Guo Zhongshu, courtesy name Shuxian, was a Chinese painter, scholar and philologist during the Five Dynasties period and Song dynasty. He was noted for his paintings of structures. Early in his career, Guo Zhongshu served under the Later Han governor Liu Yun until Liu was murdered by the usurper Guo Wei, he served in the Later Zhou and Song imperial governments, but was banished multiple times for behavioral problems. In his life, he was known for his eccentricity. Su Shi's eulogy as well as anecdotes celebrated his apparent free spirit, wit and egalitarian tendencies. Alexander Soper, saw symptoms of schizophrenia which he blamed for Guo's death. Guo Zhongshu was from Luoyang. A child prodigy, at the age of 6 he could recite Confucian classics and compose essays, that year he passed the Later Tang dynasty's national children's examination, he was good at calligraphy the seal script and the large seal script. Once, when shown a manuscript in the rare bird seal script, he was so absorbed by it that he read and copied it overnight.
During the Later Han dynasty, Liu Yun—a cousin of the Later Han emperor Liu Chengyou—was named the military governor of Wuning Circuit in 948. Guo Zhongshu, around 19 at that time, went to Xu Prefecture and served as a prefectural judge under him. In late 950, military governor Guo Wei rebelled and captured the capital Daliang; the emperor Liu Chengyou was killed on January 2, 951. With Guo Wei's ostensible consent, the widowed Empress Dowager Li chose Liu Yun to succeed the throne. On January 4, senior official Feng Dao was sent with her edict to Xu Prefecture to escort Liu Yun back to the capital. After Feng Dao's arrival, Liu Yun took most of his retinue and set out for Daliang—but he wouldn't make it, because Guo Wei having consolidated enough power in Daliang was no longer satisfied with remaining a mere subject. On January 30, supported by thousands of his soldiers who made a commotion, Guo Wei agreed to ascend the throne, general Guo Chongwei was sent with 700 cavalries to intercept Liu Yun, who had by arrived in Song Prefecture.
When Guo Chongwei came to Song Prefecture, he first met with Feng Dao outside the city gate before venturing inside to meet with Liu Yun. Realizing this is a conspiracy, the 22-year-old Guo Zhongshu angrily lambasted the 69-year-old Feng Dao, who had disloyally held high positions under the Later Tang, Later Jin, the Liao dynasty before Later Han: Sir, you have been an important minister during many dynasties. Your honesty and integrity is renowned in the world; those who lack virtues respect you as an elderly gentleman. If you go back on your word and betray the Han dynasty today, you will be throwing away all you have accomplished in your life. How can you not have any qualms? Feng Dao was too ashamed to respond. Guo Zhongshu and others advised Liu Yun to kill Feng Dao, gather the troops in Song Prefecture and flee to Hedong Circuit where Liu Yun's father Liu Chong was stationed as the military governor. Liu Yun hesitated, but by the next morning everything was too late—Guo Chongwei had secretly taken control of his guards the night before and put him under house arrest.
Guo Zhongshu fled to the "mountains and wilderness", in less than a month Guo Wei founded the Later Zhou dynasty and had Liu Yun murdered. Guo Zhongshu reemerged in officialdom, he denied his former relationship with Liu Yun, because official records claimed he "swung his sleeve and spurned" Liu Yun when the latter offered him a position. At any rate, around 952 he had concurrent positions in the Imperial Clan Court and the Directorate of Education; the Later Zhou dynasty was replaced by the Song dynasty in 960. One day in 961, Guo Zhongshu came to the imperial court drunk and argued loudly with Fu Zhaowen, a Secretariat of the Heir Apparent; when a censor tried to submit a memorial criticizing them, Guo Zhongshu yelled at the censor, grabbed his memorial and destroyed it. Due to these unruly behaviors, on October 10, 961, he was banished to Qian Prefecture to serve as a revenue administrator, but he did not mend his ways there. After he drunkenly beat up a local clerk named Fan Di and failed to report for duty, he was arrested and further banished to Lingwu.
