Vanessa Beecroft is an Italian contemporary performance artist. She works in the United States. Many of her works have made use of professional models, sometimes in large numbers and sometimes naked or nearly so, to stage tableaux vivants. Beecroft’s first exhibition was VB01, in Milan; the following year she exhibited at the Andrea Rosen Gallery, the first time she had exhibited in New York City. In 1994, VB08 took place at P. S.1 in Long Island City, New York. VB55 featured one hundred women standing still in Berlin's Neue Nationalgalerie for three hours, each woman oiled from the waist up and wearing nothing but a pair of pantyhose. In October 2005, Beecroft staged a performance on the occasion of the opening of the Louis Vuitton store on the Champs-Élysées in Paris. For the same event, Beecroft placed models on the shelves next to Louis Vuitton bags. On the occasion of the 52nd Venice Biennale, Beecroft staged one of her most politically engaged performances, VB61, Still Death! Darfur Still Deaf?.
It involved "approximately 30 Sudanese women lying face-down on a white canvas on the ground, simulating dead bodies piled on top of one another" and represented the genocide in Darfur, Sudan. Beecroft’s attempt to adopt Sudanese twins was the topic of the documentary The Art Star and the Sudanese Twins by Pietra Brettkelly, included in the Sundance Film Festival's World Cinema Documentary Competition; the film presents Beecroft as a "hypocritically self-aware, colossally colonial pomo narcissist" and chronicles her "damaging quotes and appalling behavior" as she attempts to adopt two Sudanese orphans for use in an art exhibit. A performance at PAC in Milan in March 2009 featured a "Last Supper" of African immigrants and illegal, dressed in suits, eating chicken without cutlery. In 2010 she exhibited at the Mercato Ittico di Napoli. From her marriage to sociologist Greg Durkin she has two sons. After she and Greg Durkin got divorced she had another two children, one girl, born and another son born.
When her third son was around two she married her current husband, an artist. Blackface in contemporary art Dave Hickey, Vanessa Beecroft: Performances Marcella Beccaria, Germano Celant, Jeffrey Deitch, Thomas Kellein, Vanessa Beecroft Performances, 1993–2003 Karin Kampwerth, Vanessa Beecroft Thomas Kellein, Vanessa Beecroft: Photographs, Drawings Francesco Bonami, Maria Luisa Frisa, Line Rosenvinge, Vanessa Beecroft: VB53 Giacinto Di Pietrantonio, Mario Scaglia, Vanessa Beecroft: Drawings and Paintings 1993–2007 Alexandra Polier, Jeffrey Deitch, Riccardo Lisi, Vanessa Beecroft: VB LV Giacinto Di Pietrantonio, VB65 PAC Milano: Vanessa Beecroft Media related to Vanessa Beecroft at Wikimedia Commons
International Antalya Film Festival
The Antalya Film Festival known as Antalya Golden Orange Film Festival is a film festival, held annually since 1963 in Antalya, is the most important film festival in Turkey. Since 2009, the event, which takes place in the autumn months at the Antalya Cultural Center, has been organised by the Antalya Foundation for Culture and Arts and has included an international section within the main body of the festival; the most recent edition of the festival was the 54th International Antalya Film Festival. The cultural activities like concerts and theater plays, which started to take place in the 1950s at the historical Aspendos Amphitheatre, formed headstone of the Antalya Golden Orange Film Festival today; these events held in the summer months under the honorary patronage of Dr. Avni Tolunay, found increasing interest of people and became traditional until the beginning of the 1960s. In 1963, the festivities turned into a film festival with the initiation Dr. Avni Tolunay, who became the mayor of Antalya that year.
As the logo of the film festival was chosen orange, the most important symbol of the region, along with sea, historical elements and the Venus statute. The orange becomes not only a figure within the logo but gives the festival its name; the 1st Golden Orange Film Festival was held in 1964. Its mission was formulated by Avni Tolunay as to promote the Turkish cinema, to motivate Turkish film producers for high quality works and to help Turkish cinema penetrate the international film platform; the Golden Orange Feature Film Award was called soon the Turkish Oscar following the enthusiasm created in the cinema world with its high performance within a short time. In 1978, the festival went international by incorporating plastic arts for the first time; until 1985, the Golden Orange Festival was organized by the patronage of the Municipality of Antalya. That year, the organization was taken over by the newly established Foundation for Culture and Tourism in Antalya. From 1985 until 1988, the incorporation of an international music festival called "Akdeniz Akdeniz" added another dimension to the festival.
