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Hangar

A hangar is a closed building structure to hold aircraft or spacecraft. Hangars are built of wood, or concrete; the word hangar comes from Middle French hanghart, of Germanic origin, from Frankish *haimgard, from *haim and gard. Hangars are used for protection from the weather, direct sunlight and for maintenance, manufacture and storage of aircraft; the Wright brothers stored and repaired their aircraft in a wooden hangar constructed in 1902 at Kill Devil Hills in North Carolina for their glider. After completing design and construction of the Wright Flyer in Ohio, the brothers returned to Kill Devil Hills only to find their hangar damaged, they repaired the structure and constructed a new workshop while they waited for the Flyer to be shipped. Carl Richard Nyberg used a hangar to store his 1908 Flugan in the early 20th century and in 1909, Louis Bleriot crash-landed on a northern French farm in Les Baraques and rolled his monoplane into the farmer's cattle pen. Bleriot was in a race to be the first man to cross the English Channel in a heavier-than-air aircraft, he and set up his headquarters in the unused shed.

In Britain, the earliest aircraft hangars were known as aeroplane sheds, the oldest survivors of these are at Larkhill, Wiltshire. These are now Grade II * Listed buildings. British aviation pioneer Alliott Verdon Roe built one of the first aeroplane sheds in 1907 at Brooklands and full-size replicas of this and the 1908 Roe biplane are on display at Brooklands Museum; as aviation became established in Britain before World War I, standard designs of hangar appeared with military types too such as the Bessonneau hangar and the side-opening aeroplane shed of 1913, both of which were soon adopted by the Royal Flying Corps. Examples of the latter survive at Farnborough and Montrose airfields. During World War I, other standard designs included the RFC General Service Flight Shed and the Admiralty F-Type of 1916, the General Service Shed and the Handley Page aeroplane shed. Sheds built for rigid airships survive at California. Steel rigid airship hangars are some of the largest in the world. Hangar 1, Lakehurst, is located at New Jersey.

The structure was completed in 1921 and is typical of airship hangar designs of World War I. The site is best known for the Hindenburg disaster, when on May 6, 1937, the German airship Hindenburg crashed and burned while landing. Hangar No. 1 at Lakehurst was used to store the American USS Shenandoah. The hangar provided service and storage for the airships USS Los Angeles, Macon, as well as the Graf Zeppelin and the Hindenburg; the largest hangars built include the Goodyear Airdock measuring 1,175x325x211 feet and Hangar One measuring 1,133 ft × 308 ft × 198 ft. The Goodyear Airdock, is in Akron and the structure was completed on November 25, 1929; the Airdock was used for her sister ship, the USS Macon. Hangar One at Moffett Federal Field, is located in California; the structure was completed in 1931. It housed the USS Macon; the U. S. Navy established more airship operations during WWII; as part of this, ten "lighter-than-air" bases across the United States were built as part of the coastal defence plan.

Hangars at these bases are some of the world's largest freestanding timber structures. Bases with wooden hangars included: the Naval Air Stations at Massachusetts. Of the seventeen, only seven remain, Moffett Federal Field, California. A hangar for Cargolifter was built at Brand-Briesen Airfield 1,180 ft long, 705 ft wide and 348 ft high and is a free standing steel-dome "barrel-bowl" construction large enough to fit the Eiffel Tower on its side; the company went into insolvency and in June 2003, the facilities were sold off and the airship hangar was converted to a'tropical paradise'-themed indoor holiday resort called Tropical Islands, which opened in 2004. An alternative to the fixed hangar is a portable shelter that can be used for aircraft storage and maintenance. Portable fabric structures can be built up to 215 ft wide, any length, they are able to accommodate several aircraft and can be increased in size and relocated when necessary. Hangars need special structures to be built; the width of the doors have to be large.

The bigger the aircraft to be introduced, the more complex a structure is needed. According to the span of the hangar, sizes can be classified thus: XXL hangars are built for the largest aircraft in the world like the Airbus A380, Boeing 747 and the Antonov 225, which are the most complex to erect

Colorado River (Argentina)

The Colorado River is a river in the south of Argentina. The Colorado River marks most of the political boundary between the Argentine provinces of Neuquén and Mendoza, between Rio Negro and La Pampa, its man-made dam, "Embalse Casa de Piedra," serves both to generate hydroelectricity for the arid region the river traverses, to regulate the river's water level. Its sources are on the eastern slopes of the Andes in the same latitude as the Chilean volcano Tinguiririca and takes a east-southeast course toward the Atlantic Ocean. After leaving the vicinity of the Andes, the Colorado flows through a barren, arid territory, receives no tributary of note except the Salado from La Pampa Province—although it was once an outlet of the now-closed lake basin of Laguna Urre Lauquen; the bottom lands of the Colorado, in its course across Patagonia, are fertile and wooded, but too small in area to support more than a small, scattered population. The river ends about 100 to 120 kilometres south of Bahía Blanca, through several channels of a delta of the Unión Bay extending from latitude 39° 30' to 39° 50' S.

