Erik Belton Evers Bruhn was a Danish danseur, artistic director and author. Erik Bruhn was born in Copenhagen, the fourth child and first son of Ellen, owner of a hairdressing salon, third child of Ernst Bruhn, his parents married shortly before his birth. Bruhn began training with the Royal Danish Ballet when he was nine years old, made his unofficial début on the stage of Copenhagen's Royal Opera House in 1946, dancing the role of Adonis in Harald Lander's ballet Thorvaldsen, he was taken permanently into the company in 1947 at the age of eighteen. Bruhn took the first of his frequent sabbaticals from the Danish company in 1947, dancing for six months with the short-lived Metropolitan Ballet in England, where he formed his first major partnership, with the Bulgarian ballerina Sonia Arova, he returned to the Royal Danish Ballet in the spring of 1948 and was promoted to soloist in 1949, the highest level a dancer can attain in the Danish ballet. In 1949, he again took a leave of absence and joined American Ballet Theatre in New York City, where he would dance for the next nine years, although his home company continued to be the Royal Danish Ballet.
The turning point in Bruhn's international career came on 1 May 1955 with his début in the role of Albrecht in Giselle partnering Dame Alicia Markova, nearly twenty years his senior, in a matinée with Ballet Theatre in New York after only three days of rehearsal. The performance caused a sensation. Dance critic John Martin, writing in The New York Times, called it "a date to write down in the history books, for it was as if the greatest Giselle of today were handing over a sacred trust to what is the greatest Albrecht of tomorrow." In an article entitled "The Matinée that Made History" in Dance News in June 1955, P. W. Machester wrote: Technically exacting as it is, the role of Albrecht is not beyond the capabilities of any competent premier danseur, Erik Bruhn is infinitely more than that; the result was one of those electrifying performances when everyone both in the audience and on the stage is aware that something extraordinary is happening. Bruhn formally resigned from the Danish ballet in 1961, by which time he had become internationally known as a phenomenon, although he continued to dance periodically with the company as a guest artist.
In May 1961, he returned to Ballet Theatre for its New York season. In its 5 May issue, Time magazine published a major article on the dancer and his art: Back home Bruhn, 32, is the idol of the Royal Danish Ballet, where he has brought new life to the classic roles reserved for a premier danseur noble, his technical credentials include a fine dramatic sense and an ability to leap with a high-arching grace, to turn with cat quickness and fluidity on the ground or in midair, to project emotion with vivid movements of arms and body. But Bruhn long ago became aware that "technique is not enough," and he is remarkable for the feeling of tension he can convey by his mere presence. Poised and trim, he somehow rivets an audience with the promise of action before he has danced a step... As Bruhn soars closer to his apogee, he spends restless nights reviewing roles in his mind, he has little of the vanity that goads most performers. Furthermore, he would rather "be bad in a good ballet than be great in a bad ballet."
But to be great in a good ballet? To do it, says Erik Bruhn, "it is important if you performed a role the night before, to think,'This is the first time this is going to happen.' " During the next 10 years, Bruhn formed long relationships as a guest artist not only with Ballet Theatre but with most all of the major ballet companies in Europe and North America, including the New York City Ballet, the Joffrey Ballet, the National Ballet of Canada, the Paris Opera Ballet, London's Royal Ballet. He was best known for his lead roles in La Sylphide, Frederick Ashton's Romeo and Juliet, Swan Lake. John Cranko made Daphnis and Chlöe on him in 1962 at the Stuttgart Ballet, which Bruhn considered his favorite from amongst the ballets created for him, he was acclaimed in dramatic roles, such as Jean in Birgit Cullberg's Miss Julie, the Moor in José Limón's The Moor's Pavane, Don José in Roland Petit's Carmen. In addition to Sonia Arova, Bruhn had significant dance partnerships with a large and unusually varied number of ballerinas: the Americans Cynthia Gregory, Nora Kaye, Allegra Kent, Maria Tallchief.
