Dino Paul Crocetti, known famously as Dean Martin, was an American actor and singer. One of the most popular and enduring American entertainers of the mid-20th century, Martin was nicknamed "The King of Cool" for his effortless charisma and self-assurance, he and Jerry Lewis formed the immensely popular comedy duo Martin and Lewis, with Martin serving as the straight man to Lewis' slapstick hijinks. A member of the "Rat Pack", Martin went on to become a star of concert stages, audio recordings, motion pictures and television. Martin was the host of the variety programs The Dean Martin Show and The Dean Martin Celebrity Roasts, his relaxed, crooning voice earned him dozens of hit singles, including his signature songs "Memories Are Made of This", "That's Amore", "Everybody Loves Somebody", "You're Nobody Till Somebody Loves You", "Sway", "Ain't That a Kick in the Head?", "Volare". Martin was born Dino Paul Crocetti on June 7, 1917, in Steubenville, the son of Italian father Gaetano Alfonso Crocetti and Italian-American mother Angela Crocetti.
His parents were married in 1914. His father, a barber, was from Montesilvano and his mother's origins are believed to be from Abruzzo, although they are not known. Martin had an older brother named William Alfonso Crocetti, his first language was Italian and he did not speak English until he started school at the age of five. He attended Grant Elementary School in Steubenville; as a teenager, he played the drums as a hobby. He dropped out of Steubenville High School in the tenth grade because he thought he was smarter than his teachers, he bootlegged liquor, worked in a steel mill, served as a croupier at a speakeasy and a blackjack dealer, was a welterweight boxer. At 15, he was a boxer who billed himself as "Kid Crochet", his prizefighting earned him a broken nose, a scarred lip, many broken knuckles, a bruised body. Of his 12 bouts, he said that he "won all but 11". For a time, he shared a New York City apartment with Sonny King, starting in show business and had little money; the two charged people to watch them bare-knuckle box each other in their apartment, fighting until one was knocked out.
Martin knocked out King in the first round of an amateur boxing match. Martin gave up boxing to work as a roulette stickman and croupier in an illegal casino behind a tobacco shop, where he had started as a stock boy. At the same time, he sang with local bands, calling himself "Dino Martini", he got his break working for the Ernie McKay Orchestra. He sang among others. In the early 1940s, he started singing for bandleader Sammy Watkins, who suggested he change his name to Dean Martin. In October 1941, Martin married Elizabeth "Betty" Anne McDonald in Cleveland and the couple had an apartment in Cleveland Heights for a while, they had four children before the marriage ended in 1949. Martin worked for various bands throughout the early 1940s on looks and personality until he developed his own singing style, he flopped at the Riobamba nightclub in New York, when he followed Frank Sinatra in 1943. Martin attracted the attention of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer and Columbia Pictures, but a Hollywood contract was not forthcoming.
He met comic Jerry Lewis at the Glass Hat Club in New York. Martin and Lewis formed a fast friendship which led to their participation in each other's acts and the formation of a music-comedy team. Martin and Lewis's debut together occurred at Atlantic City's 500 Club on July 24, 1946, they were not well received; the owner, Skinny D'Amato, warned them that if they did not come up with a better act for their second show that night, they would be fired. Huddling in the alley behind the club and Martin agreed to "go for broke", they divided their act between songs, ad-libbed material. Martin sang and Lewis dressed as a busboy, dropping plates and making a shambles of Martin's performance and the club's decorum until Lewis was chased from the room as Martin pelted him with breadrolls, they did slapstick, reeled off old vaudeville jokes, did whatever else popped into their heads. The audience laughed; this success led to a series of well-paying engagements on the Eastern seaboard, culminating in a run at New York's Copacabana.
