Christian Johann Heinrich Heine was a German poet, journalist and literary critic. He is best known outside Germany for his lyric poetry. Heines verse and prose are distinguished by their satirical wit and he is considered part of the Young Germany movement. His radical political views led to many of his works being banned by German authorities, Heine spent the last 25 years of his life as an expatriate in Paris. Heine was born at Düsseldorf in what was the Duchy of Berg and he was called Harry in childhood but became known as Heinrich after his conversion to Lutheranism in 1825. Heines father, Samson Heine, was a textile merchant and his mother Peira, née van Geldern, was the daughter of a physician. Heinrich was the eldest of four children, Heine was a third cousin once removed of philosopher and economist Karl Marx, born to a German Jewish family in the Rhineland, with whom he became a frequent correspondent in life. Düsseldorf was a town with a population of around 16,000. The French Revolution and subsequent Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars involving Germany complicated Düsseldorfs political history during Heines childhood and it had been the capital of the Duchy of Jülich-Berg, but was under French occupation at the time of his birth.
It went to the Elector of Bavaria before being ceded to Napoleon in 1806 and it was first ruled by Joachim Murat, by Napoleon himself. Upon Napoleons downfall in 1815 it became part of Prussia, thus Heines formative years were spent under French influence. The adult Heine would always be devoted to the French for introduction of the Napoleonic Code and he glossed over the negative aspects of French rule in Berg, heavy taxation and economic depression brought about by the Continental Blockade. Heines parents were not particularly devout, as a young child they sent him to a Jewish school where he learned a smattering of Hebrew, but thereafter he attended Catholic schools. Here he learned French, which would be his second language - although he spoke it with a German accent. He acquired a love for Rhineland folklore. In 1814 Heine went to a school in Düsseldorf where he learned to read English. The most successful member of the Heine family was his uncle Salomon Heine, in 1816 Heine moved to Hamburg to become an apprentice at Heckscher & Co, his uncles bank, but displayed little aptitude for business.
He learned to hate Hamburg with its ethos, but it would become one of the poles of his life alongside Paris
Kaufbeuren is an independent town in the Regierungsbezirk of Swabia, Bavaria. The town is enclaved within the district of Ostallgäu. Kaufbeuren Hirschzell Kemnat Neugablonz Oberbeuren Stefan Bosse is the Lord Mayor of Kaufbeuren since November 2004 and he was reelected in March 2014 with 57,48 % of the votes. Townhall Crescentiakloster Historic Old Town with partially conserved, historic city wall St. -Martins-Kirche Fünfknopfturm St. When seized by the United States Army in May 1945 at the end of World War II it was discovered to be the location of Nazi Partys top secret FA signals intelligence. After serving as a U. S. airbase during the period, the field was ultimately returned to the town. The Tänzelfest is a festival, which takes place usually at the end of June, children re-enact the history of the town in traditional costume. There are a lot of events at this time, Italy Szombathely, Hungary Jablonec nad Nisou, Czech Republic Kaufbeuren. Official website kunsthaus kaufbeuren Tänzelfest in Kaufbeuren Details zur Stadtgeschichte Kaufbeurens
University of Hamburg
The University of Hamburg is a comprehensive university in Hamburg, Germany. It was founded on 28 March 1919, having grown out of the previous General lecture system, in spite of its relatively short history, six Nobel Prize Winners and serials of scholars are affiliated to the university. University of Hamburg is the biggest research and education institution in Northern Germany, the main campus is located in the central district of Rotherbaum, with affiliated institutes and research centres spread around the city state. On a national scale, U. S. News & World Report ranks UHH 7th, progress was made however, since proponents of a university founded the Hamburg Science Foundation in 1907 and the Hamburg Colonial Institute in 1908. In the same year, the citizenry approved a site on the Moorweide for the establishment of a lecture building. However, the plans for the foundation of the university itself had to be shelved, after the war, the first freely elected senate choose von Melle as mayor.
He and Rudolf Ross made a push for reform in Hamburg, and their law establishing the university. On March 28,1919 the University of Hamburg opened its gates, the number of full professorships in Hamburg was increased from 19 to 39. Both the Colonial Institute and the General Lecture system were absorbed into the university, the first faculties created by the university were Law and Political Science, Medicine and Natural Sciences. During the Weimar Republic, the university grew into importance. Several thousand students were enrolled, and it drew scholars like Albrecht Mendelssohn Bartholdy, Aby Warburg. The number of professors had by 1931 grown to 75. Because many students were suffering due to the bad situation that prevailed in the early republic. Ernst Cassirer became principal of the university in 1929, one of the first Jewish scholars with that role in Germany, the academic situation shifted quickly after the general election in March 1933. Already on May 1 of that year – the university held a ceremony to honor Adolf Hitler as its leader, massive political influence by the Nazis followed, including the removal of books from the libraries and harassment against alleged enemies of the people.