In his book, Beyond Technique, Bruhn discussed his thoughts on partnering: It has been noticed that I have been able to work with many different kinds of ballerinas, on most occasions we succeeded in becoming a team if only for a season or two. And, because I always wanted to relate to them. I don't remain the same; each ballerina is different. This would shape my approach. I remain true to myself, but I let her flavor color me as mine colors her... A good partnership can somehow crystallize something; when the right people come together, they bring the right thing out of each other... With the right person, it becomes a situation of being rather than p
Ben Hecht was an American screenwriter, producer, playwright and novelist. A journalist in his youth, he went on to write 35 books and some of the most entertaining screenplays and plays in America, he received screen credits, alone or in collaboration, for the stories or screenplays of some seventy films. At the age of 16, Hecht ran away to Chicago, where, in his own words, he "haunted streets, police stations, theater stages, saloons, madhouses, murders, banquet halls, bookshops". In the 1910s and early 1920s, Hecht became a noted journalist, foreign correspondent, literary figure. In the 1920s, his co-authored, reporter-themed play, The Front Page, became; the Dictionary of Literary Biography - American Screenwriters calls him "one of the most successful screenwriters in the history of motion pictures". Hecht received the first Academy Award for Best Story for Underworld. Many of the screenplays he worked on are now considered classics, he provided story ideas for such films as Stagecoach. Film historian Richard Corliss called him "the Hollywood screenwriter", someone who "personified Hollywood itself".
In 1940, he wrote and directed Angels Over Broadway, nominated for Best Screenplay. In total, six of his movie screenplays were nominated with two winning, he became an active Zionist shortly before the Holocaust began in Germany, wrote articles and plays about the plight of European Jews, such as We Will Never Die in 1943 and A Flag is Born in 1946. Of his seventy to ninety screenplays, he wrote many anonymously to avoid the British boycott of his work in the late 1940s and early 1950s; the boycott was a response to Hecht's active support of paramilitary action against British forces in Palestine and sabotaging British property there, during which time a supply ship to Palestine was named the S. S. Ben Hecht. According to his autobiography, he never spent more than eight weeks on a script. In 1983, 19 years after his death, Ben Hecht was posthumously inducted into the American Theater Hall of Fame. Hecht was born in the son of Belarusian Jewish immigrants, his father, Joseph Hecht, worked in the garment industry.
His father, mother Sarah Swernofsky Hecht, had immigrated to New York from Minsk, Belarus. The Hechts married in 1892; the family moved to Racine, where Ben attended high school. When Hecht was in his early teens, he would spend the summers with an uncle in Chicago. On the road much of the time, his father did not have much effect on Hecht's childhood, his mother was busy managing a store in downtown Racine. Film author Scott Siegal wrote, "He was considered a child prodigy at age ten on his way to a career as a concert violinist, but two years was performing as a circus acrobat."After graduating from Racine High School in 1910, Hecht moved to Chicago, running away to live there permanently. He lived with relatives, started a career in journalism, he found work as a reporter, first for the Chicago Journal, with the Chicago Daily News. He was an excellent reporter. After World War I, Hecht was sent to cover Berlin for the Daily News. There he wrote Erik Dorn, it was a sensational debut for Hecht as a serious writer.
The 1969 movie, Gaily, directed by Norman Jewison and starring Beau Bridges as "Ben Harvey", was based on Hecht's life during his early years working as a reporter in Chicago. The film was nominated for three Oscars; the story was taken from a portion of A Child of the Century. From 1918 to 1919, Hecht served as war correspondent in Berlin for the Chicago Daily News. According to Barbara and Scott Siegel, "Besides being a war reporter, he was noted for being a tough crime reporter while becoming known in Chicago literary circles."In 1921, Hecht inaugurated a Daily News column called, One Thousand and One Afternoons in Chicago. While it lasted, the column was enormously influential, his editor, Henry Justin Smith said it represented a new concept in journalism: the idea that just under the edge of the news as understood, the news flatly unimaginatively told, lay life. He was going to be its interpreter, his was to be the lens throwing city life into new colors, his the microscope revealing its contortions in life and death.