Its total length is about 1,000 kilometres, of which about 300 kilometres, from the coast up to Pichi Mahuida, are navigable for vessels of up to 2 metres draft. It is nearly 2,000 kilometres if calculated Río Desaguadero within; the river has been described as formed by the confluence of the Grande and the Barrancas. However, since the Barrancas is only a small stream compared to the Grande, it is more accurate to describe the Barrancas as a tributary that joins the main river, known as the "Grande" above where the Barrancas joins it, the "Colorado" below that point. "Colorado, a river of the Argentine Republic". The American Cyclopædia. 1879. "Colorado, Rio". New International Encyclopedia. 1905

George Peabody

George Peabody was an American financier and philanthropist. He is regarded as the father of modern philanthropy. Born into a poor family in Massachusetts, Peabody went into business in dry goods and into banking. In 1837 he moved to London where he became the most noted American banker and helped to establish the young country's international credit. Having no son of his own to whom he could pass on his business, Peabody took on Junius Spencer Morgan as a partner in 1854 and their joint business would go on to become J. P. Morgan & Co. after Peabody's 1864 retirement. In his old age, Peabody won worldwide acclaim for his philanthropy, he founded the Peabody Trust in Britain and the Peabody Institute and George Peabody Library in Baltimore, was responsible for many other charitable initiatives. For his generosity, he was awarded the Congressional Gold Medal and made a Freeman of the City of London, among many other honors. Peabody was born in 1795 in what was South Danvers, Massachusetts, his family had Puritan ancestors in the state.

As one of seven children in a poor family, George suffered some deprivations during his childhood, was able to attend school for only a few years. When he was a teenager, his father died, he worked in his brother’s shop to support his widowed mother and six siblings, he expressed "I have never forgotten and never can forget the great privations of my early years". These factors influenced his devotion to both thrift and philanthropy. In 1816, he moved to Baltimore, where he would live for the next 20 years, he established his residence and office in the old Henry Fite House, became a businessman and financier. At that time London, Amsterdam and Frankfurt were at the center of international banking and finance; as all international transactions were settled in gold or gold certificates, a developing nation like the United States had to rely upon agents and merchant banks to raise capital through relationships with merchant banking houses in Europe. Only they held the quantity of reserves of capital necessary to extend long-term credit to a developing economy like that of the US.

Peabody first visited England in 1827, seeking to use his firm and his agency to sell American states' bond issues, to raise capital for those states' various programs of "internal improvements". Over the next decade Peabody made four more trans-Atlantic trips, starting in 1835 and establishing a branch office in Liverpool, he established the banking firm of "George Peabody & Company" in London. In 1837, he took up permanent residence in London. In the 1840s, the state of Maryland defaulted on its debt and Peabody, having marketed about half of Maryland's securities to individual investors in Europe, became persona non grata around London; the Times of London noted that while Peabody was an "American gentleman of the most unblemished character", the Reform Club had blackballed him for being a citizen of a country that reneged on its debts. At first, Peabody sent letters to scold Baltimore friends about the need for the state to resume interest payment and rewarded reporters with small gratuities for favourable articles about the state.

At last, in 1845 he conspired with Barings to push Maryland into resuming payment by setting up a political slush fund to spread propaganda for debt resumption and elect legislators who would placate their investors. By means of a secret account, the two firms transferred a thousand sterling to Baltimore and bribed Daniel Webster, the orator and statesman, to make speeches for debt repayment, their attempts were successful: pro-resumption Whigs were elected and London bankers started to receive payments. Barrings duplicated the same tactics in Pennsylvania. Florida and Mississippi were the most persistent debtors and as such were excluded from Peabody's philanthropies. Although Peabody was engaged in 1838, he never married. Ron Chernow describes him as "homely", with "a rumpled face... knobby chin, bulbous nose, side whiskers, heavy-lidded eyes." However, there are numerous photographs and portraits of Peabody that would suggest that Chernow's negative opinion is overly subjective. Peabody entertained and provided letters of introduction for American businessmen visiting London, became known for the Anglo-American dinners he hosted in honor of American diplomats and other worthies, in celebration of the Fourth of July.

In 1851, when the US Congress refused to support the American section at the Great Exhibition at the Crystal Palace, Peabody advanced £3000 to improve the exhibit and uphold the reputation of the United States. In 1854, he offended many of his American guests at a Fourth of July dinner when he chose to toast Queen Victoria before US President Franklin Pierce. At around this time, Peabody began to suffer from rheumatoid gout. In February 1867, on one of several return visits to the United States, at the height of his financial success, Peabody was suggested by Francis Preston Blair, an old crony of President Andrew Jackson and an active power in the smoldering Democratic Party as a possible Secretary of the Treasury in the cabinet of President Andrew Johnson. At about the same time, Peabody was mentioned in newspapers as a future presidential candidate. Peabody described the presidential suggestion