In the years 1989 to 1994, the municipality, tourism companies and the chamber of commerce in Antalya performed the organization of the Golden Orange Film Festival jointly. The festival became institutional with the establishment of the Foundation of Golden Orange Culture and Arts Foundation; the institution serves under the name Antalya Culture and Arts Foundation since September 2002. From 2005 to 2008 it was jointly organized with Turkish Foundation of Cinema and Audio-visual Culture and was accompanied by the International Eurasia Film Festival; the international jury of the festival is formed by nine personalities from the world of cinema and culture, who may not be directly associated with the production or exploitation of a film in competition. A jury of seven professional cinema experts in each of the three film categories advise the main jury; the Golden Orange awards are given in three film categories. The statuette used before 2005 has been reinstated as of 2009. Money prizes are given in major categories and a Golden Orange statuette is awarded in addition in all of the following categories: Best Picture: 300,000 TRY Best Director: 30,000 TRY Best Screenplay 20.000 TRY Best Music 20.000 TRY Best Actress Best Actor Best Camera Direction Best Art Direction Best Supporting Actress Best Supporting Actor Best Cinematography Best Film Editing Best Makeup and Hairdress Best Visual Effects Best Costume Design Best Sound Design and Sound Mix The Dr. Avni Tolunay Jury Special Award The Behlül Dal Digitürk Jury Special Award for Young Talent $25,000 Best Picture: 7,000 TRY and the Golden Orange statuee Best Picture: 7,500 TRY The festival starts with a parade in the city of Antalya in the evening of the first day.
The opening ceremony takes place at the Konyaaltı Amphitheatre or in Antalya Cultural Center in presence of national and international film celebrities invited. At this ceremony, honorary awards are presented to cinema people for their contribution; the award ceremony takes place in the closing night at the historical Aspendos Amphitheatre, which holds around 7,000 people. In case of bad weather conditions, the award ceremony is transferred to the Glass Pyramid Sabancı Congress and Exhibition Center, which provides seating for an audience of 2,500 only. During the 51st Golden Orange Festival in 2014, organized by Justice and Development Party's municipality, Reyan Tuvi's feature-length documentary on the 2013-2014 Gezi protests, titled Yeryüzü Aşkın Yüzü Oluncaya Dek, was removed from the festival with the claim that the documentary violated articles 125 and 299 of the Turkish Penal Code; as an initial response, the jury of the Festival released a press statement protesting the decision. In the statement, the jury called out the action as a censorship effort by the administration and stated that the festival administration refused to reinstate the documentary despite their written protests.
On October 5, 2014, the chair of the Festival jury informed the press of his decision to resign from the jury for ethical reasons. In the following day, 10 more jury members resigned from the Festival, informing the press that they are in solidarity with Reyan Tuvi, that they respect his right to an audience, that they protest the Festival administr
Infantry is the branch of an army that engages in military combat on foot, distinguished from cavalry and tank forces. Known as foot soldiers, infantry traditionally relies on moving by foot between combats as well, but may use mounts, military vehicles, or other transport. Infantry make up a large portion of all armed forces in most nations, bear the largest brunt in warfare, as measured by casualties, deprivation, or physical and psychological stress; the first military forces in history were infantry. In antiquity, infantry were armed with an early melee weapon such as a spear, axe or sword, or an early ranged weapon like a javelin, sling, or bow, with a few infantrymen having both a melee and a ranged weapon. With the development of gunpowder, infantry began converting to firearms. By the time of Napoleonic warfare, infantry and artillery formed a basic triad of ground forces, though infantry remained the most numerous. With armoured warfare, armoured fighting vehicles have replaced the horses of cavalry, airpower has added a new dimension to ground combat, but infantry remains pivotal to all modern combined arms operations.
