Hanging is the suspension of a person by a noose or ligature around the neck. The Oxford English Dictionary states that hanging in this sense is "specifically to put to death by suspension by the neck", though it also referred to crucifixion and death by impalement in which the body would remain "hanging". Hanging has been a common method of capital punishment since medieval times, is the primary execution method in numerous countries and regions; the first known account of execution by hanging was in Homer's Odyssey. In this specialised meaning of the common word hang. Hanging is a common method of suicide in which a person applies a ligature to the neck and brings about unconsciousness and death by suspension or partial suspension. There are numerous methods of hanging in execution which instigate death either by the fracturing of the spine or by strangulation; the short drop is a method of hanging performed by placing the condemned prisoner on a stool, the top of a ladder, the back of a cart, horse, or other vehicle, with the noose around the neck.

The support is moved away, leaving the person dangling from the rope. Suspended by the neck, the weight of the body is used to tighten the noose around the trachea and neck structure causing strangulation and subsequently death; this takes between ten and twenty minutes, with unconsciousness occurring within 6–15 seconds. Before 1850, the short drop was the standard method for hanging, is still common in suicides and extrajudicial hangings which do not benefit from the specialised equipment and drop-length calculation tables used by the newer methods. A short drop variant is the Austro-Hungarian "pole" method, called Würgegalgen, in which the following steps take place: The condemned is made to stand before a specialized vertical pole or pillar 10 feet in height. A rope is routed through a pulley at the base of the pole; the condemned is hoisted to the top of pole by means of a sling running across the chest and under the armpits. A narrow diameter noose is looped around the prisoner's neck secured to a hook mounted at the top of the pole.

The chest sling is released, the prisoner is jerked downward by the assistant executioners via the foot rope. The executioner stands on a stepped platform 4 feet high beside the condemned, guides the head downward with his hand simultaneous to the efforts of his assistants. In some countries the executioner would manually dislocate the condemned's neck; this method was also adopted by the successor states, most notably by Czechoslovakia. Nazi war criminal Karl Hermann Frank, executed in 1946 in Prague, was among 1,000 condemned people executed in this manner in Czechoslovakia; the standard drop involves a drop of between 4 and 6 feet and came into use from 1866, when the scientific details were published by an Irish doctor, Samuel Haughton. Its use spread to English-speaking countries and those where judicial systems had an English origin, it was considered a humane improvement on the short drop because it was intended to be enough to break the person's neck, causing immediate unconsciousness and rapid brain death.

This method was used to execute condemned Nazis under United States jurisdiction after the Nuremberg Trials including Joachim von Ribbentrop and Ernst Kaltenbrunner. In the execution of Ribbentrop, historian Giles MacDonogh records that: "The hangman botched the execution and the rope throttled the former foreign minister for twenty minutes before he expired." A Life magazine report on the execution says: "The trap fell open and with a sound midway between a rumble and a crash, Ribbentrop disappeared. The rope quivered for a time stood tautly straight." This process known as the measured drop, was introduced to Britain in 1872 by William Marwood as a scientific advance on the standard drop. Instead of everyone falling the same standard distance, the person's height and weight were used to determine how much slack would be provided in the rope so that the distance dropped would be enough to ensure that the neck was broken, but not so much that the person was decapitated; the careful placement of the eye or knot of the noose contributed to breaking the neck.

Prior to 1892, the drop was between four and ten feet, depending on the weight of the body, was calculated to deliver a force of 1,260 lbf, which fractured the neck at either the 2nd and 3rd or 4th and 5th cervical vertebrae. This force resulted in some decapitations, such as the infamous case of Black Jack Ketchum in New Mexico Territory in 1901, owing to a significant weight gain while in custody not having been factored into the drop calculations. Between 1892 and 1913, the length of the drop was shortened to avoid decapitation. After 1913, other factors were taken into account, the force delivered was reduced to about 1,000 lbf; the decapitation of Eva Dugan during a botched hanging in 1930 led the state of Arizona to switch to the gas chamber as its primary execution method, on the grounds that it was believed more humane. One of the more recent decapitations as a result of the long drop occurred when Barzan Ibrahim al-Tikriti was hanged in Iraq in 2007. Accidental decapitation occurred during the 1962 hanging of Arthur Lucas, one of the last two people to be put to death in Canada.

Nazis executed under Brit

Gerhard Wehmeier

Gerhard Wehmeier was an Old Testament Scholar hailing from Germany from the Evangelical Church of Hesse Electorate-Waldeck. Wehmeier taught Old Testament at the United Theological College, Bangalore from 1973 through 1978. Wehmeier studied at the seminary in Bielefeld-Bethel and at the Universities in Göttingen, Basel and Atlanta in North America. 1970, Der Segen im Alten Testament: eine semasiologische Untersuchung der Wurzel brk, 1974, The Theme Blessing for the Nations in the Promises to the Patriarchs and in the Prophetical Literature, 1977, The Prohibition of Theft in the Decalogue, Wehmeier began teaching Old Testament at the United Theological College, Bangalore from 1973 during the Principalship of J. R. Chandran. Wehmeier's students who specialized in Old Testament during that period include, 1972-1974, S. J. Theodore of the Church of South India, Diocese of Karimnagar, 1972-1975, N. K. Achumi of the Bible Society of India, 1975-1977, R. Daniel Premkumar of the Church of South India Synod, 1976-1978, D. Dhanaraj of the Karnataka Theological College, 1977-1979, J. Bhaskar Jeyaraj of the South Asia Institute of Advanced Christian Studies.

