University of British Columbia
The University of British Columbia is a public research university with campuses in Vancouver and Kelowna, British Columbia. Established in 1908, UBC is British Columbia's oldest university; the university is ranked among the top 20 public universities worldwide and among the top three in Canada. With an annual research budget of $600 million, UBC funds over 8,000 projects a year; the Vancouver campus is situated about 10 km west of Downtown Vancouver. UBC is home to TRIUMF, Canada's national laboratory for particle and nuclear physics, which houses the world's largest cyclotron. In addition to the Peter Wall Institute for Advanced Studies and Stuart Blusson Quantum Matter Institute, UBC and the Max Planck Society collectively established the first Max Planck Institute in North America, specializing in quantum materials. One of the largest research libraries in Canada, the UBC Library system has over 9.9 million volumes among its 21 branches. The Okanagan campus, acquired in 2005, is located in Kelowna, British Columbia.
As of 2017, eight Nobel laureates, 71 Rhodes scholars, 65 Olympians, eight Fellows in both American Academy of Arts & Sciences and the Royal Society, 208 Fellows to the Royal Society of Canada have been affiliated with UBC. Three Canadian prime ministers, including Canada's first female prime minister Kim Campbell and current prime minister Justin Trudeau have been educated at UBC. In 1877, six years after British Columbia joined Canada, the Superintendent of Education, John Jessop, submitted a proposal for the formation of a provincial university; the provincial legislature passed An Act Respecting the University of British Columbia in 1890, but disagreements arose over whether to build the university on Vancouver Island or the mainland. The British Columbia University Act of 1908 formally called a provincial university into being, although its location was not specified; the governance was modelled on the provincial University of Toronto Act of 1906 which created a bicameral system of university government consisting of a senate, responsible for academic policy, a board of governors exercising exclusive control over financial policy and having formal authority in all other matters.
The president, appointed by the board, was to provide a link between the two bodies and to perform institutional leadership. The Act constituted a twenty-one member senate with Francis Carter-Cotton of Vancouver as chancellor. Before the University Act, there had been several attempts at creating a degree-granting university with help from the Universities of Toronto and McGill. Columbian College in New Westminster, through its affiliation with Victoria College of the University of Toronto, began to offer university-level credit at the turn-of-the-century, but McGill came to dominate higher education in the early 1900s. Building on a successful affiliation between Vancouver and Victoria high schools with McGill University, Henry Marshall Tory helped establish the McGill University College of British Columbia. From 1906 to 1915, McGill BC operated as a private institution providing the first few years toward a degree at McGill University or elsewhere; the Henry Marshall Tory Medal was established in 1941 by Tory, founding president of the University of Alberta and of the National Research Council of Canada, a co-founder of Carleton University.
In the meantime, appeals were made to the government to revive the earlier legislation for a provincial institution, leading to the University Endowment Act in 1907, the University Act in 1908. In 1910 the Point Grey site was chosen, the government appointed Dr. Frank Fairchild Wesbrook as president in 1913, Leonard Klinck as dean of Agriculture in 1914. A declining economy and the outbreak of war in August 1914 compelled the University to postpone plans for building at Point Grey, instead the former McGill University College site at Fairview became home to the University until 1925. On the first day of lectures was September 30, 1915, the new independent university absorbed McGill University College; the University of British Columbia awarded its first degrees in 1916, Klinck became the second president in 1919, serving until 1940. World War I dominated campus life, the student body was "decimated" by enlistments for active service, with three hundred UBC students in Company "D" alone. By the war's end, 697 members of the University had enlisted.
109 students graduated in the three war-time congregations, all but one in the Faculty of Arts and Science. By 1920, the university had only three faculties: Arts, Applied Science, Agriculture, it only awarded the degrees of Bachelor of Arts, Bachelor of Applied Science, Bachelor of Science in Agriculture. There were 576 male students and 386 female students in the 1920–21 winter session, but only 64 academic staff, including 6 women. In the early part of the 20th century, professional education expanded beyond the traditional fields of theology and medicine. Although UBC did not offer degrees in these fields, it began to offer degrees in new professional areas such as engineering, agriculture and school teaching, it introduced graduate training based on the German-inspired American model of specialized course work and the completion of a research thesis, with students completing M. A. degrees in natural sciences, social sciences and humanities. In 1922, the twelve-hundred-strong student body embarked on a "Build the University" campaign.
