Handheld game console

A handheld game console, or handheld console, is a small, portable self-contained video game console with a built-in screen, game controls, speakers. Handheld game consoles are smaller than home video game consoles and contain the console, screen and controls in one unit, allowing people to carry them and play them at any time or place. In 1976, Mattel introduced the first handheld electronic game with the release of Auto Race. Several companies—including Coleco and Milton Bradley—made their own single-game, lightweight table-top or handheld electronic game devices; the oldest true handheld game console with interchangeable cartridges is the Milton Bradley Microvision in 1979. Nintendo is credited with popularizing the handheld console concept with the release of the Game Boy in 1989 and continues to dominate the handheld console market; the origins of handheld game consoles are found in handheld and tabletop electronic game devices of the 1970s and early 1980s. These electronic devices are capable of playing only a single game, they fit in the palm of the hand or on a tabletop, they may make use of a variety of video displays such as LED, VFD, or LCD.

In 1978, handheld electronic games were described by Popular Electronics magazine as "nonvideo electronic games" and "non-TV games" as distinct from devices that required use of a television screen. Handheld electronic games, in turn, find their origins in the synthesis of previous handheld and tabletop electro-mechanical devices such as Waco's Electronic Tic-Tac-Toe Cragstan's Periscope-Firing Range, the emerging optoelectronic-display-driven calculator market of the early 1970s; this synthesis happened in 1976, when "Mattel began work on a line of calculator-sized sports games that became the world's first handheld electronic games. The project began when Michael Katz, Mattel's new product category marketing director, told the engineers in the electronics group to design a game the size of a calculator, using LED technology." Our big success was something -- the first handheld game. I asked the design group to see if they could come up with a game, electronic, the same size as a calculator.

—Michael Katz, former marketing director, Mattel Toys. The result was the 1976 release of Auto Race. Followed by Football in 1977, the two games were so successful that according to Katz, "these simple electronic handheld games turned into a'$400 million category.'" Mattel would win the honor of being recognized by the industry for innovation in handheld game device displays. Soon, other manufacturers including Coleco, Parker Brothers, Milton Bradley and Bandai began following up with their own tabletop and handheld electronic games. In 1979 the LCD-based Microvision, designed by Smith Engineering and distributed by Milton-Bradley, became the first handheld game console and the first to use interchangeable game cartridges; the Microvision game Cosmic Hunter introduced the concept of a directional pad on handheld gaming devices, is operated by using the thumb to manipulate the on-screen character in any of four directions. In 1979, Gunpei Yokoi, traveling on a bullet train, saw a bored businessman playing with an LCD calculator by pressing the buttons.

Yokoi thought of an idea for a watch that doubled as a miniature game machine for killing time. Starting in 1980, Nintendo began to release a series of electronic games designed by Yokoi called the Game & Watch games. Taking advantage of the technology used in the credit-card-sized calculators that had appeared on the market, Yokoi designed the series of LCD-based games to include a digital time display in the corner of the screen. For more complicated Game & Watch games, Yokoi invented a cross shaped directional pad or "D-pad" for control of on-screen characters. Yokoi included his directional pad on the NES controllers, the cross-shaped thumb controller soon became standard on game console controllers and ubiquitous across the video game industry since; when Yokoi began designing Nintendo's first handheld game console, he came up with a device that married the elements of his Game & Watch devices and the Famicom console, including both items' D-pad controller. The result was the Nintendo Game Boy.

In 1982, the Bandai LCD Solarpower was the first solar-powered gaming device. Some of its games, such as the horror-themed game Terror House, features two LCD panels, one stacked on the other, for an early 3D effect. In 1983, Takara Tomy's Tomytronic 3D simulates 3D by having two LCD panels that were lit by external light through a window on top of the device, making it the first dedicated home video 3D hardware; the late 1980s and early 1990s saw the beginnings of the modern day handheld game console industry, after the demise of the Microvision. As backlit LCD game consoles with color graphics consume a lot of power, they were not battery-friendly like the non-backlit original Game Boy whose monochrome graphics allowed longer battery life. By this point, rechargeable battery technology had not yet matured and so the more advanced game consoles of the time such as the Sega Game Gear and Atari Lynx did not have nearly as much success as the Game Boy. Though third-party rechargeable batteries were available for the battery-hungry alternatives to the Game Boy, these batteries employed a nickel-cadmium process and had to be discharged before being recharged to ensure maximum efficiency.