Infantry have much greater local situational awareness than other military forces, due to their inherent intimate contact with the battlefield. Infantry can more recognise and respond to local conditions and changing enemy weapons or tactics, they can operate in a wide range of terrain inaccessible to military vehicles, can operate with a lower logistical burden. Infantry are the most delivered forces to ground combat areas, by simple and reliable marching, or by trucks, sea or air transport, they can be augmented with a variety of crew-served weapons, armoured personnel carriers, infantry fighting vehicles. In English, use of the term infantry began about the 1570s, describing soldiers who march and fight on foot; the word derives from Middle French infanterie, from older Italian infanteria, from Latin īnfāns, from which English gets infant. The individual-soldier term infantryman was not coined until 1837. In modern usage, foot soldiers of any era are now considered infantrymen. From the mid-18th century until 1881 the British Army named its infantry as numbered regiments "of Foot" to distinguish them from cavalry and dragoon regiments.
Infantry equipped with special weapons were named after that weapon, such as grenadiers for their grenades, or fusiliers for their fusils. These names can persist long after the weapon speciality. More in modern times, infantry with special tactics are named for their roles, such as commandos, snipers and militia. Dragoons were created. However, if light cavalry was lacking in an army, any available dragoons might be assigned their duties. Conversely, starting about the mid-19th century, regular cavalry have been forced to spend more of their time dismounted in combat due to the ever-increasing effectiveness of enemy infantry firearms, thus most cavalry transitioned to mounted infantry. As with grenadiers, the dragoon and cavalry designations can be retained long after their horses, such as in the Royal Dragoon Guards, Royal Lancers, King's Royal Hussars. Motorised infantry have trucks and other unarmed vehicles for non-combat movement, but are still infantry since they leave their vehicles for any combat.
Most modern infantry have vehicle transport, to the point where infantry being motorised is assumed, the few exceptions might be identified as modern light infantry, or "leg infantry" colloquially. Mechanised infantry go beyond motorised, having transport vehicles with combat abilities, armoured personnel carriers, providing at least some options for combat without leaving their vehicles. In modern infantry, some APCs have evolved to be infantry fighting vehicles, which are transport vehicles with more substantial combat abilities, approaching those of light tanks; some well-equipped mechanised infantry can be designated as armoured infantry. Given that infantry forces also have some tanks, given that most armoured forces have more mechanised infantry units than tank units in their organisation, the distinction between mechanised infantry and armour forces has blurred; the terms "infantry", "armour", "cavalry" used in the official names for military units like divisions, brigades, or regiments might be better understood as a description of their expected balance of defensive and mobility roles, rather than just use of vehicles.
Some modern mechanised infantry units are termed cavalry or armoured cavalry though they never had horses, to e
A refugee speaking, is a displaced person, forced to cross national boundaries and who cannot return home safely. Such a person may be called an asylum seeker until granted refugee status by the contracting state or the UNHCR if they formally make a claim for asylum; the lead international agency coordinating refugee protection is the United Nations Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. The United Nations have a second Office for refugees, the UNRWA, responsible for supporting the large majority of Palestinian refugees. Although similar terms in other languages have described an event marking large scale migration of a specific population from a place of origin, such as the biblical account of Israelites fleeing from Assyrian conquest, in English, the term refugee derives from the root word refuge, from Old French refuge, meaning "hiding place", it refers to "shelter or protection from danger or distress", from Latin fugere, "to flee", refugium, "a taking refuge, place to flee back to".
In Western history, the term was first applied to French Huguenots, after the Edict of Fontainebleau, who again migrated from France after the Edict of Nantes revocation. The word meant "one seeking asylum", until around 1914, when it evolved to mean "one fleeing home", applied in this instance to civilians in Flanders heading west to escape fighting in World War I; the first modern definition of international refugee status came about under the League of Nations in 1921 from the Commission for Refugees. Following World War II, in response to the large numbers of people fleeing Eastern Europe, the UN 1951 Refugee Convention adopted the following definition of "refugee" to apply to any person who: "owing to well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion, is outside the country of his nationality and is unable or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail himself of the protection of that country. In 1967, this legal concept was expanded by the UN Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees.
The Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa expanded the 1951 definition, which the Organization of African Unity adopted in 1969:"Every person who, owing to external aggression, foreign domination or events disturbing public order in either part or the whole of his country of origin or nationality, is compelled to leave his place of habitual residence in order to seek refuge in another place outside his country of origin or nationality." The 1984 regional, non-binding Latin-American Cartagena Declaration on Refugees includes: "persons who have fled their country because their lives, safety or freedom have been threatened by generalized violence, foreign aggression, internal conflicts, massive violation of human rights or other circumstances which have disturbed public order." As of 2011, the UNHCR itself, in addition to the 1951 definition, recognizes persons as refugees: "who are outside their country of nationality or habitual residence and unable to return there owing to serious and indiscriminate threats to life, physical integrity or freedom resulting from generalized violence or events disturbing public order."
European Union's minimum standards definition of refugee, underlined by Art. 2 of Directive No. 2004/83/EC reproduces the narrow definition of refugee offered by the UN 1951 Convention. The same form of protection is foreseen for displaced people who, without being refugees, are exposed, if returned to their countries of origin, to death penalty, torture or other inhuman or degrading treatments; the idea that a person who sought sanctuary in a holy place could not be harmed without inviting divine retribution was familiar to the ancient Greeks and ancient Egyptians. However, the right to seek asylum in a church or other holy place was first codified in law by King Æthelberht of Kent in about AD 600. Similar laws were implemented throughout Europe in the Middle Ages; the related concept of political exile has a long history: Ovid was sent to Tomis. By the 1648 Peace of Westphalia, nations recognized each other's sovereignty. However, it was not until the advent of romantic nationalism in late 18th-century Europe that nationalism gained sufficient prevalence for the phrase country of nationality to become meaningful, for border crossing to require that people provide identification.
The term "refugee" sometime applies to people who might fit the definition outlined by the 1951 Convention, were it applied retroactively. There are many candidates. For example, after the Edict of Fontainebleau in 1685 outlawed Protestantism in France, hundreds of thousands of Huguenots fled to England, the Netherlands, South Africa and Prussia; the repeated waves of pogroms that swept Eastern Europe in the 19th and early 20th centuries prompted mass Jewish emigration. Beginning in the 19th century, Muslim people emigrated to Turkey from Europe; the Balkan Wars of 1912–1913 caused 800,000 people to leave their homes. Various groups of people were designated refugees beginning in World War I; the fir
Alexander Nikolayevich Sokurov, PAR is a Russian filmmaker. His most significant works include a feature film, Russian Ark, filmed in a single unedited shot, Faust, honoured with the Golden Lion, the highest prize for the best film at the Venice Film Festival. Sokurov was born in Podorvikha, Irkutsk Oblast, into a military officer's family, he graduated from the History Department of the Nizhny Novgorod University in 1974 and entered one of the VGIK studios the following year. There he became friends with Tarkovsky and was influenced by his film Mirror. Most of Sokurov's early features were banned by Soviet authorities. During his early period, he produced numerous documentaries, including The Dialogues with Solzhenitsyn and a reportage about Grigori Kozintsev's flat in St Petersburg, his film Mournful Unconcern was nominated for the Golden Bear at the 37th Berlin International Film Festival in 1987. Mother and Son was his first internationally acclaimed feature film, it was entered into the 20th Moscow International Film Festival where it won the Special Silver St. George.
It was mirrored by Son, which baffled the critics with its implicit homoeroticism. Susan Sontag included two Sokurov features among her ten favorite films of the 1990s, saying: "There’s no director active today whose films I admire as much." In 2006, he received the Master of Cinema Award of the International Filmfestival Mannheim-Heidelberg. Sokurov is a Cannes Film Festival regular, with four of his movies having debuted there. However, until 2011, Sokurov didn't win top awards at major international festivals. For a long time, his most commercially and critically successful film was the semi-documentary Russian Ark, acclaimed for its visually hypnotic images and single unedited shot. Sokurov has filmed a tetralogy exploring the corrupting effects of power; the first three installments were dedicated to prominent 20th-century rulers: Moloch, about Hitler, about Lenin, The Sun about Emperor Hirohito. In 2011, Sokurov shot the last part of Faust, a retelling of Goethe's tragedy; the film, depicting instincts and schemes of Faust in his lust for power, premiered on 8 September 2011 in competition at the 68th Venice International Film Festival.