While at the Chicago Daily News, Hecht famously broke the 1921 "Ragged Stranger Murder Case" story, about the murder of Carl Wanderer's wife, which led to the trial and execution of war hero Carl Wanderer. In Chicago, he met and befriended Maxwell Bodenheim, an American poet and novelist known as the King of Greenwich Village Bohemians, with whom he became a lifelong friend. After concluding One Thousand and One Afternoons, Hecht went on to produce novels, plays and memoirs, but none of these eclipsed his early success in finding the stuff of literature in city life. Recalling that period, Hecht wrote, "I haunted streets, police stations, theater stages, saloons, madhouses, murders, banquet halls, bookshops. I ran everywhere in the city like a fly buzzing in the works of a clock, tasted more than any fit belly could hold, learned not to sleep, buried myself in a tick-tock of whirling hours that still echo in me." Besides working as reporter in Chicago, "he contributed to literary magazines including the Little Review.
Farley Earle Granger Jr. was an American actor, best known for his two collaborations with director Alfred Hitchcock: Rope in 1948 and Strangers on a Train in 1951. Granger was first noticed in a small stage production in Hollywood by a Goldwyn casting director, given a significant role in The North Star, a controversial film praising the Soviet Union at the height of World War II, but condemned for its political bias. Another war film, The Purple Heart, before Granger's naval service in Honolulu, in a unit that arranged troop entertainment in the Pacific. Here he made useful contacts, including Betty Grable and Rita Hayworth, it was where he began exploring his bisexuality, which he said he never felt any need to conceal. In 1948, Hitchcock cast him in Rope, a fictionalized account of the Leopold and Loeb murder case, which earned mixed reviews, but much critical praise for Granger. Hitchcock cast him again in Strangers on a Train, as a tennis star drawn into a double murder plot by a wealthy psychopath, played by Robert Walker.
Granger would describe this as his happiest film-making experience, was saddened by Walker's death shortly after shooting. Granger continued to appear on stage and television well into his 70s, his work ranged from classical drama on Broadway to several Italian-language films and major documentaries about Hollywood. He tended to find fault with his directors and scriptwriters and his career remains defined by the two Hitchcock films. Granger was born in San Jose, the son of Eva and Farley Earle Granger, Sr, he lived at 1185 Hanchett Avenue in the Hanchett Residence Park neighborhood. His wealthy father owned a Willys-Overland automobile dealership, the family spent time at their beach house in Capitola. Following the stock market crash in 1929, the Grangers were forced to sell both their homes and most of their personal belongings and move into an apartment above the family business, where they remained for the next two years; as a result of this financial setback and the loss of their social status, both of Granger's parents began to drink heavily.
The remainder of their possessions were sold at auction to settle their debts, the elder Granger used the last car on his lot to spirit away the family to Los Angeles in the middle of the night. The family settled in a small apartment in a seedy part of Hollywood, Granger's parents worked at various temporary jobs, their drinking increased, the couple fought. Hoping he might become a tap dancer, Granger's mother enrolled him at Ethel Meglin's, the dance and drama instruction studio where Judy Garland and Shirley Temple had started. Granger's father found work as a clerk in the North Hollywood branch of the California Department of Unemployment, his salary allowed him to put a small down payment on a house in Studio City, where their neighbor was actor/dancer Donald O'Connor. At his office, Granger's father became acquainted with unemployment benefits recipient Harry Langdon, who advised him to take his son to a small local theatre where open auditions for The Wookie, a British play about Londoners struggling to survive during World War II, were being held.