The NiMH batteries, which do not share this requirement for maximum efficiency, were not released until the late 1990s, years after the Game Gear, Atari Lynx, original Game Boy had been disconti

Tracy Lawrence Live

Tracy Lawrence Live is an album released in 1995 by American country music singer Tracy Lawrence. His first live compilation, it features various live recordings of the hit singles from his first three studio albums. Of the ten songs included here, all but "I Threw the Rest Away" were hugely successful singles for Lawrence. Lawrence compiled the album through a makeshift studio on his tour bus, choosing from over 40 recordings made in the six months prior to the album's completion, he co-produced with a member of his road band. Country Standard Time reviewer George Hauenstein gave the album a positive review, writing that "Lawrence is one of the best, most popular artist on the scene today, known for his likeable, high energy stage shows, his legion of fans will no doubt be pleased with Live, a greatest hits collection." "Renegades and Rogues" - 2:57 "Runnin' Behind" - 3:40 "Somebody Paints the Wall" - 3:20 "I See It Now" - 3:35 "Today's Lonely Fool" - 4:05 "I Threw the Rest Away" - 3:59 "Sticks and Stones" - 3:40 "Alibis" - 3:31 "Can't Break It to My Heart" - 5:17 "If the Good Die Young" - 4:09 Flip Anderson - acoustic guitar, keyboards, background vocals Tom Baughman - acoustic guitar, steel guitar Kenny Beard - acoustic guitar, background vocals Butch Davis - electric guitar, acoustic slide guitar Deryl Dodd - acoustic guitar, background vocals Tracy Lawrence - lead vocals Ward Stout - fiddle Alex Torrez - drums Leon Watson - bass guitar, background vocals Hank Singer - fiddle

Henry O'Farrell

Henry James O'Farrell was the first person to attempt a political assassination in Australia. On 12 March 1868, he shot and wounded The Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh, the second son and fourth child of Queen Victoria. O'Farrell was born in Arran Quay, Ireland, the youngest child of William O'Farrell, a butcher; the family moved to Liverpool later migrated to Victoria. Henry O'Farrell was an alcoholic, had been released from a lunatic asylum before the attempted assassination. O'Farrell had been employed by his brother, a Melbourne solicitor, who had offices in Ballarat, is therefore sometimes described as a law clerk, but O'Farrell's most recent occupation was selling fruit and vegetables in Ballarat's Haymarket. In 1868, Prince Alfred 23 years old, went on a world tour, which included the first royal visit to Australia. There were planned stops in Adelaide, Brisbane and many other places. On 12 March, the Prince attended the Sailor's Picnic in the harbourside suburb of Clontarf, New South Wales in Sydney.

O'Farrell, aged 35 at the time, fired a revolver into his back. The assassin was tackled by William Vial, a local coach-maker. Vial, together with bystanders subdued O'Farrell; the assassination attempt outraged the attending crowd, O'Farrell was beaten and nearly lynched by the mob before police arrested him and removed him to safety. The Prince was shot in the back just to the right of the spine; the wound was not fatal. The Prince was hospitalised for two weeks, cared for by six nurses trained by Florence Nightingale, who had arrived in Australia that February under Matron Lucy Osburn; the attack caused great embarrassment in the colony, led to a wave of anti-Catholic and anti-Irish sentiment, directed at all Irish people, including Protestant Loyalists. The next day, 20,000 people attended an "indignation meeting" to protest "yesterday's outrage". O'Farrell first claimed, falsely. Although anti-British and anti-Royalist, he denied being a Fenian. O'Farrell was tried at Sydney on 30 March 1868.

The barrister with the thankless task of defending him was Butler Cole Aspinall, who had defended the rebel leaders of the Eureka Stockade. Aspinall sought to have O'Farrell found not guilty by reason of insanity, he cited O'Farrell's history of recent release from an asylum. O'Farrell was sentenced to death by judge Alfred Cheeke. Prince Alfred himself tried unsuccessfully to save his would-be killer's life. O'Farrell was hanged on 21 April 1868 in the Darlinghurst Gaol at the age of 35. Prince Alfred soon recovered, returned home in early April 1868. On 24 March, the New South Wales Legislative Assembly voted to erect a memorial building. In order "to raise a permanent and substantial monument in testimony of the heartfelt gratitude of the community at the recovery of HRH", it was to be the Prince Alfred Hospital. Queen Victoria permitted the use of the term "Royal", so the memorial building was the Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, it was built using funds raised by public subscription, is today an important hospital in New South Wales.

Sir Henry Parkes, a Minister in the colonial government, stirred up persecution of Irish Catholics in the colony after O'Farrell's attack. Parkes claimed that the mad killer's initial claims of being Fenian were true and that there were extensive Fenian conspiracies at work; when Canadian politician and anti-Fenian D'Arcy McGee was killed by a Fenian on 7 April, the excitement increased. But soon the excitement died down, the public began questioning Parkes' unsupported claims; these became an embarrassment and he resigned as a Minister in September. McKinlay, Brian The First Royal Tour, 1867–1868, 200p. ISBN 0-7091-1910-0 Travers, Robert The Phantom Fenians of New South Wales, 176p. ISBN 0-86417-061-0. Murphy, Peter Fenian Fear, 177p. ISBN 978-0-646-98824-5.