The film won the highest award of the Venice Festival. Producer Andrey Sigle said about Faust: "The film has no particular relevance to contemporary events in the world—it is set in the early 19th century—but reflects Sokurov's enduring attempts to understand man and his inner forces."The military world of the former USSR is one of Sokurov’s ongoing interests, because of his personal connections to the subject and because the military marked the lives of a large part of population of the USSR. Three of his works, Spiritual Voices: From the Diaries of a War, From the Commander’s Diary and Soldier’s Dream revolve around military life. Confession has been screened at several independent film festivals, while the other two are unknown. In 1994 Sokurov accompanied Russian troops to a post on the Tajikistan-Afghanistan border; the result was Spiritual Voices: From the Diaries of a War, a 327-minute cinematic meditation on the war and the spirit of the Russian army. Landscape photography is featured in the film, but the music and the sound are particularly important.
Soldiers' jargon and the combination of animal sounds and other location sounds in the fog and other visual effects give the film a phantasmagorical feel. The film brings together all the elements that characterize Sokurov's films: long takes, elaborate filming and image processing methods, a mix of documentary and fiction, the importance of the landscape and the sense of a filmmaker who brings transcendence to everyday gestures. On the journey from Russia to the border post, in the film, fear never leaves the faces of the young soldiers. Sokurov captures their physical toil and their mental desolation, as well as daily rituals such as meals, sharing tobacco, writing letters and cleaning duties. There is no end to the dialogues; the final part of the film celebrates the arrival of the New Year, 1995, but the happiness is fleeting. The following day, everything remains the same: the endless waiting at a border post, the fear and the desolation. In Confession: From the Commander’s Diary, Sokurov films officers from the Russian Navy, showing the monotony and lack of freedom of their everyday lives.
The dialogue allows us to follow the reflections of a Ship Commander. Sokurov and his crew went aboard a naval patrol ship headed for Kuvshinka, a naval base in the Murmansk region, in the Barents Sea. Confined within the limited space of a ship anchored in Arctic waters, the team filmed the sailors as they went about their routine activities. Soldier's Dream is another Sokurov film, it contains no dialogue. This film came out of the material edited for one of the scenes in part three of Spiritual Voices. Soldier's Dream was screened at the Oberhausen Film Festival in Germany in 1995 – when Spiritual Voices was still at the editing stage – as Sokurov's homage to the art critic and historian Hans Schlegel, in acknowledgement of his contributions in support of Eastern European filmmakers, he suffers from severe eyesight problems. During a December 2016 meeting of the Council for Culture and Arts Sokurov appealed to President Vladimir Putin to reconsider the verdict of filmmaker Oleh Sentsov; the Degraded Sonata for Viola.
Effi Briest (1974 film)
Effi Briest is a 1974 film directed by Rainer Werner Fassbinder, adapted from German author Theodor Fontane's 1894 novel of the same name. The film's full title, used in West Germany was Fontane Effi Briest oder Viele, die eine Ahnung haben von ihren Möglichkeiten und Bedürfnissen und dennoch das herrschende System in ihrem Kopf akzeptieren durch ihre Taten und es somit festigen und durchaus bestätigen. In English this is translated to mean: Fontane Effi Briest or Many People Who Are Aware of Their Own Capabilities and Needs Just Acquiesce to the Prevailing System in Their Thoughts and Deeds, Thereby Confirming and Reinforcing It; the black-and-white film uses Fontanes's words in dialogue and the text of letters. The film begins with Effi Briest using a swing set in her family’s back yard, where her mother, Louise Briest, comments on her wild nature, saying that she has an aerial spirit. Effi is seen talking to some of the other teenage girls outside her house about when Baron Instetten was younger.
