heavy bomber squadron, Swales went straight into the Squadron. Swales' first operational flight for 582 Squadron was on 12 July 1944. Newly promoted to Captain on 4 November 1944, he took part in a daring daylight bombing raid on 23 December, on the Gremberg railway yards, Germany; the Squadron Leader for the raid on Cologne was his close friend, Robert Palmer, D.

F. C. who flew Mosquitos with 109 Squadron based at Little Staughton. Swales was the number two Pathfinder, leading the main flight and following Palmer as he marked the target. Palmer, who had completed 110 bombing raids, was killed as his Lancaster was damaged by German fighter and crashed. Six of the 30 aircraft on this operation were lost. Palmer was awarded a posthumous Victoria Cross - becoming the 2nd Pathfinder pilot to be so honoured. For his actions on the Cologne raid, Edwin Swales was subsequently awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross; the citation reads: In 1945, while with the RAF Pathfinders, Swales was the Master Bomber and captain of Avro Lancaster III PB538. On 23 February 1945, the day as his D. F. C. Award was gazetted, Swales led the bombing raid on Pforzheim, where 17,600 civilians were killed in 22 minutes. The'sortie', his 43rd operational flight, consisted of 367 Lancasters supported by 13 Mosquitos; the marking and bombing, from a low 8,000 feet, were accurate and severe damage was inflicted on Pforzheim: 1,825 tons of bombs were dropped in 22 minutes.

The post-war British Bombing Survey Unit estimated that 83% of the town's built-up area was destroyed the greatest proportion of a city destroyed in any one raid during the war. Ten Lancasters two more crashed in France. Swales' aircraft was holed the fuel tanks, they were attacked again by the same fighter. Swales decided to make it to friendly territory; the weather closed in and he ordered the crew to bail out. He attempted to put his Lancaster down but it stalled and crashed near Valenciennes, west of Prouvy, 3 km SSE of Denain in northern France killing him, he was posthumously awarded the Victoria Cross – the 3rd and last Pathfinder pilot to be so honoured. All had been posthumous. Swales' VC citation reads: Originally buried at Fosse’s USA Cemetery, his remains now lie at the War Cemetery at Leopoldsburg, near Limburg, Plot No.8, Row C, Grave No.5.51°6′44.17″N 5°16′6.47″E Air Chief Marshal Sir Arthur'Bomber' Harris, KCB, OBE, AFC, of RAF Bomber Command, wrote a letter to Swales' mother, inter-alia: Although referred to as being a "Captain" at the time of his last flight, Swales was in fact an'Acting' Major.

The S. A. A. F. was using the army ranking system, hence the ranks of'Captain' and of'Major'. At the time of his death on 23 February 1945, Swales was aged 29 years. In 1958, the British Air Ministry wrote to the Commonwealth War Graves Commission informing them that the South African Air Force authorities had confirmed that at the time of his death, Swales had in fact held the rank of Major; the front page of the program for the opening of the S. A. A. F. Memorial in Pretoria on 31 May 1950, described Mrs. Olive Swales as being the "mother of the Late Major Edwin Swales, DFC, VC". Swales was the only S. A. A. F. Pilot during 1939-45 to be appointed a Pathfinder Master Bomber and to have been posthumously awarded the Victoria Cross; the full list of the medals awarded to Swales follows: The Victoria Cross The Distinguished Flying Cross The 1939–45 Star The Africa Star The France and Germany Star The Defence Medal, 1939–1945 The 1939


CycleStreets is not-for-profit United Kingdom organisation that provides a free-to-use national cycle journey planner for the United Kingdom. The planner uses OpenStreetMap data for routing, Shuttle Radar Topography Mission for height data and official postcode data, it by January 2010 had planned 100,000 journeys. As of August 2015, the site has planned over 45 million itineraries, it was'Highly Commended' at the 2009 ACT Travelwise awards. It provides worldwide routing using OpenStreetMap data. CycleStreets is a development of the Cambridge Cycle Campaign Journey Planner, launched in 2006. CycleStreets itself was launched on 20 March 2009. In June 2009, a feature to plan circular routes was added and the project was featured in The Guardian newspaper. In August 2009 functionality was added to export routes for use in GPS device and the ability to route via ferry services and in October 2009 the project released elevation profiles and'Balanced routes'. In December 2009, CycleStreets was'Highly Commended' in the ACT Travelwise annual awards.

In February 2010, the ability to share short video clips was added and in March 2010 CycleStreets added Google Streetview images to the route description pages and a post code look-up function. They reported their 100,000th journey plan itinerary the same month. In 2007, during the development of CycleStreets, Simon Nuttall and Martin Lucas-Smith advised Transport Direct on the CycleNetXChange data exchange standard for cycle route data, used in the Transport Direct Portal cycle journey planner. In July 2009, CycleStreets was presented at the OpenStreetMap annual'State of the Map' Conference In September 2009, Martin Lucas Smith of CycleStreets presented the project at the School of Cartography Summer School; the project held its first'Developer Day' in March 2010, where technical issues relating to the project were discussed and there was a session on cycle routing at WhereCampEU. CycleStreets is a not-for-profit project and has been self-funded, it has received grants from the following organisations: Cycling Scotland: To develop a version of the site for Edinburgh, which Cycling Scotland are now promoting as a Scotland-wide system Cambridge City Council — Cambridge Sustainable City project in February 2010.

Co-op Community Fund in March 2010. It has applied for funding through the following channels: They entered the TalkTalk'Digital Hero Awards' and were supported by the local paper, the Cambridge Evening News, they entered the Geovation awards in 2009. The project has benefited from a number of donations in kind not least of, the voluntarily donated geographic information in OpenStreetMap. CycleStreets website CycleStreets on Google Play

David Caldwell (safety)

David Alexander Caldwell is an American football safety, a free agent. He played college football at Mary. A native of Montclair, New Jersey, Caldwell graduated from Montclair High School before spending a postgraduate year at the Lawrenceville School. After going undrafted in the 2010 NFL Draft, Caldwell signed with the Indianapolis Colts as an undrafted free agent on April 30, 2010, he made 67 tackles. On August 26, 2012, the Indianapolis Colts waived Caldwell and he is an NFL free agent. On January 8, 2013, Caldwell signed with the New York Giants. On August 31, 2013, Caldwell did not make the 53-man roster for the Giants, was waived. On March 28, 2014, he signed with the Hamilton Tiger-Cats. Hamilton Tiger-Cats bio profile profile