The act consisted of Lewis interrupting and heckling Martin while he was trying to sing, with the two chasing each other around the stage. The secret, both said, is that they played to each other; the team made its TV debut on the first broadcast of CBS-TV network's The Ed Sullivan Show on June 20, 1948, with composers Rodgers and Hammerstein appearing. Hoping to improve their act, the two hired young comedy writers Norman Lear and Ed Simmons to write their bits. With the assistance of both Lear and Simmons, the two would take their act beyond nightclubs. A radio series began in 1949, the year Martin and Lewis signed with Paramount producer Hal B. Wallis as comedy relief for the movie My Friend Irma, their agent, Abby Greshler, negotiated one of Hollywood's best deals: although they received only $75,000 between them for their films with Wallis and Lewis were free to do one outside film a year, which they would co-produce through their own York Productions. They controlled their club, record and television appearances, through these they earned millions of dollars.
In Dean & Me, Lewis calls Mar
Music recording certification
Music recording certification is a system of certifying that a music recording has shipped, sold, or streamed a certain number of units. The threshold quantity varies by nation or territory. All countries follow variations of the RIAA certification categories, which are named after precious materials; the threshold required for these awards depends upon the population of the territory where the recording is released. They are awarded only to international releases and are awarded individually for each country where the album is sold. Different sales levels, some 10 times lower than others, may exist for different music media; the original gold and silver record awards were presented to artists by their own record companies to publicize their sales achievements. The first silver disc was awarded by Regal Zonophone to George Formby in December 1937 for sales of 100,000 copies of "The Window Cleaner"; the first gold disc was awarded by RCA Victor to Glenn Miller and His Orchestra in February 1942, celebrating the sale of 1.2 million copies of single "Chattanooga Choo Choo".
Another example of a company award is the gold record awarded to Elvis Presley in 1956 for one million units sold of his single "Don't Be Cruel". The first gold record for an LP was awarded by RCA Victor to Harry Belafonte in 1957 for the album Calypso, the first album to sell over 1,000,000 copies in RCA's reckoning. At the industry level, in 1958 the Recording Industry Association of America introduced its gold record award program for records of any kind, albums or singles, which achieved one million dollars in retail sales; these sales were restricted to U. S.-based record companies and did not include exports to other countries. For albums in 1968, this would mean shipping 250,000 units; the platinum certification was introduced in 1976 for the sale of one million units for albums and two million for singles, with the gold certification redefined to mean sales of 500,000 units for albums and one million for singles. No album was certified platinum prior to this year. For instance, the recording by Van Cliburn of the Tchaikovsky Piano Concerto from 1958 would be awarded a platinum citation, but this would not happen until two decades after its release.
In 1999, the diamond certification was introduced for sales of ten million units. In the late 1980s, the certification thresholds for singles were dropped to match that of albums; the first official designation of a "gold record" by the Recording Industry Association of America was established for singles in 1958, the RIAA trademarked the term "gold record" in the United States. On 14 March 1958, the RIAA certified its first gold record, Perry Como's hit single "Catch a Falling Star"; the Oklahoma! Soundtrack was certified as the first gold album four months later. In 1976, RIAA introduced the platinum certification, first awarded to the Eagles compilation album Their Greatest Hits on 24 February 1976, to Johnnie Taylor's single "Disco Lady" on 22 April 1976; as music sales increased with the introduction of compact discs, the RIAA created the Multi-Platinum award in 1984. Diamond awards, honoring those artists whose sales of singles or albums reached 10,000,000 copies, were introduced in 1999.
In the 20th century, for a part of the first decade of the 21st, it was common for distributors to claim certifications based on their shipments – wholesale to retail outlets – which led to many certifications which outstripped the actual final retail sales figures. This became much less common once the majority of retail sales became paid digital downloads and digital streaming. In most countries certifications no longer apply to physical media but now include sales awards recognizing digital downloads. In June 2006, the RIAA certified the ringtone downloads of songs. Streaming from on-demand services such as Apple Music, Spotify and Napster has been included into existing digital certification in the U. S since 2013 and the U. K. and Germany since 2014. In the U. S. and Germany video streaming services like YouTube, VEVO, Yahoo! Music began to be counted towards the certification, in both cases using the formula of 100 streams being equivalent to one download. Other countries, such as Denmark and Spain, maintain separate awards for digital download singles and streaming.