She recalls a story her mother had told her about Instetten visiting her at her family estate while he was still a soldier. However, the man who would become Effi’s father was in the council of nobles and owned Hohen-Cremmen, so when he asked to marry Effi’s mother she chose to accept. Afterward, Instetten chose to resign from the study law; when Effi returns inside, Effi's mother informs her. With her parent’s encouragement, along with her own desire for prestige, she accepts the proposal. From there Effi and her mother began to prepare for the honeymoon in Italy. Although Effi did not want for most possessions, when she desired something only the best would do. However, just before Effi leaves for her honeymoon with Instetten, she admits to her mother that while he is considerate and dashing, she is nonetheless frightened by him. After Effi leaves on a train for Italy, her parents discuss married life, during which Herr Briest comments that Louise Briest would have suited Instetten much better than Effi had.
Effi and Instetten return to his home in northern Germany at Kessin. During her first night there she is unable to sleep due to being frightened by ghosts. During dinner the next day, Effi learns. Effi soon begins to entertain guests who come to visit Instetten. Though, Instetten has to leave for the night, leaving Effi alone. Again she is unable to sleep, causing her to request the servant Johanna to keep her company through the night. Instetten rebuffed her for this, as he did not want people discovering that his wife was afraid of ghosts, but neither did he relieve her fears. Soon Effi becomes pregnant. While taking a walk one day, she meets a Catholic woman named Roswitha in a garden. Seeing that she was a kind woman, Effi asked her to become a nursemaid for her child. Effi gives birth to a girl that they name Annie. One day, Effi goes to his companion, Major Crampas. Instetten believes Crampas to be a ladies man while Crampas believed Instetten was a born schoolteacher. Effi realizes that Instetten had been using the ghost she was frightened of to educate her, as well as a way to distinguish himself from normal men.
Instetten is unable to continue the excursions as his attention is required for a political campaign, leaving Crampas and Effi to continue alone. Soon, Effi began taking walks every day, to the point that inclement weather cannot stop her. After at least several years, Effi and Annie move to Berlin after Instetten gains a prominent position in the government. Effi is glad of this. However, one day Instetten finds some love letters, they are all old, with the latest one being several months old, revealing that although the affair had continued right under him, it had not been continued in quite some time. After going to his friend Wullersdorf for advice, he commits himself to initiating a duel with Major Crampas, in which Major Crampas is killed. Afterward, Instetten divorces Effi and gains custody over Annie, who he raises under the belief that she has no mother. Meanwhile, Effi moves into a small apartment in Berlin with Roswitha, as her parents refuse to allow her to return home. Although Annie and Effi meet each other a few years they behave distantly to one another.
Effi becomes enraged with Instetten, blaming him for teaching her daughter to act like a stranger to her. Soon, Effi develops a disease causing her parents to accept her back home. At the same time, Instetten remains unhappy. Despite numerous achievements, he still believes; as Effi’s disease drew her close to the brink of death, she requested that her mother tell Instetten that she forgave him and that she was at peace. After Effi’s death, her parents wonder if they are somehow at fault for causing her fate, but they refused to analyze such notions too deeply. Hanna Schygulla as Effi Briest Wolfgang Schenck as Baron Geert von Instetten Ulli Lommel as Major Crampas Irm Hermann as Johanna Barbara Kwiatkowska-Lass as Polnische Köchin Karlheinz Böhm as Geheimrat Wüllersdorf Eva Mattes as Hulda Rudolf Lenz as Geheimrat Rummschuttel Lilo Pempeit as Louise Briest Herbert Steinmetz as Herr Briest Ursula Strätz as Roswitha Karl Scheydt as Kruse An Dorthe Braker as Frau Pasche Theo Tecklenburg as pastor Niemeyer Andrea Schober as Annie von Instetten Barbara Valentin as Marietta Tripelli Peter Gauhe as Vetter Dagobert The original novel, Effi Briest by Theodor Fontane, was inspired by real-life events, as it was based on a scandal between an army officer and his
Chorzów is a city in Silesia in southern Poland, near Katowice. Chorzów is one of the central districts of the Upper Silesian Metropolitan Union - a metropolis with a population of 2 million, it is located on the Rawa River. Administratively, Chorzów is in the Silesian Voivodeship since 1999 Katowice Voivodeship, before the Silesian Voivodeship. Chorzów is one of the cities of the 2.7 million conurbation - the Katowice urban area and within a greater Silesian metropolitan area with the population of about 5,294,000 people. The population within the city limits is 113,162; the city of Chorzów was formed in 1934-1939 by a merger of 4 adjacent cities: Chorzów, Królewska Huta, Nowe Hajduki and Hajduki Wielkie. The name of the oldest settlement Chorzów was applied to the amalgamated city; the etymology of the name is not known. Chorzów is believed to be first mentioned as Zversov or Zuersov in a document of 1136 by Pope Innocent II as village with peasants, silver miners, two inns. Another place name indicating Chorzów is Coccham or Coccha, mentioned in a document of 1198 by the Patriarch of Jerusalem, who awarded this place to the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem.