Thereafter Guo Zhongshu became a drifting artist, wandering between Qi Prefecture, Yong Prefecture, the capital Kaifeng and his hometown Luoyang appearing drunk and untoward. If he chanced upon a beautiful mountain or body of water during his travels, he would linger for weeks without any food. People thought he was odd: he could be seen standing under the scorching sun during the summer, swimming in rivers floating with ice during the winter, he mingled with both the poor and treated everyone the same. Once during a trip, he got off his horse and invited his servant to drink with him in a roadside teahouse; the servant declined because it was unacceptable, bu
National Revolutionary Army
The National Revolutionary Army, sometimes shortened to Revolutionary Army before 1928, as National Army after 1928, was the military arm of the Kuomintang from 1925 until 1947 in the Republic of China. It became the regular army of the ROC during the KMT's period of party rule beginning in 1928, it was renamed the Republic of China Armed Forces after the 1947 Constitution, which instituted civilian control of the military. Organized with Soviet aid as a means for the KMT to unify China during the Warlord Era, the National Revolutionary Army fought major engagements in the Northern Expedition against the Chinese Beiyang Army warlords, in the Second Sino-Japanese War against the Imperial Japanese Army and in the Chinese Civil War against the People's Liberation Army. During the Second Sino-Japanese War, the armed forces of the Communist Party of China were nominally incorporated into the National Revolutionary Army, but broke away to form the People's Liberation Army shortly after the end of the war.
With the promulgation of the Constitution of the Republic of China in 1947 and the formal end of the KMT party-state, the National Revolutionary Army was renamed the Republic of China Armed Forces, with the bulk of its forces forming the Republic of China Army, which retreated to the island of Taiwan in 1949. The NRA was founded by the KMT in 1925 as the military force destined to unite China in the Northern Expedition. Organized with the help of the Comintern and guided under the doctrine of the Three Principles of the People, the distinction among party and army was blurred. A large number of the Army's officers passed through the Whampoa Military Academy, the first commandant, Chiang Kai-shek, became commander-in-chief of the Army in 1925 before launching the successful Northern Expedition. Other prominent commanders included Chen Cheng; the end of the Northern Expedition in 1928 is taken as the date when China's Warlord era ended, though smaller-scale warlord activity continued for years afterwards.
In 1927, after the dissolution of the First United Front between the Nationalists and the Communists, the ruling KMT purged its leftist members and eliminated Soviet influence from its ranks. Chiang Kai-shek turned to Germany a great military power, for the reorganization and modernization of the National Revolutionary Army; the Weimar Republic sent advisors to China, but because of the restrictions imposed by the Treaty of Versailles they could not serve in military capacities. Chiang requested famous generals such as Ludendorff and von Mackensen as advisors; when Adolf Hitler became Germany's chancellor in 1933 and disavowed the Treaty, the anti-communist Nazi Party and the anti-communist KMT were soon engaged in close cooperation. With Germany training Chinese troops and expanding Chinese infrastructure, while China opened its markets and natural resources to Germany. Max Bauer was the first advisor to China. In 1934 Gen. Hans von Seeckt, acting as advisor to Chiang, proposed an "80 Division Plan" for reforming the entire Chinese army into 80 divisions of trained, well-equipped troops organised along German lines.
The plan was never realised, as the eternally bickering warlords could not agree upon which divisions were to be merged and disbanded. Furthermore, since embezzlement and fraud were commonplace in understrength divisions, reforming the military structure would threaten divisional commanders' "take". Therefore, by July 1937 only eight infantry divisions had completed training; these were the 3rd, 6th, 9th, 14th, 36th, 87th, 88th, the Training Division. For a time, during the Second Sino-Japanese War, Communist forces fought as a nominal part of the National Revolutionary Army, forming the Eighth Route Army and the New Fourth Army units, but this co-operation fell apart. Throughout the Chinese Civil War the National Revolutionary Army experienced major problems with desertion, with many soldiers switching sides to fight for the Communists. Troops in India and Burma during World War II included the Chinese Expeditionary Force, the Chinese Army in India and Y Force. After the drafting and implementation of the Constitution of the Republic of China in 1947, the National Revolutionary Army was transformed into the ground service branch of the Republic of China Armed Forces – the Republic of China Army.