The International Federation of the Phonographic Industry was founded in 1996, grants the IFPI Platinum Europe Award for album sales over one million within Europe and the Middle East. Multi-platinum Europe Awards are presented for sales in subsequent multiples of one million. Eligibility is unaffected by time, is not restricted to European-based artists; the Independent Music Companies Association was founded in 2000 to grow the independent music sector and promote independent music in the interests of artistic and cultural diversity. IMPALA sales awards were launched in 2005 as the first sales awards recognising that success on a pan-European basis begins well before sales reach one million; the award levels are Silver, Double Silver, Double Gold, Diamond and Double Platinum. Below are certification thresholds for the United States, United Kingdom and France; the numbers in the tables are in terms of "units", where a unit represents one sale or one shipment of a given medium. Certific
Brewton is a city in Escambia County, United States. At the 2010 census, the population was 5,408; the city is the county seat of Escambia County. Brewton is located in south central Alabama, just north of the Florida Panhandle. Brewton was ranked as one of the 100 best small towns in America in Norman Crampton's book, The 100 Best Small Towns in America. In May 1861, the city of Brewton began as a train station under Edmund Troupe Bruton; the settlement was known as Newport when barges made runs to and from Pensacola, Florida on Murder Creek and Burnt Corn Creek before the installation of rail. During the Civil War rail lines were severed, small lumber mills were damaged or destroyed. However, after the war those who returned or arrived rebuilt the Brewton economy, began a school, established small businesses. Into the 1870s a new European demand for lumber stimulated the founding of numerous timber and lumber operations; the Conecuh-Escambia river system became a timber artery to the Gulf. Brewton became a town on February 13, 1885, was designated as the seat of Escambia County, Alabama.
Brewton was known in past times as "the richest little town in the South." Brewton's high per capita income was based on the profits enjoyed by a small number of "timber barons," as they are remembered. They had come at the end of the last century to harvest the pine forests, with their profits, stayed to build extraordinary homes along Belleville and Evergreen avenues; these families include the McMillans and the Millers, many of whose descendants still reside in the town. Over time the county erected a series of courthouses. Brewton developed an education system that included public and private institutions, including Jefferson Davis Community College and T. R. Miller High School; the latter was named for Thomas Richard Miller, a local timber baron and town father who donated money toward the building and opening of the school. In October 1934, Claude Neal, a 23-year-old African-American man arrested for the murder of a local young white woman in Greenwood, was moved to the jail in Brewton for safekeeping.
After a lynch mob learned where he was being held, about 100 men came to Brewton in 30 cars and kidnapped him from the jail. He was smuggled back into Jackson County, where announcements of his planned lynching were broadcast on the radio. Neal was tortured and hanged by a small group near the Chattahoochee River before his body was taken before a crowd of thousands, his body was hanged from a tree in the Marianna courthouse square. Whites rioted in Marianna, prompting the Florida governor to order more than 100 troops to town to put down the violence. More than 200 people were injured black, but including two police officers. Black-owned houses were burned in the riots. Brewton is located at 31°7′4″N 87°4′16″W. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 11.5 square miles, of which 11.3 square miles is land and 0.1 square miles is water. Climate is characterized by high temperatures and evenly distributed precipitation throughout the year; the Köppen Climate Classification sub-type for this climate is "Cfa".
The hottest temperature recorded in the city was 109 °F on June 18, 1933, the coldest temperature recorded was 3 °F on January 21, 1985. As of the census of 2000, there were 5,498 people, 2,216 households, 1,471 families residing in the city; the population density was 485.2 people per square mile. There were 2,543 housing units at an average density of 224.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 57.60% White or Caucasian, 40.23% Black or African American, 0.42% Native American, 0.49% Asian, 0.53% from other races, 0.73% from two or more races. 1.11% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 2,216 households out of which 27.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.3% were married couples living together, 17.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.6% were non-families. 31.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 2.95.