Chorzów is mentioned as Chareu or Charev in 1257 and Charzow in 1292. The last name may originate from the personal name Charz, short for Zachary and may mean Zachary's place; the a in the early names may have been modified to the current pronunciation with o due to similarity to the common adjective chory=ill and a presence of a hospital. Today, the place of the old village is a subdivision called Chorzów III or Chorzów Stary = the Old Chorzów; the industrial and residential settlement south-west of Chorzów constructed since 1797 around the Royal Coal Mine and Royal Iron Works was named Królewska Huta by the Poles or Königshütte by the Germans, both names meaning Royal Iron Works. As it was growing this settlement was granted city status in 1868. Today this neighbourhood is called Chorzów-Miasto meaning Chorzów Centre; the etymology of Hajduki is ambiguous and is interpreted as either related to the German word for moorland, or adopted from the German/Polish/Silesian term for hajduk, which locally meant bandits.
The place was first mentioned in 1627 as Hejduk and shown on 18th century maps as "Ober Heiduk" and "Nieder Heiduk". The names Hajduki Wielkie and Nowe Hajduki mean Great Hajduks and New Hajduks, respectively; the two settlements were named after the Bismarck Iron Works Bismarckhütte. When the international borders shifted, the name of Bismarck was replaced with the name of the Polish king Batory. Today this city subdivision is called Chorzów Chorzów-Batory. In the 12th century, the castellany of Bytom, including the Chorzów area, belonged to the province of Kraków. In 1179 it was awarded by Duke Casimir the Just to the Duke of Opole, since that time the history of Chorzów has been connected to the history of Upper Silesia; the oldest part of the city, the village of Chorzów, today called Chorzów Stary, belonged since 1257 to the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem. At that time silver and lead ores were mined nearby also the ores of iron. There is more documentation for 16th century developments.
From 1327, the Upper Silesian duchies were ruled by the dukes of the Piast dynasty and were subject to Bohemian overlordship. The Crown of Bohemia elected Polish-Lithuanian Jagiellons kings from 1471 and Austrian Habsburgs kings after 1526. In 1742, the area was conquered by the Prussian Hohenzollerns in Silesian Wars, setting the stage for the Prussian industrial might; the Prussian and German period lasted for about 180 years and overlapped with the time of rapid industrialization. With the discovery of bituminous coal deposits at the end of the 18th century by a local church priest, new industrial sectors developed in the Chorzów area. In the years 1791–1797 the Prussian state-owned Royal Coal Mine was constructed. In 1799, first pig iron was made in the Royal Iron Works. At the time, it was a pioneering industrial establishment of its kind in continental Europe. In 1819 the iron works consisted of 4 blast furnaces. In the 1800s the modern Lidognia Zinc Works was added in the area. In 1871 the iron works were taken over by the holding called Vereingte Königs- und Laurahütte AG für Bergbau und Hüttenbetrieb, which added a steel mill, rail mill and workshops.
In the vicinity of the Royal Coal Mine, Countess Laura Coal Mine was opened in 1870, by 1913–1914 coal production increased to 1 million tons a year. In 1898, a thermal power plant was commissioned which was, until the 1930s, the biggest electricity producer in Poland with power of 100 MW. Today, it operates as "ELCHO". In 1915, nitrogen chemical works were built nearby to produce fertilizers and explosives by newly invented processes: from air and coal. Today, it operates as "Zakłady Azotowe SA". Settlements grew near iron works. Since 1797, one group of settlements was called Königshütte. In 1846 Królewska Huta received a railway track to Świętochłowice and Mysłowice, in 185