The NRA throughout its lifespan recruited 4,300,000 regulars, in 370 Standard Divisions, 46 New Divisions, 12 Cavalry Divisions, eight New Cavalry Divisions, 66 Temporary Divisions, 13 Reserve Divisions, for a grand total of 515 divisions. However, many divisions were formed from two or more other divisions, were not active at the same time. At the apex of the NRA was the National Military Council translated as Military Affairs Commission. Chaired by Chiang Kai-Shek, it commands, it included from 1937 the Chief of the General Staff, General He Yingqin, the General Staff, the War Ministry, the military regions and naval forces, air defence and garrison commanders, support services Around 14 Million were conscripted from 1937-1945 Also, New Divisions were created to replace Standard Divisions lost early in the war and were issued the old division's number. Therefore, the number of divisions in active service at any given time is much smaller than this
Allies of World War II
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War. The Allies promoted the alliance as a means to control German and Italian aggression. At the start of the war on 1 September 1939, the Allies consisted of France and the United Kingdom, as well as their dependent states, such as British India. Within days they were joined by the independent Dominions of the British Commonwealth: Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. After the start of the German invasion of North Europe until the Balkan Campaign, the Netherlands, Belgium and Yugoslavia joined the Allies. After first having cooperated with Germany in invading Poland whilst remaining neutral in the Allied-Axis conflict, the Soviet Union perforce joined the Allies in June 1941 after being invaded by Germany; the United States provided war materiel and money all along, joined in December 1941 after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.
China had been in a prolonged war with Japan since the Marco Polo Bridge Incident of 1937, but joined the Allies in 1941. The alliance was formalised by the Declaration by United Nations, from 1 January 1942. However, the name United Nations was used to describe the Allies during the war; the leaders of the "Big Three"—the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the United States—controlled Allied strategy. The Big Three together with China were referred as a "trusteeship of the powerful" were recognized as the Allied "Big Four" in the Declaration by United Nations and as the "Four Policemen" of the United Nations. After the war ended, the Allied nations became the basis of the modern United Nations. Members The origins of the Allied powers stem from the Allies of World War I and cooperation of the victorious powers at the Paris Peace Conference, 1919. Germany resented signing Treaty of Versailles; the new Weimar Republic's legitimacy became shaken. However, the 1920s were peaceful. With the Wall Street Crash of 1929 and the ensuing Great Depression, political unrest in Europe soared including the rise in support of revanchist nationalists in Germany who blamed the severity of the economic crisis on the Treaty of Versailles.
By the early 1930s, the Nazi Party led by Adolf Hitler became the dominant revanchist movement in Germany and Hitler and the Nazis gained power in 1933. The Nazi regime demanded the immediate cancellation of the Treaty of Versailles and made claims to German-populated Austria, German-populated territories of Czechoslovakia; the likelihood of war was high, the question was whether it could be avoided through strategies such as appeasement. In Asia, when Japan seized Manchuria in 1931, the League of Nations condemned it for aggression against China. Japan responded by leaving the League of Nations in March 1933. After four quiet years, the Sino-Japanese War erupted in 1937 with Japanese forces invading China; the League of Nations initiated sanctions on Japan. The United States, in particular, was sought to support China. In March 1939, Germany took over Czechoslovakia, violating the Munich Agreement signed six months before, demonstrating that the appeasement policy was a failure. Britain and France decided that Hitler had no intention to uphold diplomatic agreements and responded by preparing for war.
On 31 March 1939, Britain formed the Anglo-Polish military alliance in an effort to avert a German attack on the country. The French had a long-standing alliance with Poland since 1921; the Soviet Union sought an alliance with the western powers, but Hitler ended the risk of a war with Stalin by signing the Nazi–Soviet non-aggression pact in August 1939. The agreement secretly divided the independent nations of Eastern Europe between the two powers and assured adequate oil supplies for the German war machine. On 1 September 1939, Germany invaded Poland. On 17 September 1939, the Soviet Union invaded Poland from the east. A Polish government-in-exile was set up and it continued to be one of the Allies, a model followed by other occupied countries. After a quiet winter, Germany in April 1940 invaded and defeated Denmark, Belgium, the Netherlands and France. Britain and its Empire stood alone against Mussolini. In June 1941, Hitler broke the non-aggression agreement with Stalin and Germany invaded the Soviet Union.