In the city, the population was spread out with 23.8% under the age of 18, 7.1% from 18 to 24, 24.1% from 25 to 44, 25.5% from 45 to 64, 19.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females, there were 85.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 79.1 males. The median income for a household in the city was $34,234, the median income for a family was $43,548. Males had a median income of $37,348 versus $20,212 for females; the per capita income for the city was $18,185. About 12.6% of families and 16.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.3% of those under age 18 and 18.4% of those age 65 or over. As of the census of 2010, there were 5,408 people, 2,171 households, 1,412 families residing in the city; the population density was 474.9 people per square mile. There were 2,522 housing units at an average density of 221.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 54.1% White or Caucasian, 42.6% Black or African American, 0.7% Native American, 0.4% Asian, 1.1% from other races, 1.0% from two or more races.
2.2% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 2,171 households out of which 25.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.1% were married couples living together, 19.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.0% were non-families. 32.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.3% had someone
A honky-tonk is both a bar that provides country music for the entertainment of its patrons and the style of music played in such establishments. Bars of this kind are common in Southwest United States. Many eminent country music artists, such as Jimmie Rodgers, Loretta Lynn, Patsy Cline, Ernest Tubb, Johnny Horton and Merle Haggard, began their careers as amateur musicians in honky-tonks; the modern-day, honky-tonk atmosphere has continued, with the likes of Dwight Yoakam, Turnpike Troubadours, Mike and the Moonpies. The origin of the term honky-tonk is disputed referring to bawdy variety shows in areas of the old West and to the actual theaters showing them; the first music genre to be known as honky-tonk was a style of piano playing related to ragtime but emphasizing rhythm more than melody or harmony. This honky-tonk music was an important influence on the boogie-woogie piano style. Before World War II, the music industry began to refer to hillbilly music being played from Texas and Oklahoma to the West Coast as "honky-tonk" music.
In the 1950s, honky-tonk entered its golden age, with the popularity of Webb Pierce, Hank Locklin, Lefty Frizzell, Ray Price, Faron Young, George Jones, Hank Williams. The origin of the term honky-tonk is unknown; the earliest known use in print is an article in the Peoria Journal dated June 28, 1874, stating, "The police spent a busy day today raiding the bagnios and honkytonks." The capitalization of the term suggests. There are subsequent citations from 1890 in The Dallas Morning News, 1892 in the Galveston Daily News, in 1894 in The Daily Ardmoreite in Oklahoma, Early uses of the term in print appear along a corridor coinciding with cattle drive trails extending from Dallas and Fort Worth, into south central Oklahoma, suggesting that the term may have been a localism spread by cowboys driving cattle to market; the sound of honky-tonk and the types of places that were called honky-tonks suggests that the term may be an onomatopoeic reference to the loud, boisterous music and noise heard at these establishments.
One theory is that the "tonk" portion of the name may have come from the brand name of piano made by William Tonk & Bros. an American manufacturer of large upright pianos, which made a piano with the decal "Ernest A. Tonk"; the Tonk brothers and Max, established the Tonk Bros. Manufacturing Company in 1873, so such an etymology is possible, however these pianos were not manufactured until 1889, contemporaneous with the first occurrences of honky-tonk in print, at which point the term seems to have been established. An early source purporting to explain the derivation of the term was an article published in 1900 by the New York Sun and reprinted in other newspapers; the article, reads more like a humorous urban legend or fable, so its veracity is questionable. An article in the Los Angeles Times of July 28, 1929, with the headline "Honky-Tonk" Origin Told,", in response to the Sophie Tucker movie musical, Honky Tonk, reads: Honky-tonks were rough establishments, providing country music in the Deep South and Southwest and serving alcoholic beverages to a working-class clientele.