Students marched through the streets of Vancouver to draw attention to their plight, enlist popular support, embarrass the government. Fifty-six thousand signatures were presented at legislature in support of the campaign, which
Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck, ForMemRS was a German theoretical physicist whose discovery of energy quanta won him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918. Planck made many contributions to theoretical physics, but his fame as a physicist rests on his role as the originator of quantum theory, which revolutionized human understanding of atomic and subatomic processes. In 1948, the German scientific institution the Kaiser Wilhelm Society was renamed the Max Planck Society; the MPS now includes 83 institutions representing a wide range of scientific directions. Planck came from a intellectual family, his paternal great-grandfather and grandfather were both theology professors in Göttingen. One of his uncles was a judge. Planck was born in Holstein, to Johann Julius Wilhelm Planck and his second wife, Emma Patzig, he was baptized with the name of Karl Ernst Ludwig Marx Planck. However, by the age of ten he used this for the rest of his life, he was the 6th child in the family, though two of his siblings were from his father's first marriage.
War was common during Planck's early years and among his earliest memories was the marching of Prussian and Austrian troops into Kiel during the Second Schleswig War in 1864. In 1867 the family moved to Munich, Planck enrolled in the Maximilians gymnasium school, where he came under the tutelage of Hermann Müller, a mathematician who took an interest in the youth, taught him astronomy and mechanics as well as mathematics, it was from Müller. Planck graduated early, at age 17; this is. Planck was gifted, he took singing lessons and played piano and cello, composed songs and operas. However, instead of music he chose to study physics; the Munich physics professor Philipp von Jolly advised Planck against going into physics, saying, "in this field everything is discovered, all that remains is to fill a few holes." Planck replied that he did not wish to discover new things, but only to understand the known fundamentals of the field, so began his studies in 1874 at the University of Munich. Under Jolly's supervision, Planck performed the only experiments of his scientific career, studying the diffusion of hydrogen through heated platinum, but transferred to theoretical physics.
In 1877 he went to the Friedrich Wilhelms University in Berlin for a year of study with physicists Hermann von Helmholtz and Gustav Kirchhoff and mathematician Karl Weierstrass. He wrote that Helmholtz was never quite prepared, spoke miscalculated endlessly, bored his listeners, while Kirchhoff spoke in prepared lectures which were dry and monotonous, he soon became close friends with Helmholtz. While there he undertook a program of self-study of Clausius's writings, which led him to choose thermodynamics as his field. In October 1878 Planck passed his qualifying exams and in February 1879 defended his dissertation, Über den zweiten Hauptsatz der mechanischen Wärmetheorie, he taught mathematics and physics at his former school in Munich. By the year 1880, Planck obtained two highest academic degrees offered in Europe; the first was a doctorate degree after he completed his paper detailing his research and theory of thermodynamics. He presented his thesis called Gleichgewichtszustände isotroper Körper in verschiedenen Temperaturen, which earned him a habilitation.
With the completion of his habilitation thesis, Planck became an unpaid Privatdozent in Munich, waiting until he was offered an academic position. Although he was ignored by the academic community, he furthered his work on the field of heat theory and discovered one after another the same thermodynamical formalism as Gibbs without realizing it. Clausius's ideas on entropy occupied a central role in his work. In April 1885 the University of Kiel appointed Planck as associate professor of theoretical physics. Further work on entropy and its treatment as applied in physical chemistry, followed, he published his Treatise on Thermodynamics in 1897. He proposed a thermodynamic basis for Svante Arrhenius's theory of electrolytic dissociation. In 1889 he was named the successor to Kirchhoff's position at the Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität in Berlin – thanks to Helmholtz's intercession – and by 1892 became a full professor. In 1907 Planck turned it down to stay in Berlin. During 1909, as a University of Berlin professor, he was invited to become the Ernest Kempton Adams Lecturer in Theoretical Physics at Columbia University in New York City.