In December, Japan attacked the Britain. The main lines of World War II had formed. During December 1941, U. S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt devised the name "United Nations" for the Allies and proposed it to British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, he referred to the Big Three and China as a "trusteeship of the powerful", later the "Four Policemen". The Declaration by United Nations on 1 January 1942 was the basis of the modern United Nations. At the Potsdam Conference of July–August 1945, Roosevelt's successor, Harry S. Truman, proposed that the foreign ministers of China, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the United States "should draft the peace treaties and boundary settlements of Europe", which led to the creation of the Council of Foreign Ministers of the "Big Five", soon thereafter the establishment of those states as the permanent members of the UNSC. Great Britain and other members of the British Commonwealth, most known as the Dominions, declared war on Germany separately from 3 September 1939 with the UK first, all within one week of each other.
British West Africa and the British colonies in E
Provisional Government of the Republic of China (1937–1940)
The Provisional Government of the Republic of China was a Chinese puppet state of the Empire of Japan that existed from 1937 to 1940 during the Second Sino-Japanese War. It had been formed on the initiative of Imperial Japanese Army commanders in north China, before securing approval from Japanese government authorities in Tokyo, thus the Provisional Government had nominal authority in Japanese occupied zones in north China, while to the south the Central China Expeditionary Army established the Reformed Government of the Republic of China in 1938, which had authority in the Yangtze River area. Both served as a local organ of the Japanese military authorities, due to the presence and extensive powers of Japanese advisors within the Provisional Government over native Chinese bureaucrats, because it never made any attempt to secure international recognition from Japan. After the conquest of Northern China, Japanese Imperial General Headquarters authorized the creation of a collaborationist regime as part of its overall strategy to establish an autonomous buffer zone between China and Japanese-controlled Manchukuo.
This resulted in the creation of local and provincial autonomous administrations, such as the East Hebei Autonomous Council. But plans were drawn up throughout 1937 to unite all of these smaller regimes into one that would serve as a future central government of China; the Provisional Government united these smaller local councils and nominally controlled the provinces of Hopei, Shansi and Kiangsu. However, the regime's real influence was limited to where Japanese military control extended permanently, which meant its jurisdiction was in larger cities and railways; the authority of the Provisional Government was further limited by the existence of the Inner Mongolian autonomous government and the continued resistance of the East Hebei Council to integrate. The Provisional Government of the Republic of China was inaugurated by Wáng Kèmǐn, former Kuomintang Minister of Finance and Shanghai banker, on 14 December 1937, with its capital at Beijing. Wang was assisted by Tang Erho, who served as chairman of the Legislative Yuan and Minister of Education.
Major General Seiichi Kita, the head of the local Japanese special services and foremost "puppeteer" in north China on whose initiative the Provisional Government would be formed, wanted the head of state to be either Cao Kun or Wu Peifu, former warlords of the early republican period who had some national fame in China. But neither one took up the post. In the end, the Provisional Government leadership did not include anyone of fame. Many of its members were older bureaucrats whose careers spanned the early republican era and the preceding Qing Dynasty; some had picked the wrong side during the warlord era and thus were bitterly anti-Kuomintang. The difficulty that Kita and other Japanese faced in recruiting members for the puppet regime caused a delay of its formation, its activities were prescribed and overseen by advisors provided by the Japanese Northern China Area Army. The failure of the Japanese to give any real authority to the Provisional Government discredited it in the eyes of the local inhabitants, made its existence of only limited propaganda utility to the Japanese authorities.
The Provisional Government was, along with the Reformed Government of the Republic of China, merged into Wang Jingwei's Nanjing-based reorganized national government on 30 March 1940, but in practical terms remained independent under the name of the "North China Political Affairs Commission" until the end of the war. Many of the same members of the Provisional Government continued to serve the Japanese in north China throughout the 1940s in their original capacities; the main source of its sovereignty was a constitution written by an unelected committee. The internal structure of the Provisional Government was similar to the Kuomintang government of Chiang Kai-shek, but in practice there was little division of power between the different branches, which were the four yuan: Executive, Legislative and Judicial; the Control Yuan was abolished not long. The Executive Yuan was given great powers at the expense of the other branches, such as deciding all legislation and having the Legislative Yuan rubber stamp its decisions.