When Wehmeier joined the seminary in 1973, John Sadananda, the present Master of the Senate of Serampore College was still a graduate student who benefited from the Old Testament scholarship of Wehmeier and his other two colleagues, G. M. Butterworth and E. C. John and the three of them led the Old Testament studies in Bangalore while John D. W. Watts and G. Babu Rao led the Old Testament studies in Serampore College, Serampore for nearly half a decade. After Wehmeier returned to Germany in 1978 to take up responsibilities with his home Church, the Evangelical Church of Hesse Electorate-Waldeck, he continued to be involved in matters relating to ministerial support for students pursuing seminary studies in India, it was Wehmeier who made possible the overseas research studies of Daniel Sadananda, a New Testament Scholar and current President of the United Theological College, Bangalore Society. Bishop de:Martin Hein, EKD...a purposeful working member of the Church who had never wanted to focus on his person, but had always given priority to the service of the Gospel and the Church.

He deserves special recognition for the theological training and the service in the Church as Pastor of the pastors. Wehmeier showed himself as an ecumenical Christian with a comprehensive horizon through his work in India and the United States

Java logging framework

A Java logging framework is a computer data logging package for the Java platform. This article covers general purpose logging frameworks. Logging refers to the recording of activity by an application and is a common issue for development teams. Logging frameworks standardize the process of logging for the Java platform. In particular they provide flexibility by avoiding explicit output to the console. Where logs are written becomes independent of the code and can be customized at runtime; the JDK did not include logging in its original release so by the time the Java Logging API was added several other logging frameworks had become used - in particular Apache Commons Logging and log4j. This led to problems when integrating different third-party libraries each using different logging frameworks. Pluggable logging frameworks were developed to solve this problem. Logging is broken into three major pieces: the Logger, the Formatter and the Appender; the Logger is responsible for capturing the message to be logged along with certain metadata and passing it to the logging framework.

After receiving the message, the framework calls the Formatter with the message which formats it for output. The framework hands the formatted message to the appropriate Appender/Handler for disposition; this might include output to a console display, writing to disk, appending to a database, or generating an email. Simpler logging frameworks, like Logging Framework by the Object Guy, combine the logger and the appender; this simplifies default operation, but it is less configurable if the project is moved across environments. A Logger is an object that allows the application to log without regard to where the output is sent/stored; the application logs a message by passing an object or an object and an exception with an optional severity level to the logger object under a given name/identifier. A logger has a name; the name is structured hierarchically, with periods separating the levels. A common scheme is to use the name of the class or package, doing the logging. Both log4j and the Java logging API support defining handlers higher up the hierarchy.

For example, the logger might be named "com.sun.some. UsefulClass"; the handler can be defined for any of the following: com com.sun com.sun.some com.sun.some. UsefulClassAs long as there is a handler defined somewhere in this stack, logging may occur. For example a message logged to the com.sun.some. UsefulClass logger, may get written by the com.sun handler. There is a global handler that receives and processes messages generated by any logger; the message is logged at a certain level. Common level names are copied from Apache Commons Logging: The logging framework maintains the current logging level for each logger; the logging level can be set less restrictive. For example, if the logging level is set to "WARNING" all messages of that level or higher are logged: ERROR and FATAL. Severity levels can be assigned to both appenders. Both must be enabled for a given severity level for output to be generated. So a logger enabled for debug output will not generate output if the handler that gets the message is not enabled for debug.

Filters cause a log event to be logged. The most used filter is the logging level documented in the previous section. Logging frameworks such as Log4j 2 and SLF4J provide Markers, which when attached to a log event can be used for filtering. Filters can be used to accept or deny log events based on exceptions being thrown, data within the log message, data in a ThreadLocal, exposed through the logging API, or a variety of other methods. A Formatter is an object; this consists of taking the binary object and converting it to a string representation. Each framework defines a default output format. Appenders listen for messages above a specified minimum severity level; the Appender takes the message it is posts it appropriately. Message dispositions include: display on the console write to a file or syslog append to a database table distribute via Java Messaging Services send via email write to a socket discard to the "bit-bucket" JCL and Log4j are common because they have been around for so long and were the only choices for a long time.

The flexibility of slf4j has made it a popular choice. SLF4J is a set of logging wrappers, thus multiple third-party libraries can be incorporated into an application, regardless of the logging framework each has chosen to use. However all logging output is generated in a standard way via Logback. Log4j 2 provides both an implementation; the API can be routed to other logging implementations equivalent to. Unlike SLF4J, the Log4j 2 API logs Message objects instead of Strings for extra flexibility and supports Java Lambda expressions. JCL isn't a logging framework, but a wrapper for one; as such, it requires a logging framework underneath it, although it can default to using its own SimpleLog logger. JCL, SLF4J and the Log4j 2 API are useful when developing reusable libraries which need to write to whichever underlying logging system is being used by the application; this provides flexibility in heterogeneous environments where the logging framework is to change, although in most cases, once a logging framework has been chosen, there is little need to change it over the life of the project.

SLF4J and Log4j 2 benefit from being n