The Handley Page Victor is a British jet-powered strategic bomber and produced by Handley Page, which served during the Cold War. It was the third and final V-bomber to be operated by the Royal Air Force, the other two being the Avro Vulcan and the Vickers Valiant; the Victor had been developed as part of the United Kingdom's airborne nuclear deterrent. In 1968, it was retired from the nuclear mission following the discovery of fatigue cracks, exacerbated by the RAF's adoption of a low-altitude flight profile to avoid interception. A number of Victors were modified for strategic reconnaissance, using a combination of radar and other sensors; as the nuclear deterrence mission was given to the Royal Navy's submarine-launched Polaris missiles in 1969, a large V-bomber fleet could not be justified. Many of the surviving Victors were converted into aerial refuelling tankers. During the Falklands War, Victor tankers were used in the airborne logistics operation to refuel Vulcan bombers on their way to and from the Black Buck raids.
The Victor was the last of the V-bombers to be retired, the final aircraft being removed from service on 15 October 1993. In its refuelling role, it was replaced by the Lockheed Tristar; the origin of the Victor and the other V bombers is linked with the early British atomic weapons programme and nuclear deterrent policies that developed in the aftermath of the Second World War. The atom bomb programme formally began with Air Staff Operational Requirement OR.1001 issued in August 1946, which anticipated a government decision in January 1947 to authorise research and development work on atomic weapons, the U. S. Atomic Energy Act of 1946 having prohibited exporting atomic knowledge to countries that had collaborated on the Manhattan Project. OR.1001 envisaged a weapon not to exceed 24 ft 2 in in length, 5 ft in diameter, 10,000 lb in weight, suitable for release from 20,000 ft to 50,000 ft. At the same time, the Air Ministry drew up requirements for bombers to replace the existing piston-engined heavy bombers such as the Avro Lancaster and the new Avro Lincoln which equipped RAF Bomber Command.
In January 1947, the Ministry of Supply distributed Specification B.35/46 to aviation companies to satisfy Air Staff Operational Requirement OR.229 for "a medium range bomber landplane capable of carrying one 10,000 lb bomb to a target 1,500 nautical miles from a base which may be anywhere in the world." A cruising speed of 500 knots at heights between 35,000 ft and 50,000 ft was specified. The maximum weight when loaded ought not to exceed 100,000 lb; the weapons load was to include a 10,000 lb "Special gravity bomb", or over shorter ranges 20,000 lb of conventional bombs. No defensive weapons were to be carried, the aircraft relying on its speed and altitude to avoid opposing fighters; the similar OR.230 required a "long range bomber" with a 2,000 nautical miles radius of action at a height of 50,000 ft, a cruise speed of 575 mph, a maximum weight of 200,000 lb when loaded. Responses to OR.230 were received from Short Brothers and Handley Page. As a result, realising that the majority of targets would not require such a long range, a less demanding specification for a medium-range bomber, Air Ministry Specification B.35/46 was issued.
This demanded the ability to carry the same 10,000 lb bomb-load to a target 1,500 nautical miles away at a height of 45,000–50,000 ft at a speed of 575 mph. The design proposed by Handley Page in response to B.35/46 was given the internal designation of HP.80. To achieve the required performance, Handley Page's aerodynamicist Dr. Gustav Lachmann and his deputy, Godfrey Lee developed a crescent-shaped swept wing for the HP.80. Aviation author Bill Gunston described the Victor's compound-sweep crescent wing as having been "undoubtedly the most efficient high-subsonic wing on any drawing board in 1947"; the sweep and chord of the wing decreased in three distinct steps from the root to the tip, to ensure a constant critical Mach number across the entire wing and a high cruise speed. The other parts of the aircraft which accelerate the flow, the nose and tail, were designed for the same critical mach number so the shape of the HP.80 had a constant critical mach number all over. Early work on the project included tailless aircraft designs, which would have used wing-tip vertical surfaces instead.
The profile and shaping of the crescent wing was subject to considerable fine-tuning and alterations throughout the early development stages to counter unfavourable pitching behaviour in flight. The HP.80 and Avro's Type 698 were chosen as the best two of the proposed designs to B.35/46, orders for two prototypes of each were placed. It was recognised, that there were many unknowns associated with both designs, an order was placed for Vickers' design, which became the Valiant. Although not meeting the requirements of the specification, the Valiant design posed little risk of failure and could therefore reach service earlier; the HP.80's crescent wing was tested on a ⅓-scale glider, the HP.87, a modified Supermarine Attacker, given the H
Fred Harker was an English cricketer. Harker was a right-handed batsman, he was born in County Durham. Harker made a single first-class appearance in the British Raj for Bengal against United Provinces in the 1944/45 Ranji Trophy. In Bengal's first-innings he was dismissed for a duck by S. N. Gandhi, while in their second-innings he was dismissed for 16 runs by J. Mehra, he bowled during the United Provinces first-innings, taking the wicket of A. Majeed for the cost of 16 runs from 4 overs; when he was back in England, he played two matches for Durham in the 1947 Minor Counties Championship, playing a match each against the Yorkshire Second XI and the Lancashire Second XI. He died in Stockton-on-Tees, County Durham on 14 March 1999. Fred Harker at ESPNcricinfo Fred Harker at CricketArchive
Achta Djibrine Sy is a Chad peace activist who became a government Minister of Commerce of Industry in 2019. Sy was born in 1962 and she obtained her first degree at the University of N'Djamena in management and economics. After the civil war in Chad Sy worked with women's group and the British charity Oxfam to facilititate peace in her country, she was Oxfam's Women's Project Officer in Chad. In 1993 she wrote about the role of Women in Chad to assist Oxfam's policy. For moreau than 10 years, she represented Intermón Oxfam in her country. In 2005 she was one of 1,000 women who featured in the book "1000 Peacewomen Across the Globe". In 2014 Chad's national council of women was formed at the inspiration of the first lady Hinda Deby Itno. Sy became the vice-president of that organisation, her term finished in 2017. She is admired by the first lady of Chad for her hardwork. On the 11 August 2019, she was appointed by Chad President Idriss Deby Itno to be the Minister of Commerce of Industry and Private Sector Promotion.
Sy was sworn into her new role on 19 August 2019. The commerce of Chad and the foreign investment it attracts is dominated by the country's oil production. Sy has been talking with United Nations Conference on Trade and Development as part of an "investment policy review" in line with the United Nations Strategic Development Goals. Sy was keen to see economic diversification in Chad to avoid food poverty and reduce the dependence on oil. Investment in Chad's gum arabic production together with, sesame seeds, Shea butter, the algae spirulina and groundnuts were investment opportunities