The Executive supervised five ministries, which did not include either a foreign affairs or military ministry, most notably. The Provisional Government never made any serious attempt to secure international recognition, not from Japan; some representatives had been sent to Tokyo but these were more "ambassadors of goodwill" rather than accredited diplomats. No formal treaties or other agreements were concluded by the Provisional Government, with all negotiations done directly with the authorities of the Japanese North China Area Army, its official ideology was Confucianism, it condemned the Kuomintang and Chiang Kai-shek for destroying China with their policies. The Provisional Government took the view that the Kuomintang took unnecessarily hostile actions towards Japan, allied with the Soviet Union and the Chinese Communists, thus ended up damaging China; the ideas of Confucianism, such as the "kingly way," were considered by the government to be antidotes to the social damage caused by Sun Yat-sen's Three Principles of the
The Judicial Yuan is the judicial branch of the government of the Republic of China on Taiwan. Its Justices of the Constitutional Court, with 15 members, is charged with interpreting the Constitution; the President and Vice President of the Judicial Yuan are chosen from among the Justices by the President. Eight of the grand justices, including the president and vice president of the Judicial Yuan, serve four-year terms, the remaining justices serve eight-year terms; the Judicial Yuan supervises the Supreme Court, the high courts, the district courts, the Administrative Court, the Commission on the Disciplinary Sanctions of Public Functionaries. According to Articles 77 and 78 of the Constitution of the Republic of China, Article 5 of the Additional Articles of the Constitution, Articles 30, 43, 75 of the Local Government Systems Act, the major functions of the Judicial Yuan are as follows: To interpret the Constitution and to unify the interpretation of laws and orders. Judicial Administrative Power of the Constitutional Court.
The Justices of the Constitutional Court provides rulings on the following four categories of cases: Interpretation of the Constitution. A petition for an interpretation of the Constitution shall be filed in the following circumstances: Where a central or local government agency is uncertain regarding the application of the Constitution while exercising its powers, or, if the agency, while exercising its powers, has disputes with another agency regarding the application of the Constitution, or if the agency is uncertain of the constitutionality of a particular law or order when applying the same; the Justices are: The Honorable Chief Justice and President of the Judicial Yuan Hsu Tzong-li The Honorable Justice and Vice President of the Judicial Yuan Su Yeong-chin The Honorable Justice Lin Sea-yau The Honorable Justice Chih Chi-ming The Honorable Justice Li Chen-shan The Honorable Justice Tsay Ching-you The Honorable Justice Huang Mao-zong The Honorable Justice Chen Ming The Honorable Justice Yeh Pai-hsiu The Honorable Justice Chen Chun-sheng The Honorable Justice Chen Shin-min The Honorable Justice Chen Be-yue The Honorable Justice Huang Hsi-chun The Honorable Justice Lo Chang-fa The Honorable Justice Tang Te-chung The Supreme Court is the court of last resort for civil and criminal cases.
A civil case can be appealed to the Supreme Court. Except for petty offences enumerated in Article 376 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, any criminal case may be appealed to the Court; this Court exercises jurisdiction over the following cases: appeals from judgments of High Courts or their branches as courts of first instance in criminal cases. There are six High Court branches in the Taiwan Area: The High Courts and its branches exercise jurisdiction over the following cases: Appeals from judgments of the District Courts or their branches as courts of the first instance in ordinary proceedings of civil and criminal cases; the High Courts and its Branch Courts are divided into civil and specialized divisions. Each Division is composed of one two Associate Judges. Additionally, the High Court and its Branch Courts have a Clerical Bureau, headed by a Chief Clerk who assists the
The Kuomintang of China is a major political party in the Republic of China on Taiwan, based in Taipei, founded in 1911, is an opposition political party in the Legislative Yuan. The predecessor of the Kuomintang, the Revolutionary Alliance, was one of the major advocates of the overthrow of the Qing Dynasty and the subsequent declaration of independence in 1911 that resulted in the establishment of the Republic of China; the KMT was founded by Song Jiaoren and Sun Yat-sen shortly after the Xinhai Revolution of 1911. Sun was the provisional President, but he ceded the presidency to Yuan Shikai. Led by Chiang Kai-shek, the KMT formed the National Revolutionary Army and succeeded in its Northern Expedition to unify much of mainland China in 1928, ending the chaos of the Warlord Era, it was the ruling party in mainland China until 1949, when it lost the Chinese Civil War to the rival Communist Party of China. The KMT fled to Taiwan; this government retained China's UN seat until 1971. Taiwan ceased to be a single-party state in 1986, political reforms beginning in the 1990s loosened the KMT's grip on power.