Granger's use of a Cockney accent impressed the director, he was cast in multiple roles. The opening night audience included talent agent Phil Gersh and Samuel Goldwyn casting director Bob McIntyre, the following morning Gersh contacted Granger's parents and asked them to bring him to his office that afternoon to discuss the role of Damian, a teenaged Russian boy in the film The North Star. Granger auditioned for screenwriter Lillian Hellman and director Lewis Milestone. Hellman was trying to convince Montgomery Clift to leave the Broadway play in which he was appearing, when her efforts proved to be futile, the role was given to Granger. Goldwyn signed him to a seven-year contract for $100 per week; the studio publicity department was concerned audiences would confuse Granger with British actor Stewart Granger, so they suggested he change his name and offered him a list from which to choose. "The names were all interchangeable, like Gregory Gordon. I didn't want to change my name," Granger recalled.
"I liked Farley Granger. It was my father's name, his grandfather's name, they kept bringing me new combinations, I offered to change it to Kent Clark. I was the only one who thought it was funny." The studio issued a press release announcing Farley Granger, a senior at North Hollywood High School, had been cast in The North Star after he responded to an ad in the local paper. "I thought, a dumb story," said Granger. "The truth was much more interesting."Making the film proved to be a fortunate start to Granger's career. He enjoyed working with director Milestone and fellow cast members Dana Andrews, Anne Baxter, Walter Brennan and Jane Withers, during filming he met composer Aaron Copland, who remained a friend in years; when released, the film was savaged by critics working for newspapers owned by William Randolph Hearst, a staunch anti-Communist who felt the movie was Soviet propaganda. For Granger's next film, he was loaned out to 20th Century Fox, where Darryl F. Zanuck cast him in The Purple Heart, in which he was directed by Milestone and again co-starred with Dana Andrews.
Granger became a close friend of supporting cast member Sam Levene, a character actor from New York City who took him under his wing. He became a friend of Roddy McDowall and found himself linked with June Haver in gossip columns and fan magazines. Upon completion of The Purple Heart, Granger enlisted in the United States Navy. Following U. S. Navy Recruit Training in Farragut, Idaho, he sailed from Treasure Isla
Myles Connolly was an author and a Hollywood screenwriter/producer. Myles Connolly was born in Massachusetts. After receiving his education at Boston Latin School, he graduated from Boston College in 1918. After serving one year in the U. S. Navy during World War I, Connolly worked as a newspaper reporter with The Boston Post; as a reporter, he was able to lay claim to being one of the few journalists granted the opportunity to interview President Calvin Coolidge. For many years, Connolly was a frequent contributor of verse and short stories to national magazines. Both he and his Nashville socialite wife, were devout Roman Catholics and each had a sister, a nun, their daughter, Mary became a nun and Mrs. Connolly had a nephew, a priest. Connolly had a fan in fellow Bostonian Joseph P. Kennedy. Kennedy convinced Connolly to leave Boston to work at the Hollywood movie studio that Kennedy financed, Film Booking Office, he began his work at FBO as a film producer in the 1929 Frank Craven and Richard Rosson comedy The Very Idea.
FBO was purchased by RCA to become RKO studios in 1930. At RKO, Connolly served as associate producer for that studio's earliest Wheeler & Woolsey vehicles. In 1933, his work as a screenwriter-producer of dramatic films was introduced with The Right to Romance. Connolly befriended director Frank Capra at a cast and crew party for Ladies of Leisure after actor Alan Roscoe invited Connolly to tag along with him to the event. Capra followed Roscoe's lead in describing the writer/producer from Boston as "a hulking, 230-pound, six-three, black-haired, blue-eyed gum-chewing Irishman with the mien of a dyspeptic water buffalo." Writer Sam Fuller described Connolly as a "wonderful man."Though Connolly chided Capra for turning out frivolities when he thought Capra could produce thought provoking pieces, Connolly did not follow his own advice. He produced numerous pieces of escapist entertainment such as the Tarzan pictures of the 1940s. Myles Connolly helped produce over forty films, his last screenwriting credit was MGM's musical biography of Hans Christian Andersen with Danny Kaye.