Some honky-tonks offered dancing to music played by pianists or small bands, some were centers of prostitution. Katrina Hazzard-Gordon wrote that the honky-tonk was "the first urban manifestation of the jook", that "the name itself became synonymous with a style of music. Related to the classic blues in tonal structure, honky-tonk has a tempo, stepped up, it is rhythmically suited for many African-American dance."As Chris Smith and Charles McCarron wrote in their 1916 hit song "Down in Honky Tonk Town", "It's underneath the ground, where all the fun is found." Although the derivation of the term is unknown, honky tonk referred to bawdy variety shows in the West and to the theaters housing them. The earliest mention of them in print refers to them as "variety theaters" and describe the entertainment as "variety shows"; the theaters had an attached gambling house and always a bar. In recollections long after the frontiers closed, writers such as Wyatt Earp and E. C. Abbott referred to honky-tonks in the cowtowns of Kansas and Montana in the 1870s and 1880s.
Their recollections contain lurid accounts of the women and violence accompanying the shows. However, in contemporary accounts these were nearly always called hurdy-gurdy shows derived from the term hurdy-gurdy, sometimes mistakenly applied to a small, portable barrel organ, played by organ grinders and buskers; as late as 1913, Col. Edwin Emerson, a former Rough Rider commander, hosted a honky-tonk party in New York City; the Rough Riders were recruited from the ranches of Texas, New Mexico and Indian Territories, so the term was still in popular use during the Spanish–American War. The honky-tonk sound has a full rhythm section playing a two-beat rhythm with a crisp backbeat. Steel guitar and fiddle are the dominant instruments; the first music genre to be known as honky-tonk music was a style of piano playing related to ragtime but empha
The Imperials are an American Christian music group, active for over 50 years. Originating as a southern gospel quartet, the innovative group would become pioneers of contemporary Christian music in the 1960s. There have been many changes for the band in membership and musical styles over the years, they would go on to win four Grammys, be inducted into the Gospel Music Hall of Fame. The band had its genesis when long-time Statesmen Quartet member Jake Hess retired from that group on December 7, 1963. Hess wanted to start a new group recognized as "king" of the Southern gospel field and thought the "Imperials" would be a good moniker. After getting the go-ahead from Marion Snider for permission to use the name, he gathered together pianist Henry Slaughter from the Weatherford Quartet, ex-Oak Ridge Boys baritone Gary McSpadden, the Weatherford Quartet's bass singer Armond Morales and Speer Family tenor Sherrill Neilsen to join him. After signing with Benson Records in 1964, the group recorded their first of many albums on the Heart Warming Records label.
The following year, the quartet organization moved from Atlanta to Tennessee. After two years with the group, tenor Nielsen was first to go and Jim Murray would replace him. Murray's past included stints with the Stamps Trio and Orrell Quartet. About this time, Slaughter departed with Joe Moscheo of the Harmoneers replacing him at the keyboard. Health issues forced Hess to retire and McSpadden chose to leave as well. In the late 1966, Henry Slaughter left the group and Hess assembled a new, more contemporary band to accompany the quartet. Joe Moscheo on piano, Larry Benson on drums, keyboard bass and miscelaneous other instruments along with Dave Mathis on electric guitar formed this new sound behind the group. Ron Hamm replaced Dave on guitar within a few months. In late mid 1967, Hess began having heart issues and by the end of the year left the road, under doctor's orders, turning the reins of the group over to Morales and Murray. With new members Roger Wiles and former Stamps Quartet member, Terry Blackwood, the group became known as The Imperials and adopted a more contemporary sound on the 1967 album New Dimensions.