The KMT remains one of Taiwan's main political parties, with Ma Ying-jeou, elected in 2008 and re-elected in 2012, being the seventh KMT member to hold the office of the presidency. However, in the 2016 general and presidential election the Democratic Progressive Party gained control of both the Legislative Yuan and the presidency, Tsai Ing-wen being elected President; the party's guiding ideology is the Three Principles of the People, advocated by Sun Yat-sen. The KMT is a member of the International Democrat Union. Together with the People First Party and New Party, the KMT forms what is known as the Taiwanese Pan-Blue Coalition, which supports eventual unification with the mainland. However, the KMT has been forced to moderate its stance by advocating the political and legal status quo of modern Taiwan, as political realities make the reunification of China unlikely; the KMT holds to a "One China Principle": it considers that there is only one China, but that the Republic of China rather than the People's Republic of China is its legitimate government under the 1992 Consensus.
In order to ease tensions with the PRC, the KMT has since 2008 endorsed the "Three Noes" policy as defined by Ma Ying-jeou: no unification, no independence and no use of force. The KMT traces its ideological and organizational roots to the work of Sun Yat-sen, a proponent of Chinese nationalism and democracy, who founded Revive China Society at the capital of the Republic of Hawaii, Honolulu, on 24 November 1894. In 1905, Sun joined forces with other anti-monarchist societies in Tokyo, Empire of Japan to form the Tongmenghui on 20 August 1905, a group committed to the overthrow of the Qing Dynasty and the establishment of a republic style government; the group planned and supported the Xinhai Revolution of 1911 and the founding of the Republic of China on 1 January 1912. However, Sun did not have military power and ceded the provisional presidency of the republic to Yuan Shikai, who arranged for the abdication of Puyi, the last Emperor, on 12 February. On 25 August 1912, the Nationalist Party was established at the Huguang Guild Hall in Peking, where Tongmenghui and five smaller pro-revolution parties merged to contest the first national elections.
Sun was chosen as the party chairman with Huang Xing as his deputy. The most influential member of the party was the third ranking Song Jiaoren, who mobilized mass support from gentry and merchants for the Nationalists to advocate a constitutional parliamentary democracy; the party sought to check the power of Yuan. The Nationalists won an overwhelming majority of the first National Assembly election in December 1912. However, Yuan soon began to ignore the parliament in making presidential decisions. Song Jiaoren was assassinated in Shanghai in 1913. Members of the Nationalists led by Sun Yat-sen suspected that Yuan was behind the plot and thus staged the Second Revolution in July 1913, a poorly planned and ill-supported armed rising to overthrow Yuan, failed. Yuan, claiming subversiveness and betrayal, expelled adherents of the KMT from the parliament. Yuan dissolved the Nationalists in November and dismissed the parliament early in 1914. Yuan Shikai proclaimed himself emperor in December 1915.
While exiled in Japan in 1914, Sun established the Chinese Revolutionary Party on 8 July 1914, but many of his old revolutionary comrades, including Huang Xing, Wang Jingwei, Hu Hanmin and Chen Jiongming, refused to join him or support his efforts in inciting armed uprising against Yuan. In order to join the Revolutionary Party, members had to take an oath of personal loyalty to Sun, which many old revolutionaries regarded as undemocratic and contrary to the spirit of the revolution; as a result, he became sidelined within the Republican movement during this period. Sun returned to China in 1917 to establish a military junta at Canton, in order to oppose the Beiyang government, but was soon forced out of office and exiled to Shanghai. There, with renewed support, he resurrected the KMT on 10 October 1919, under the name Kuomintang of China and established its headquarters in Canton in 1920. In 1923, the KMT and its Canton government accepted aid from the Soviet Union after being denied recognition by the western powers.