A series of his lectures were translated and co-published by Columbia University professor A. P. Wills, he retired from Berlin on 10 January 1926, was succeeded by Erwin Schrödinger. In March 1887 Planck married Marie Merck, sister of a school fellow, moved with her into a sublet apartment in Kiel, they had four children: Karl, the twins Emma and Grete, Erwin. After the apartment in Berlin, the Planck family lived in a villa in Berlin-Grunewald, Wangenheimstrasse 21. Several other professors from University of Berlin lived nearby, among them theologian Ad
An ion trap is a combination of electric or magnetic fields used to capture charged particles in a system isolated from an external environment. Ion traps have a number of scientific uses such as mass spectrometry, basic physics research, controlling quantum states; the two most common types of ion trap are the Penning trap, which forms a potential via a combination of electric and magnetic fields, the Paul trap which forms a potential via a combination of static and oscillating electric fields. Penning traps can be used for precise magnetic measurements in spectroscopy. Studies of quantum state manipulation most use the Paul trap; this may lead to a trapped ion quantum computer and has been used to create the world's most accurate atomic clocks. Electron guns can use an ion trap to prevent degradation of the cathode by positive ions. An ion trap mass spectrometer may incorporate Paul trap or the Kingdon trap; the Orbitrap, introduced in 2005, is based on the Kingdon trap. Other types of mass spectrometers may use a linear quadrupole ion trap as a selective mass filter.
A Penning trap stores charged particles using a strong homogeneous axial magnetic field to confine particles radially and a quadrupole electric field to confine the particles axially. The Penning Trap was named after Frans Michel Penning by Hans Georg Dehmelt who built the first trap. Penning traps are well suited for measurements of the properties of ions and stable charged subatomic particles. Precision studies of the electron magnetic moment by Dehmelt and others are an important topic in modern physics. Penning traps can be used in quantum computation and quantum information processing and are used at CERN to store antimatter. Penning traps form the basis of Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry for determining the mass-to-charge ratio of ions. A Paul trap is a type of quadrupole ion trap that uses static direct current and radio frequency oscillating electric fields to trap ions. Paul traps are used as a components of a mass spectrometer; the invention of the 3D quadrupole ion trap itself is attributed to Wolfgang Paul who shared the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1989 for this work.
The trap consists of two hyperbolic metal electrodes with their foci facing each other and a hyperbolic ring electrode halfway between the other two electrodes. Ions are trapped in the space between these three electrodes by the oscillating and static electric fields. A Kingdon trap consists of a thin central wire, an outer cylindrical electrode and isolated end cap electrodes at both ends. A static applied voltage results in a radial logarithmic potential between the electrodes. In a Kingdon trap there is no potential minimum to store the ions. In 1981, Knight introduced a modified outer electrode that included an axial quadrupole term that confines the ions on the trap axis; the dynamic Kingdon trap has an additional AC voltage that uses strong defocusing to permanently store charged particles. The dynamic Kingdon trap does not require the trapped ions to have angular momentum with respect to the filament. An Orbitrap is a modified Kingdon trap, used for mass spectrometry. Though the idea has been suggested and computer simulations performed neither the Kingdon nor the Knight configurations were reported to produce mass spectra, as the simulations indicated mass resolving power would be problematic.
Ion traps were used in television receivers prior to the introduction of aluminized CRT faces around 1958, to protect the phosphor screen from ions. The ion trap must be delicately adjusted for maximum brightness; some experimental work towards developing quantum computers use trapped ions. Units of quantum information called qubits are stored in stable electronic states of each ion, quantum information can be processed and transferred through the collective quantized motion of the ions, interacting by the Coulomb force. Lasers are applied to induce coupling between the qubit states or between the internal qubit states and external motional states. Trapped ion quantum computer VIAS Science Cartoons A cranky view of an ion trap... Paul trap
German Army (1935–1945)
The German Army was the land forces component of the Wehrmacht, the regular German Armed Forces, from 1935 until it was demobilized and dissolved in August 1946. During World War II, a total of about 13 million soldiers served in the German Army. Germany's army personnel were made up of conscripts. Only 17 months after Adolf Hitler announced publicly the rearmament program, the Army reached its projected goal of 36 divisions. During the autumn of 1937 two more corps were formed. In 1938 four additional corps were formed with the inclusion of the five divisions of the Austrian Army after the Anschluss in March. During the period of its expansion under Hitler, the German Army continued to develop concepts pioneered during World War I, combining ground and air assets into combined arms forces. Coupled with operational and tactical methods such as encirclements and the "battle of annihilation", the German military managed quick victories in the two initial years of World War II, a new style of warfare described as Blitzkrieg for its speed and destructive power.
