Handloading or reloading is the process of loading firearm cartridges or shotgun shells by assembling the individual components, rather than purchasing assembled, factory-loaded ammunition. The term handloading is the more general term, as it refers to assembly of ammunition using components from any source. Reloading refers more to the assembly of ammunition re-using cases or shells from fired ammunition; the terms are used interchangeably, as the techniques are the same whether using new or fired components. The differences lie in the preparation of the shells. Economy, increased accuracy, commercial ammunition shortages, hobby interests are all common motivations for handloading both cartridges and shotshells. Reloading fired cartridge cases can save the shooter money, or provides the shooter with more, higher quality, ammunition within a given budget. Reloading may not be cost effective for occasional shooters, as it takes time to recoup the cost of the required equipment, but those who shoot on a regular basis will see benefit as the brass cartridge case or shotgun shell hull can be reused many times.

Besides economy, the ability to customize the performance of ammunition is a common goal. Hunters may desire cartridges with specialized bullets or specific performance as regards bullet and velocity. Target shooters seek the best achievable accuracy, as well as the best shot-to-shot consistency, or precision. Shotgunning enthusiasts can make specialty rounds not available in commercial inventories at any price. Many handloaders customize their cartridges and shells to their specific firearms in pursuit of accuracy: they can assemble precision ammunition using cartridge cases that have been fire formed in the chamber of a specific firearm. Handloaders have the flexibility to make reduced-power rounds for hunting rifles, such as handloading to an equivalent of a milder-recoiling round to encourage recoil-averse hunters to become proficient with a full-power one. Rather than purchasing a special purpose rifle, which many novice hunters would outgrow within a few hunting seasons, a single rifle can be used with special handloaded rounds until such time more powerful rounds are desired and become appropriate.

This use of specialized handloading techniques provides significant cost savings when a hunter in a family has a full-power rifle and a new hunter in the family wishes to learn the sport. This technique enables hunters to use the same rifle and caliber to hunt a wider variety of game. Collectors of obsolete firearms who want to shoot those guns must handload because appropriate cartridges or shotshells are no longer commercially produced. Handloaders can create cartridges for which no commercial equivalent exists - wildcat cartridges; as with any hobby, the pure enjoyment of the reloading process may be the most important benefit. Recurring shortages of commercial ammunition are reasons to reload cartridges and shotshells; when commercial supplies dry up, store-bought ammunition is not available at any price, having the ability to reload one's own cartridges and shotshells economically provides an ability to continue shooting despite shortages. There are three aspects to ballistics: internal ballistics, external ballistics, terminal ballistics.

Internal ballistics refers to things that happen inside the firearm during and after firing, but before the bullet leaves the muzzle. The handloading process can realize increased accuracy and precision through improved consistency of manufacture, by selecting the optimal bullet weight and design, tailoring bullet velocity to the purpose; each cartridge reloaded can have each component matched to the rest of the cartridges in the batch. Brass cases can be matched by volume and concentricity, bullets by weight and design, powder charges by weight, case filling, packing scheme. In addition to these critical items, the equipment used to assemble the cartridge has an effect on its uniformity/consistency and optimal shape/size. Modern handloading equipment enables a firearm owner to tailor fresh ammunition to a specific firearm, to measured tolerances far improving the comparatively wide tolerances within which commercial ammunition manufacturers must operate. Where the most extreme accuracy is demanded, such as in rifle benchrest shooting, handloading is a fundamental prerequisite for success.