Soviet advisers - the most prominent of whom was Mikhail Borodin, an agent of the Comintern – arrived in China in 1923 to aid in the reorgan
Wang Jingwei regime
The Wang Jingwei regime is the common name of the Reorganized National Government of the Republic of China, a puppet state of the Empire of Japan, located in eastern China. This should not be confused with the Republic of China under Chiang Kai-shek, a separate, non-Japanese government, it was ruled by a one-party totalitarian dictatorship under an ex-Kuomintang official. The region that it would administer was seized by Japan throughout the late 1930s with the beginning of the Second Sino-Japanese War. Wang, a rival of Chiang Kai-shek and member of the pro-peace faction of the KMT, defected to the Japanese side and formed a collaborationist government in occupied Nanjing in 1940; the new state claimed the entirety of China during its existence, portraying itself as the legitimate inheritors of the Xinhai Revolution and Sun Yat-sen's legacy as opposed to Chiang Kai-shek's government in Chongqing, but only Japanese-occupied territory was under its direct control. Its international recognition was limited to other members of the Anti-Comintern Pact, which it was a signatory of.
The Reorganized National Government existed until the end of World War II and the surrender of Japan in August 1945, at which point the regime was dissolved and many of its leading members were executed for treason. The state was formed by combining the previous Reformed Government and Provisional Government of the Republic of China, puppet regimes which ruled the central and northern regions of China that were under Japanese control, respectively. Unlike Wang Jingwei's government, these regimes were not much more than arms of the Japanese military leadership and received no recognition from Japan itself or its allies. However, after 1940 the former territory of the Provisional Government remained semi-autonomous from Nanjing's control, under the "North China Political Council" of Wang Kemin, while the region of Mengjiang was under Wang Jingwei's government only nominally, his regime was hampered by the fact that the powers granted to it by the Japanese were limited, this was only changed with the signing of a new treaty in 1943 which gave it more sovereignty from Japanese control.
The Japanese viewed it as not an end in itself but the means to an end, a bridge for negotiations with Chiang Kai-shek, which led them to treat Wang with indifference. The regime is informally known as the Nanjing Nationalist Government, the Nanjing Regime, or by its leader Wang Jingwei Regime; as the government of the Republic of China and subsequently of the People's Republic of China regarded the regime as illegal, it is commonly known as Wang's Puppet Regime or Puppet Nationalist Government in Greater China. Other names used are the Republic of China-Nanjing, or New China. While Wang Jingwei was regarded as a favorite to inherit Sun Yat-sen's position as leader of the Nationalist Party, based upon his faithful service to the party throughout the 1910s and 20s and based on his unique position as the one who accepted and recorded Dr. Sun's last will and testament, he was overtaken by Chiang Kai-shek. By the 1930s, Wang Jingwei had been taken the position Minister of Foreign Affairs for the Nationalist Government under Chiang Kai-shek, a position that put him in control over the deteriorating Sino-Japanese relationship.
While Chiang Kai-shek focused his primary attentions against the Communist Party of China, Wang Jingwei diligently toiled to preserve the peace between China and Japan stressing the need for a period of extended peace in order for China to elevate itself economically and militarily to the levels of its neighbor and the other Great powers of the world. Yet despite his efforts, Wang was unable to find a peaceful solution to prevent the Japanese from commencing an invasion into Chinese territory. By April 1938, the national conference of the KMT, held in retreat at the temporary capital of Chongqing, appointed Wang as vice-president of the party, reporting only to Chiang Kai-shek himself. Meanwhile, the Japanese advance into Chinese territory as part of the Second Sino-Japanese War continued unrelentingly. From his new position, Wang urged Chiang Kai-shek to pursue a peace agreement with Japan on the sole condition that the hypothetical deal "did not interfere with the territorial integrity of China".
Chiang Kai-shek was adamant, that he would countenance no surrender, that it was his position that, were China to be united under his control, the Japanese could be repulsed. As a result, Chiang continued to devote his primary attention to eradicating the Communists and ending the Chinese Civil War. On December 18, 1938, Wang Jingwei and several of his closest supporters resigned from their positions and boarded a plane to Hanoi in order to seek alternative means of ending the war. From this new base, Wang began pursuit of a peaceful resolution to the conflict independent of the Nationalist Party in exile. In June 1939, Wang and his supporters began negotiating with the Japanese for the creation of a new Nationalist Government which could end the war despite Chiang's objections. To this end, Wang sought to discredit the Nationalists in Chongqing on the basis that they represented not the republican government envisioned by Dr. Sun, but rather a "one-party dictatorship", subsequently call together a Central Political Conference back to the capital of Nanjing in order to formally transfer control over the party