It brought them their first of many awards: "Male Quartet of the Year" in 1969 from the Gospel Music Association. Elvis Presley had long harbored a love for Jake Hess in particular; the group recorded with Elvis in sessions from May 1966 to June 1971. This included his last two Grammy Award-producing albums: How He Touched Me. In 1969, Elvis hired the group to perform in concert with him after the Jordanaires had turned down Elvis' invitation to play Las Vegas and tour because, as studio singers, they did not feel they could afford to be away from Nashville that much. At the same time the Imperials appeared with Jimmy Dean, live and on his television show. In November 1971, because of scheduling conflicts, they decided to stop performing with Elvis; the following year the group quit performing in concert with Jimmy Dean. The Imperials surprised gospel music fans in February 1972 by hiring Sherman Andrus, a former member of Andrae Crouch and the Disciples to replace Greg Gordon; this made them the first interracial Christian group America had seen, which Andrus jokingly referred as: "to boldly go where no black man had gone before".
The lineup of the group stayed stable with Andrus and Terry Blackwood sharing lead vocals through 1975 when Joe Moscheo left just after recording of Follow the Man with the Music. The following year, the pair themselves left to form contemporary Christian music act Andrus, Blackwood & Company. In Early 1976, the group hired baritone David Will, who would stay on for 23 years with the group, soulful belter Russ Taff as their new lead vocalist; the Taff-led outfit is heard on the albums Sail On, Imperials Live, Heed the Call, One More Song for You, Christmas With the Imperials, Priority. It was during this era that the group found their biggest success, both with awards and on the charts. In this group were Jim Murray and Armond Morales. After five years with the group, Taff left for a solo career. Paul Smith, who while promoting an Imperials concert at Baylor University, gave Armond Morales a tape of his music; when Morales knew that Taff was leaving, he called Smith. Paul is first heard on 1982's Stand by the Power.
During Smith's time with the group came another first, a 2-disc album with each member taking a solo side,which gave them their last Dove Award. A return to four-part harmony singing before returning to their Christian pop sound on 1985's Let the Wind Blow; the group saw its biggest turnover since Blackwood and Andrus' departure when both Smith and long-time tenor Jim Murray left the group. Smith opted for a solo CCM career while Murray sought to perform more traditionally styled gospel music again. Smith was replaced by Danny Ward but he left before recording an album with the band. In the end, Jimmie Lee Sloas and Ron Hemby were the new members bringing an infusion of youth into the group. Hemby was a member of the country band The Buffalo Club; the Imperials stirred up controversy and lost some of their long-time fans when they exchanged their soft pop-rock sound for a more rock sound with prominent electric guitars for the 1987 a
Gospel music is a genre of Christian music. The creation, performance and the definition of gospel music varies according to culture and social context. Gospel music is composed and performed for many purposes, including aesthetic pleasure, religious or ceremonial purposes, as an entertainment product for the marketplace. Gospel music has dominant vocals with Christian lyrics. Gospel music can be traced with roots in the black oral tradition. Hymns and sacred songs were repeated in a call and response fashion. Most of the churches relied on hand clapping and foot stomping as rhythmic accompaniment. Most of the singing was done a cappella; the first published use of the term "gospel song" appeared in 1874. The original gospel songs were written and composed by authors such as George F. Root, Philip Bliss, Charles H. Gabriel, William Howard Doane, Fanny Crosby. Gospel music publishing houses emerged; the advent of radio in the 1920s increased the audience for gospel music. Following World War II, gospel music moved into major auditoriums, gospel music concerts became quite elaborate.
Gospel blues is a blues-based form of gospel music. Southern gospel used all tenor-lead-baritone-bass quartet make-up. Progressive Southern gospel is an American music genre that has grown out of Southern gospel over the past couple of decades. Christian country music, sometimes referred to as country gospel music, is a subgenre of gospel music with a country flair, it peaked in popularity in the mid-1990s. Bluegrass gospel music is rooted in American mountain music. Celtic gospel music infuses gospel music with a Celtic flair, is quite popular in countries such as Ireland. British black gospel refers to Gospel music of the African diaspora, produced in the UK; some proponents of "standard" hymns dislike gospel music of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Today, with historical distance, there is a greater acceptance of such gospel songs into official denominational hymnals. Gospel music features Christian lyrics; some modern gospel music, isn't explicitly Christian and just utilizes the sound.