Connolly published several Roman Catholic parable novels, including Mr. Blue. Although, Connolly wrote additional novels nothing came as close in popularity as Mr. Blue, which he wrote at the age of 27 years; the book remained in print for 60 years and, in spite of his steady and respectable film career, remained his most lasting legacy. Screenwriting credits include The Right to Romance, Palm Springs, Youth Takes a Fling, the Charles Vidor film Hans Christian Andersen. Connolly co-wrote. In addition, he worked with Sam Fuller to create. While Myles Connolly collaborated with Frank Capra on State of the Union and Here Comes the Groom, he was an uncredited contributor to the Capra films Mr. Smith Goes to Washington and It's a Wonderful Life. Myles Connolly was nominated for an Academy Award for his screenplay for Music for Millions. 1n 1951, he shared the nomination for a Hugo award for the screenplay of Harvey. In 1952, he was nominated for the Best Written American Musical award by the Writer's Guild of America for Here Comes the Groom.
Mr. Blue, 1928 The Bump on Brannigan's Head, 1950 Dan England and the Noonday Devil, 1951 The Reason for Ann, 1953 Three Who Ventured, 1958 Myles Connolly on IMDb
Musical film is a film genre in which songs sung by the characters are interwoven into the narrative, sometimes accompanied by dancing. The songs advance the plot or develop the film's characters, but in some cases, they serve as breaks in the storyline as elaborate "production numbers." The musical film was a natural development of the stage musical after the emergence of sound film technology. The biggest difference between film and stage musicals is the use of lavish background scenery and locations that would be impractical in a theater. Musical films characteristically contain elements reminiscent of theater. In a sense, the viewer becomes the diegetic audience, as the performer looks directly into the camera and performs to it; the 1930's through the early 1950's are considered to be the golden age of the musical film, when the genre's popularity was at its highest in the Western world. Disney's Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, the earliest Disney animated feature film, was a musical which won an honorary Oscar for Walt Disney at the 11th Academy Awards.
Musical short films were made by Lee de Forest in 1923–24. Beginning in 1926, thousands of Vitaphone shorts were made, many featuring bands and dancers; the earliest feature-length films with synchronized sound had only a soundtrack of music and occasional sound effects that played while the actors portrayed their characters just as they did in silent films: without audible dialogue. The Jazz Singer, released in 1927 by Warner Brothers, was the first to include an audio track including non-dietetic music and diegetic music, but it had only a short sequence of spoken dialogue; this feature-length film was a musical, featuring Al Jolson singing "Dirty Hands, Dirty Face", "Toot, Tootsie", "Blue Skies", "My Mammy". Historian Scott Eyman wrote, "As the film ended and applause grew with the houselights, Sam Goldwyn's wife Frances looked around at the celebrities in the crowd, she saw'terror in all their faces', she said, as if they knew that'the game they had been playing for years was over'." Still, only isolated sequences featured "live" sound.
In 1928, Warner Brothers followed this up with another Jolson part-talkie, The Singing Fool, a blockbuster hit. Theaters scrambled to install the new sound equipment and to hire Broadway composers to write musicals for the screen; the first all-talking feature, Lights of New York, included a musical sequence in a night club. The enthusiasm of audiences was so great that in less than a year all the major studios were making sound pictures exclusively; the Broadway Melody had a show-biz plot about two sisters competing for a charming song-and-dance man. Advertised by MGM as the first "All-Talking, All-Singing, All-Dancing" feature film, it was a hit and won the Academy Award for Best Picture for 1929. There was a rush by the studios to hire talent from the stage to star in lavishly filmed versions of Broadway hits; the Love Parade starred Maurice Chevalier and newcomer Jeanette MacDonald, written by Broadway veteran Guy Bolton. Warner Brothers produced the first screen operetta, The Desert Song in 1929.