The basic piece of equipment for handloading is the press. A press is a device that uses compound leverage to push the cases into the dies that perform the loading operations. Presses vary from simple, inexpensive single stage models, to complex progressive models that will eject a loaded cartridge with each pull of a lever, at rates of 10 rounds a minute. Inexpensive "tong" tools have been used for reloading since the mid-19th century, they can be caliber-specific or have interchangeable dies. Reloading presses are categorized by the letter of the alphabet that they most resemble: "O", "C", "H"; the sturdiest presses, suitable for bullet swaging functions as well as for normal reloading die usage, are of the "O" type. Heavy steel encloses the single die on these presses. Sturdy presses for all but bullet swaging use often


Bizenghast is a debut gothic graphic novel series written and illustrated by M. Alice LeGrow; the first seven volumes were published by Tokyopop, with the final volume released in late April 2012. After placing in Tokyopop's Rising Stars of Manga competition with her short story "Nikolai", LeGrow pitched the series to Tokyopop's editors, she worked on the series from 2004 to 2011. Set in the haunted New England town of Bizenghast, the story follows Dinah, an orphaned teenager, tasked with returning each night to an ancient mausoleum to free the ghosts within the building. Several adaptations of Bizenghast have been released, including a novel by Shawn Thorgersen, animated episodes, a tabletop roleplaying game. Critics praised Bizenghast for the gothic atmosphere and art, but noted the traditional elements and varying quality of the series. Set in the fictional New England town of the same name, Bizenghast focuses on fifteen-year-old Dinah Wherever, her parents' car crash leaves her orphaned at a young age, as a result, she moves in with her aunt.

Dinah can see the ghosts which haunt her aunt's house, a hospital and a boarding school. One day and her only friend, Vincent Monroe, sneak out of her aunt's house to search for materials for his garden, they stumble across an ancient mausoleum, after Dinah reads aloud from a plaque, she discovers that her name is written on a contract which binds her to return to the mausoleum every night to free the ghosts. If she succeeds, she will win a reward. If she fails, she will stay in the mausoleum as a corpse. For every ten ghosts appeased and Vincent get a tower guard to help with their task. Over the course of the series, they meet two of the guards: Edaniel, a grinning cat-like creature, his brother Edrear, who secretly likes Dinah. Vincent dies while in one of the vaults; the hooded angel, which guards the entrance to the mausoleum, appears as two stones that talk to Dinah and help her overcome the depression which resulted from Vincent's death. Dinah continues searching the vaults and discovers that Edaniel and Edrear's sister, Eniri, is missing, that the seed of the mausoleum—its link to the Host in the afterlife—has been stolen.

Additionally and Edrear's other sister, Elala, is found dead. After Edaniel and Edrear lock down the mausoleum, they send Dinah home and she discovers that Maphohetka, a girl hanged for witchcraft and who now as a ghost can control minds in the real world, is manipulating Eniri and the townspeople. Unsuccessful in her attempt to stop her, Dinah flees to the mausoleum and receives a special outfit melted from the gold tolls that she and Vincent paid to gain access to the mausoleum. Returning, she confronts Maphohetka, who orders Edaniel to kill her. In the ensuing battle, Dinah faces off against her former friend, accidentally decapitating Edaniel in the process. An enraged Edrear attempts to kill her, but halts when Dinah points out that he's crying for his brother, something that he's unable to do and that's being caused by Maphohetka's influence. Knowing that he's been compromised, Edrear stabs himself with his own sword, leaving Dinah to mourn him and share one kiss. Maphohetka, taking the opportunity, destroys Dinah's scythe and ends up mutating into a large monster.

After Dinah is captured in Maphohetka's body, she happens upon the entity's core, Maphohetka's decayed corpse. Using Eniri's bracelet to see into the monster, she finds that a piece of the cross Maphohetka was stabbed with during her hanging is still lodged in her chest, allowing Dinah to conclude that the piece is what keeps the evil spirit anchored in the living world. Dinah removes. Wanting to seek help, Dinah stabs herself with the crucifix piece, allowing her to temporarily ascend into the afterlife. There, she encounters her mother, who gives her another mausoleum seed that Dinah takes back to the living world. Dinah uses the seed to revive everyone killed in the incident and her armor melts into coins that flow out of the fountain, but in the end, Dinah opts killing herself. Dinah walks through her own funeral. On the way, she encounters Vincent, but the two don't recognize each other until they find the hidden graveyard. Dinah and Vincent become two mausoleum guards alongside Edrear; the series closes with Dinah on top of one of the towers beside Vincent, commenting how "she's starting to like this town."