Subgenres include contemporary gospel, urban contemporary gospel, Southern gospel, modern gospel music. Several forms of gospel music utilize choirs, use piano or Hammond organ, drums, bass guitar and electric guitar. In comparison with hymns, which are of a statelier measure, the gospel song is expected to have a refrain and a more syncopated rhythm. Several attempts have been made to describe the style of late 19th and early 20th century gospel songs in general. Christ-Janer said "the music was tuneful and easy to grasp... rudimentary harmonies... use of the chorus... varied metric schemes... motor rhythms were characteristic... The device of letting the lower parts echo rhythmically a motive announced by the sopranos became a mannerism". Patrick and Sydnor emphasize the notion that gospel music is "sentimental", quoting Sankey as saying, "Before I sing I must feel", they call attention to the comparison of the original version of Rowley's "I Will Sing the Wondrous Story" with Sankey's version.
Gold said, "Essentially the gospel songs are songs of testimony, religious exhortation, or warning. The chorus or refrain technique is found." According to Yale University music professor Willie Ruff, the singing of psalms in Gaelic by Presbyterians of the Scottish Hebrides evolved from "lining out" – where one person sang a solo and others followed – into the call and response of gospel music of the American South. Coming out of the African-American religious experience, American gospel music can be traced to the early 17th century, with foundations in the works of Dr. Isaac Watts and others. Gospel music has roots in the black oral tradition, utilizes a great deal of repetition, which allows those who could not read the opportunity to participate in worship. During this time and sacred songs were lined and repeated in a call and response fashion, Negro spirituals and work songs emerged. Repetition and "call and response" are accepted elements in African music, designed to achieve an altered state of consciousness we sometimes refer to as "trance", strengthen communal bonds.
Most of the churches relied on foot-stomping as rhythmic accompaniment. Guitars and tambourines were sometimes available, but not frequently. Church choirs became a norm only after emancipation. Most of the singing was done a cappella; the most famous gospel-based hymns were composed in the 1760s and 1770s by English writers John Newton and Augustus Toplady, members of the Anglican Church. Starting out as lyrics only, it took decades for standardized tunes to be added to them. Although not directly connected with African-American gospel music, they were adopted by African-Americans as well as white Americans, Newton's connection with the abolition movement provided cross-fertilization; the first published use of the term "Gospel Song" appeared in 1874 when Philip Bliss released a songbook entitled Gospel Songs. A Choice Collection of Hymns and Tunes, it was used to describe a new style of church music, songs that were easy to grasp and more singable than the traditional church hymns, which came out of the mass revival movement starting with Dwight L. Moody, whose musician was Ira D. Sankey, as well as the Holiness-Pentecostal movement.
Prior to the meeting of Moody and
Dwight David Yoakam is an American singer-songwriter and actor, known for his pioneering style of country music. First becoming popular in the mid-1980s, Yoakam has recorded more than twenty albums and compilations, charted more than thirty singles on the Billboard Hot Country Songs charts, sold more than 25 million records, he has recorded five Billboard #1 albums, twelve gold albums, nine platinum albums, including the triple-platinum This Time. In addition to his many achievements in the performing arts, he is the most frequent musical guest in the history of The Tonight Show. Dwight Yoakam was born on October 23, 1956, to Ruth Ann, a key-punch operator, David Yoakam, a gas-station owner, he was born in Pikeville, but was raised in Columbus, where he graduated from Northland High School in 1974. During his high school years, he took part in both the music and drama programs, having been cast in lead roles for the school's plays, including "Charlie" in Flowers for Algernon. Outside of school, Yoakam played guitar with local garage bands.