They photographed a large percentage of the film in Technicolor. This was followed by the first all-color, all-talking musical feature, entitled On with the Show; the most popular film of 1929 was the second all-color, all-talking feature, entitled Gold Diggers of Broadway. This film broke all box office records and remained the highest-grossing film produced until 1939; the market became flooded with musicals and operettas. The following all-color musicals were produced in 1929 and 1930 alone: The Show of Shows, The Vagabond King, Follow Thru, Bright Lights, Golden Dawn, Hold Everything, The Rogue Song, Song of the Flame, Song of the West, Sweet Kitty Bellairs, Under a Texas Moon, Bride of the Regiment, Whoopee!, King of Jazz, Viennese Nights, Kiss Me Again. In addition, there were scores of musical features released with color sequences. Hollywood released more than 100 musical films in 1930, but only 14 in 1931. By late 1930, audiences had been oversaturated with musicals and studios were forced to cut the music from films that were being released.
For example, Life of the Party was produced as an all-color, all-talking musical comedy. Before it was released, the songs were cut out; the same thing happened to Fifty Million Frenchmen and Manhattan Parade both of, filmed in Technicolor. Marlene Dietrich sang songs in her films, Rodgers and Hart wrote a few well-received films, but their popularity waned by 1932; the public had come to associate color with musicals and thus the decline in their popularity resulted in a decline in color productions. The taste in musicals revived again in 1933 when director Busby Berkeley began to enhance the traditional dance number with ideas drawn from the drill precision he had experienced as a soldier during World War I. In films such as 42nd Street and Gold Diggers of 1933, Berkeley choreographed a number of films in his unique style. Berkeley's numbers begin on a stage but transcend the limitations of theatrical space: his ingenious routines, involving human bodies forming patterns like a kaleidoscope, could never fit onto a real stage and the intended perspective is viewing from straight above.
Musical stars such as Fred Astaire and Ginger Rogers were among the most popular and highly
George Chandler was an American actor who starred in over 140 feature films in smaller supporting roles, he is best known for playing the character of Uncle Petrie Martin on the television series Lassie. He was born in Waukegan, Illinois, on June 30, 1898. During his infancy, his family moved to Illinois. Early in his career, he had a vaudeville act, billed as "George Chandler, the Musical Nut," which featured comedy and his violin. Chandler served in the United States Army during World War I. Chandler appeared six times in Bill Williams's series The Adventures of Kit Carson in episodes titled "Law of Boot Hill", "Lost Treasure of the Panamints", "Trails Westward", "The Wrong Man", "Trail to Bordertown", "Gunsmoke Justice", he guest starred on The Public Defender. He appeared as the character Ames in the two-part episode "King of the Dakotas" in Frontier. In 1954 -- 1955, he was cast in two episodes of the sitcom, he appeared in the 1956 episode "the Stranger" of Fury. He was cast as Clay Hunnicutt in the 1957 episode "The Giveaway" of the sitcom The People's Choice.
In 1958, Chandler appeared as Cleveland McMasters in the episode "The Cassie Tanner Story" on Wagon Train. In the 1960–1961 television season, Chandler guest starred on an episode of the one-season sitcom Bringing Up Buddy. In the 1961–1962 television season, Chandler co-starred with in another one-season sitcom Ichabod and Me. Chandler debuted in film in 1929. In 1960, Chandler was elected president of the Screen Actors Guild. Chandler died in Panorama City, California of cancer, on June 10, 1985, at the age of 86. George Chandler on IMDb George Chandler at Find a Grave
Danny Kaye was an American actor, dancer, comedian and philanthropist. His performances featured physical comedy, idiosyncratic pantomimes, rapid-fire novelty songs. Kaye starred in 17 movies, notably Wonder Man, The Kid from Brooklyn, The Secret Life of Walter Mitty, The Inspector General, Hans Christian Andersen, White Christmas, The Court Jester, his films were popular his performances of patter songs and favorites such as "Inchworm" and "The Ugly Duckling." He was the first ambassador-at-large of UNICEF in 1954 and received the French Legion of Honour in 1986 for his years of work with the organization. David Daniel Kaminsky was born in Brooklyn, New York, on January 18, 1911, to Ukrainian Jewish immigrants Jacob and Clara Kaminsky, he was the youngest of three sons. Jacob and Clara and their older sons Larry and Mac left Dnipropetrovsk two years before Danny's birth, he attended Public School 149 in Brooklyn. He attended Thomas Jefferson High School in Brooklyn but he did not graduate, his mother died.