The infantry remained foot soldiers throughout the war. The motorized formations received much attention in the world press in the opening years of the war, were cited as the main reason for the success of the German invasions of Poland and Denmark, Belgium and Netherlands, Yugoslavia and the initial stages of Operation Barbarossa, the invasion of the Soviet Union; however their motorized and tank formations accounted for only 20% of the Heer's capacity at their peak strength. The army's lack of trucks limited infantry movement during and after the Normandy invasion when Allied air-power devastated the French rail network north of the Loire. Panzer movements depended on rail, since driving a tank long distances wore out its tracks; the Oberkommando des Heeres was Germany's Army High Command from 1936 to 1945. In theory the Oberkommando der Wehrmacht served as the military General Staff for the German Reich's armed forces, coordinating the Wehrmacht operations. In practice OKW acted in a subordinate role as Hitler's personal military staff, translating his ideas into military plans and orders, issuing them to the three services.
However, as the war progressed the OKW found itself exercising increasing amounts of direct command authority over military units in the west. This created a situation where by 1943 the OKW was the de facto command of Western Theatre forces while the Army High Command was the same on the Eastern Front; the Abwehr was the Army intelligence organization from 1921 to 1944. The term Abwehr had been created just after World War I as an ostensible concession to Allied demands that Germany's intelligence activities be for defensive purposes only. After 4 February 1938, the Abwehr's name was changed to the Overseas Department/Office in Defence of the Armed Forces High Command. Nazi Germany used the system of military districts to relieve field commanders of as much administrative work as possible, to provide a regular flow of trained recruits and supplies to the field forces; the method OKW adopted was to separate the Field Army from the Home Command, to entrust the responsibilities of training, conscription and equipment to Home Command.
The German Army was structured in Army groups consisting of several armies that were relocated, restructured or renamed in the course of the war. Forces or allied states as well as units made up of non-Germans were assigned to German units. For Operation Barbarossa in 1941, the Army forces were assigned to three strategic campaign groupings: Army Group North with Leningrad as its campaign objective Army Group Centre with Smolensk as its campaign objective Army Group South with Kiev as its campaign objectiveBelow the army group level forces included Field armies –, panzer groups, which became army level formations themselves and divisions; the army used the German term Kampfgruppe which equates to the English'combat group' or battle group. These provisional combat groupings ranged from an Army Corps size such as Army Detachment Kempf to commands composed of several companies and platoons, they were named for their commanding officers. German operational doctrine emphasized sweeping pincer and lateral movements meant to destroy the enemy forces as as possible.
This approach, referred to as Blitzkrieg, was an operational doctrine instrumental in the success of the offensives in Poland and France. Blitzkrieg has been considered by many historians as having its roots in precepts developed by Fuller, Liddel-Hart and von Seeckt, having ancient prototypes practiced by Alexander, Genghis Khan and Napoleon. Recent studies of the Battle of France suggest that the actions of either Rommel or Guderian or both of them, ignoring orders of superiors who had never foreseen such spectacular successes and thus prepared much more prudent plans, were conflated into a purposeful doctrine and created the first archetype of blitzkrieg, which gained a fearsome reputati
Hendrik Antoon Lorentz was a Dutch physicist who shared the 1902 Nobel Prize in Physics with Pieter Zeeman for the discovery and theoretical explanation of the Zeeman effect. He derived the transformation equations underpinning Albert Einstein's theory of special relativity. According to the biography published by the Nobel Foundation, "It may well be said that Lorentz was regarded by all theoretical physicists as the world's leading spirit, who completed what was left unfinished by his predecessors and prepared the ground for the fruitful reception of the new ideas based on the quantum theory." He received many honours and distinctions, including a term as chairman of the International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation, the forerunner of UNESCO, between 1925 and 1928. Hendrik Lorentz was born in Arnhem, Netherlands, the son of Gerrit Frederik Lorentz, a well-off nurseryman, Geertruida van Ginkel. In 1862, after his mother's death, his father married Luberta Hupkes. Despite being raised as a Protestant, he was a freethinker in religious matters.