He attended Ohio State University but dropped out and moved to Los Angeles in 1977 with the intent of becoming a recording artist. On May 7, 2005, Ohio Valley University in Parkersburg, West Virginia and presented Yoakam with an honorary doctorate; when he began his career, Nashville was oriented toward pop "urban cowboy" music, Yoakam's brand of hip honky tonk music was not considered marketable. Not making much headway in Nashville, Yoakam moved to Los Angeles and worked towards bringing his particular brand of new Honky Tonk or "Hillbilly" music forward into the 1980s. Writing all his own songs, continuing to perform outside traditional country music channels, he did many shows in rock and punk rock clubs around Los Angeles, playing with roots rock or punk rock acts like The Blasters, Los Lobos, X; this helped him diversify his audience beyond the typical country music fans, his authentic, honky-tonk revivalism brought rock audiences closer to country music. Yoakam's recording debut was the self-financed EP Guitars, Etc. Etc. on independent label Oak Records produced by lead-guitarist Pete Anderson.
The record hit the market during a sea change in country music: the urban cowboy music was out of style, neotraditional music based on classic styles, such as Yoakam's honky-tonk inspired music, was now in demand. The LP was a breakout hit and spawned his first two hit singles: "Honky Tonk Man", a remake of the Johnny Horton song, the title track "Guitars, Cadillacs." His stylish video "Honky Tonk Man" was the first country music video played on MTV. The follow-up LP, Hillbilly Deluxe, was just as successful, his third LP, Buenas Noches from a Lonely Room, included his first No. 1, a duet with his musical idol, Buck Owens, on "Streets of Bakersfield". 1990's. Yoakam's song "Readin', Rightin', Route 23" pays tribute to his childhood move from Kentucky, is named after a local expression describing the route that rural Kentuckians took to find a job outside of the coal mines. Rather than the standard line that their elementary schools taught "the three Rs" of "Readin','Ritin', and'Rithmetic", Kentuckians used to say that the three Rs they learned were "Readin','Ritin', Route 23 North".
Johnny Cash once cited Yoakam as his favorite country singer. Chris Isaak called him as good a songwriter as put a pen to paper. Time dubbed him "A Renaissance Man" and Vanity Fair declared that "Yoakam strides the divide between rock's lust and country's lament." Along with his bluegrass and honky-tonk roots, he has written or covered many Elvis Presley-style rockabilly songs, including his covers of Queen's "Crazy Little Thing Called Love" in 1999 and Presley's "Suspicious Minds" in 1992. He recorded a cover of The Clash's "Train in Vain" in 1997, a cover of the Grateful Dead song "Truckin'", as well as Cheap Trick's "I Want You to Want Me", he has never been associated only with country music. His middle-period-to-later records saw him branching out to different styles, covering rock & roll, punk, 1960's, blues-based "boogie" like ZZ Top, writing more adventurous songs like "A Thousand Miles From Nowhere". In 2003, he provided background vocals on Warren Zevon's last album The Wind. In 2000, Yoakam released dwightyoakamacoustic.net, an album featuring solo acoustic versions of many of his hits.
2005 saw the release of Yoakam's well-reviewed album Blame the Vain, on New West Records. He released an album dedicated to Buck Owens, Dwight Sings Buck, on October 23, 2007, his duet with Michelle Branch, a song titled "Long Goodbye", was released as a free download on her official website in early 2011. In July 2011, Yoakam re-signed with Warner Bros. Nashville and announced plans to release a new album. 3 Pears was released on September 2012 with twelve new tracks. Produced by him, it includes a collaboration with Beck. 3 Pears was released to resounding critical acclaim and earned him the highest-charting debut of his career on the Billboard 200 and Billboard Country Albums charts. 3 Pears reached #1 on the Americana Radio chart on October 29, 2012 and went on to break the 2012 record for most weeks at #1 on Americana Radio. By the end of 2012