As a young girl, Mary Alice LeGrow was not interested in comics since she grew up in Weisbaden, Germany where comics were not available. In her freshman year of high school, she discovered comics and anime, she heard about Tokyopop's Rising Stars of Manga competition from a friend at the 2003 Otakon, an anime convention in Baltimore, Maryland. She pitched Bizenghast to the Tokyopop editors, became the second Rising Stars of Manga winner to have an original series published by Tokyopop. LeGrow worked on the series from 2004 to 2011, she began Bizenghast when, for an art class assignment, she drew an open door and added the hooded angel statue in another class. In her initial designs, Dinah had simple features and short black hair, Vincent was one of Dinah's friends. LeGrow removed the other friends from the story, she l

Boris Berian

Boris Berian is an American middle distance runner. He was the 2016 National Champion and represented the United States at the 2016 IAAF World Indoor Championships in the 800 meters where he won the gold medal, he set his indoor best winning the world championships at 1:45.87, boldly front running a sub-50 first 400. Outdoors he set his personal best 1:43.34 at the 2015 Herculis meet. In his collegiate career, Berian ran for Adams State University, where he was coached by Damon Martin. A year before the Hercules meet, Berian was working in a Colorado Springs McDonald's as a college dropout, still trying to train after working the morning shift. Berian, a Colorado Springs native, attended Widefield High School, where he graduated in 2011. During high school, he ran all the sprinting events, occasionally ran the 800 meters. Berian was the Colorado state champion two years a row at 400 meters and recorded high school personal bests of 46.9 for 400 meters and 1:52 for 800 meters. "... the kid had run a 46.9 400 in high school.

That’s pretty much professional. I liked his speed. We can develop strength. Boris was born at altitude, 6,100 feet, went to school at Adams State, at 7,500 feet, Big Bear is at 6,700 feet. He’s lived his whole life at altitude. I saw this as a huge positive. No other 800 runner in this country trains at altitude. People think altitude makes you slow, but 99.9% of the World and Olympic champions live and train at altitude. It gives you an advantage like the East Africans." While running at Adams State, he won both the 2012 NCAA Men's Division II Indoor Track and Field Championships and NCAA Men's Division II Outdoor Track and Field Championships at 800 meters. His wins helped the team was runner up indoors. Adams State coach Joe Vigil recommended Berian to the Big Bear Track Club, a small track club formed by Carlos Handler around another aspiring unheralded former collegiate athlete, his wife, Brenda Martinez. In that year of training he improved to become the #5 American 800 meter runner of all time.

Berian experienced a breakout year in 2016. After winning the US Indoor Championship over 800m, he went on to win the World Indoor Championship over the same distance. During the outdoor season, Berian won the 800m at the Prefontaine Classic before finishing runner-up to Clayton Murphy at the US Olympic Trials, he reached the final of the 800m at the Rio Olympic Games. In early 2016, Berian received an offer sheet from New Balance with terms. Berian's contract with Nike had expired on 12/31/15 but Nike retained the right to match a competitor's term sheet for 180 days. Nike indicated that they would match the New Balance offer and sued him for breach of contract when he wouldn't sign with Nike. Berian argued. Nike claimed they were prepared to match the New Balance contract but Berian's agent, Merhawi Keflezighi, did not communicate its terms to them adequately. In early June 2016, Portland district judge Marco Hernandez approved Nike's request to temporarily prohibit Berian from competing in New Balance gear.

Nike's claims that reductions were an industry standard were contradicted by several of its rivals, including Oiselle and New Balance. Hernandez was expected to make his next ruling on the matter after a hearing on June 21, but decided to delay it for a week. Nike, which had received negative publicity as a result of the controversy, dropped the lawsuit at that point. Boris Berian at World Athletics Vice Sports feature on Boris Berian Video on YouTube