From 1866 to 1869, he attended the "Hogere Burger School" in Arnhem, a new type of public high school established by Johan Rudolph Thorbecke. His results in school were exemplary. In 1870, he passed the exams in classical languages which were required for admission to University. Lorentz studied physics and mathematics at the Leiden University, where he was influenced by the teaching of astronomy professor Frederik Kaiser. After earning a bachelor's degree, he returned to Arnhem in 1871 to teach night school classes in mathematics, but he continued his studies in Leiden in addition to his teaching position. In 1875, Lorentz earned a doctoral degree under Pieter Rijke on a thesis entitled "Over de theorie der terugkaatsing en breking van het licht", in which he refined the electromagnetic theory of James Clerk Maxwell. On 17 November 1877, only 24 years of age, Hendrik Antoon Lorentz was appointed to the newly established chair in theoretical physics at the University of Leiden; the position had been offered to Johan van der Waals, but he accepted a position at the Universiteit van Amsterdam.
On 25 January 1878, Lorentz delivered his inaugural lecture on "De moleculaire theoriën in de natuurkunde". In 1881, he became member of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Sciences. During the first twenty years in Leiden, Lorentz was interested in the electromagnetic theory of electricity and light. After that, he extended his research to a much wider area while still focusing on theoretical physics. Lorentz made significant contributions to fields ranging from hydrodynamics to general relativity, his most important contributions were in the area of electromagnetism, the electron theory, relativity. Lorentz theorized that atoms might consist of charged particles and suggested that the oscillations of these charged particles were the source of light; when a colleague and former student of Lorentz's, Pieter Zeeman, discovered the Zeeman effect in 1896, Lorentz supplied its theoretical interpretation. The experimental and theoretical work was honored with the Nobel prize in physics in 1902. Lorentz' name is now associated with the Lorentz-Lorenz formula, the Lorentz force, the Lorentzian distribution, the Lorentz transformation.
In 1892 and 1895, Lorentz worked on describing electromagnetic phenomena in reference frames that move relative to the postulated luminiferous aether. He discovered that the transition from one to another reference frame could be simplified by using a new time variable that he called local time and which depended on universal time and the location under consideration. Although Lorentz did not give a detailed interpretation of the physical significance of local time, with it, he could explain the aberration of light and the result of the Fizeau experiment. In 1900 and 1904, Henri Poincaré called local time Lorentz's "most ingenious idea" and illustrated it by showing that clocks in moving frames are synchronized by exchanging light signals that are assumed to travel at the same speed against and with the motion of the frame. In 1892, with the attempt to explain the Michelson-Morley experiment, Lorentz proposed that moving bodies contract in the direction of motion. In 1899 and again in 1904, Lorentz added time dilation to his transformations and published what Poincaré in 1905 named Lorentz transformations.
It was unknown to Lorentz that Joseph Larmor had used identical transformations to describe orbiting electrons in 1897. Larmor's and Lorentz's equations look somewhat dissimilar, but they are algebraically equivalent to those presented by Poincaré and Einstein in 1905. Lorentz's 1904 paper includes the covariant formulation of electrodynamics, in which electrodynamic phenomena in different reference frames are described by identical equations with well defined transformation properties; the paper recognizes the significance of this formulation, namely that the outcomes of electrodynamic experiments do not depend on the relative motion of the reference frame. The 1904 paper includes a detailed discussion of the increase of the inertial mass of moving objects in a useless attempt to make momentum look like Newtonian momentum.