Not long after his mother's death and his friend Louis ran away to Florida. Kaye sang while Louis played the pair eked out a living for a while; when Kaye returned to New York, his father did not pressure him to return to school or work, giving his son the chance to mature and discover his own abilities. Kaye said that as a young boy he had wanted to be a surgeon, but the family could not afford a medical school education, he held a succession of jobs after leaving school: as a soda jerk, insurance investigator, office clerk. Most ended with his being fired, he lost the insurance job when he made an error that cost the insurance company $40,000. The dentist who hired him to look after his office at lunch hour did the same when he found Kaye using his drill on the office woodwork. Years Kaye married the dentist's daughter, Sylvia, he learned his trade in his teenage years in the Catskills as a tummler in the Borscht Belt. Kaye's first break came in 1933 when he joined the "Three Terpsichoreans," a vaudeville dance act.
They opened in New York, where he used the name Danny Kaye for the first time. The act toured the United States performed in Asia with the show La Vie Paree; the troupe left for a six-month tour of the Far East on February 8, 1934. While they were in Osaka, Japan, a typhoon hit the city; the hotel where Kaye and his colleagues stayed suffered heavy damage. The strong wind hurled a piece of the hotel's cornice into Kaye's room. By performance time that evening the city was in the grip of the storm. There was no power and the audience was restless and nervous. To calm them Kaye went on stage holding a flashlight to illuminate his face and sang every song he could recall as loudly as he was able; the experience of trying to entertain audiences who did not speak English inspired him to the pantomime, gestures and facial expressions that made his reputation. Sometimes he found pantomime necessary. Kaye's daughter, tells a story her father related about being in a restaurant in China and trying to order chicken.
Kaye clucked, giving the waiter an imitation of a chicken. The waiter nodded in understanding, his interest in cooking began on the tour. Jobs were in short supply when Kaye returned to the United States, he struggled for bookings. One job was working in a burlesque revue with fan dancer Sally Rand. After the dancer dropped a fan while trying to chase away a fly, Kaye was hired to watch the fans so they were always held in front of her. Danny Kaye made his film debut in a 1935 comedy short Moon Over Manhattan. In 1937 he signed with New York–based Educational Pictures for a series of two-reel comedies, he played a manic, dark-haired, fast-talking Russian in these low-budget shorts, opposite young hopefuls June Allyson and Imogene Coca. The Kaye series ended abruptly when the studio shut down in 1938, he was working in the Catskills in 1937 under the name Danny Kolbin. His next venture was a short-lived Broadway show with Sylvia Fine as the pianist and composer; the Straw Hat Revue opened on September 29, 1939, closed after 10 weeks, but critics took notice of Kaye's work.
The reviews brought an offer for both Kaye and his bride Sylvia to work at La Martinique, a New York City nightclub. Kaye performed with Sylvia as his accompanist. At La Martinique playwright Moss Hart saw Danny perform, that led to Hart's casting him in his hit Broadway comedy Lady in the Dark. Kaye scored a triumph at age 30 in 1941 playing Russell Paxton in Lady in the Dark, starring Gertrude Lawrence, his show-stopping number was "Tchaikovsky" by Kurt Weill and Ira Gershwin in which he sang the names of a string of Russian composers at breakneck speed without taking a breath. In the next Broadway season he was the star of a show about a young man, drafted called Let's Face It!. His feature-film debut was in producer Samuel Goldwyn's Technicolor 1944 comedy Up in Arms, a remake of Goldwyn's Eddie Cantor comedy Whoopee!. Rival producer Robert M. Savini cashed in by compiling three of Kaye's Educational Pictures shorts into a patchwork feature entitled The Birth of a Star. Studio mogul Goldwyn wanted Kaye's prominent nose fixed to look less Jewish, Kaye refused, but he did allow his red hair to be dyed blond because it loo