Antoine Henri Becquerel was a French engineer, Nobel laureate, the first person to discover evidence of radioactivity. For work in this field he, along with Marie Skłodowska-Curie and Pierre Curie, received the 1903 Nobel Prize in Physics; the SI unit for radioactivity, the becquerel, is named after him. Becquerel was born in Paris into a wealthy family which produced four generations of physicists: Becquerel's grandfather and son. Henri started off his education by attending the Lycée Louis-le-Grand school, a prep school in Paris, he studied engineering at the École des Ponts et Chaussées. In 1874, Henri married Lucie Zoé Marie Jamin, who would die while giving birth to Jean. In 1890 he married Louise Désirée Lorieux. In Becquerel's early career, he became the third in his family to occupy the physics chair at the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle in 1892. On in 1894, Becquerel became chief engineer in the Department of Bridges and Highways before he started with his early experiments. Becquerel's earliest works centered on the subject of his doctoral thesis: the plane polarization of light, with the phenomenon of phosphorescence and absorption of light by crystals.
Early in his career, Becquerel studied the Earth's magnetic fields. Becquerel's discovery of spontaneous radioactivity is a famous example of serendipity, of how chance favors the prepared mind. Becquerel had long been interested in phosphorescence, the emission of light of one color following a body's exposure to light of another color. In early 1896, there was a wave of excitement following Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen's discovery of X-rays on the 5th of January. During the experiment, Röntgen "found that the Crookes tubes he had been using to study cathode rays emitted a new kind of invisible ray, capable of penetrating through black paper." Learning of Röntgen's discovery from earlier that year during a meeting of the French Academy of Sciences caused Becquerel to be interested, soon "began looking for a connection between the phosphorescence he had been investigating and the newly discovered x-rays" of Röntgen, thought that phosphorescent materials, such as some uranium salts, might emit penetrating X-ray-like radiation when illuminated by bright sunlight.
By May 1896, after other experiments involving non-phosphorescent uranium salts, he arrived at the correct explanation, namely that the penetrating radiation came from the uranium itself, without any need for excitation by an external energy source. There followed a period of intense research into radioactivity, including the determination that the element thorium is radioactive and the discovery of additional radioactive elements polonium and radium by Marie Skłodowska-Curie and her husband Pierre Curie; the intensive research of radioactivity led to Henri publishing seven papers on the subject in 1896. Becquerel's other experiments allowed him to research more into radioactivity and figure out different aspects of the magnetic field when radiation is introduced into the magnetic field. "When different radioactive substances were put in the magnetic field, they deflected in different directions or not at all, showing that there were three classes of radioactivity: negative and electrically neutral."As happens in science, radioactivity came close to being discovered nearly four decades earlier in 1857, when Abel Niépce de Saint-Victor, investigating photography under Michel Eugène Chevreul, observed that uranium salts emitted radiation that could darken photographic emulsions.
By 1861, Niepce de Saint-Victor realized that uranium salts produce "a radiation, invisible to our eyes". Niepce de Saint-Victor knew Henri Becquerel's father. In 1868, Edmond Becquerel published La lumière: ses causes et ses effets. On page 50 of volume 2, Edmond noted that Niepce de Saint-Victor had observed that some objects, exposed to sunlight could expose photographic plates in the dark. Niepce further noted that on the one hand, the effect was diminished if an obstruction were placed between a photographic plate and the object, exposed to the sun, but " … d'un autre côté, l'augmentation d'effet quand la surface insolée est couverte de substances facilement altérables à la lumière, comme le nitrate d'urane … ". Describing them to the French Academy of Sciences on 27 February 1896, he said: One wraps a Lumière photographic plate with a bromide emulsion in two sheets of thick black paper, such that the plate does not become clouded upon being exposed to the sun for a day. One places on the sheet of paper, on the outside, a slab of the phosphorescent substance, one exposes the whole to the sun for several hours.
When one develops the photographic plate, one recognizes that the silhouette of the phosphorescent substance appears in black on the negative. If one places between the phosphorescent substance and the paper a piece of money or a metal screen pierced with a cut-out design, one sees the image of these objects appear on the negative... One must conclude from these experiments that the phosphorescent substance in question emits rays which pass through the opaque paper and reduce silver salts, but further experiments led him to doubt and abandon this hypothesis. On 2 March 1896 he reported: I will insist upon the following fact, which seems to me quite important and beyond the phenomena which one could expec