About fifty scientists, including Ernst Cassirer and William Stern, had to leave the university, at least ten students working with the White Rose in Hamburg were suspected and arrested, four of them died in custody or were executed. In the foyer of the hall a design by Fritz Fleer commemorative plate was taken in 1971 in memory of the four resistance fighters. After the Second World War, the university was reopened in the winter of 1945 with 17,800 employees, the smallest number joined the Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences with 506 students in total
Munich is the capital and largest city of the German state of Bavaria, on the banks of River Isar north of the Bavarian Alps. Munich is the third largest city in Germany, after Berlin and Hamburg, the Munich Metropolitan Region is home to 5.8 million people. According to the Globalization and World Rankings Research Institute Munich is considered an alpha-world city, the name of the city is derived from the Old/Middle High German term Munichen, meaning by the monks. It derives from the monks of the Benedictine order who ran a monastery at the place that was to become the Old Town of Munich, Munich was first mentioned in 1158. From 1255 the city was seat of the Bavarian Dukes and gold—the colours of the Holy Roman Empire—have been the citys official colours since the time of Ludwig the Bavarian, when it was an imperial residence. Following a final reunification of the Wittelsbachian Duchy of Bavaria, previously divided and sub-divided for more than 200 years, like wide parts of the Holy Roman Empire, the area recovered slowly economically.
In 1918, during the German Revolution, the house of Wittelsbach, which governed Bavaria since 1180, was forced to abdicate in Munich. In the 1920s, Munich became home to political factions, among them the NSDAP. During World War II, Munich was heavily bombed and more than 50% of the entire city, the postwar period was characterised by American occupation until 1949 and a strong increase of population and economic power during the years of the Wirtschaftswunder after 1949. The city is home to corporations like BMW, Siemens, MAN, Linde and MunichRE as well as many small. Munich is home to national and international authorities, major universities, major museums. Its numerous architectural attractions, international events and conferences. Munich is one of the most prosperous and fastest growing cities in Germany and it is a top-ranked destination for migration and expatriate location, despite being the municipality with the highest density of population in Germany. Munich nowadays hosts more than 530,000 people of foreign background, the year 1158 is assumed to be the foundation date, which is the earliest date the city is mentioned in a document.
The document was signed in Augsburg, by that time the Guelph Henry the Lion, Duke of Saxony and Bavaria, had built a bridge over the river Isar next to a settlement of Benedictine monks—this was on the Old Salt Route and a toll bridge. In 1175, Munich was officially granted city status and received fortification, in 1180, with the trial of Henry the Lion, Otto I Wittelsbach became Duke of Bavaria and Munich was handed over to the Bishop of Freising. In 1240, Munich was transferred to Otto II Wittelsbach and in 1255, Duke Louis IV, a native of Munich, was elected German king in 1314 and crowned as Holy Roman Emperor in 1328. He strengthened the position by granting it the salt monopoly
Bavaria is a free state and one of 16 federal states of Germany. Located in the German southeast with an area of 70,548 square kilometres and its territory comprises roughly a fifth of the total land area of Germany, with 12.9 million inhabitants, it is Germanys second most populous state. Munich, Bavarias capital and largest city, is the third largest city in Germany, the Duchy of Bavaria dates back to the year 555. In the 17th century CE, the Duke of Bavaria became a Prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire, the Kingdom of Bavaria existed from 1806 to 1918, when Bavaria became a republic. In 1946, the Free State of Bavaria re-organised itself on democratic lines after the Second World War, Bavaria has a unique culture, largely because of the states Catholic majority and conservative traditions. Bavarians have traditionally been proud of their culture, which includes such as Oktoberfest. The state has the second largest economy among the German states by GDP figures, modern Bavaria includes parts of the historical regions of Franconia, Upper Palatinate and Swabia.
The Bavarians emerged in a north of the Alps, previously inhabited by Celts. The Bavarians spoke Old High German but, unlike other Germanic groups, they seem to have coalesced out of other groups left behind by Roman withdrawal late in the 5th century. These peoples may have included the Celtic Boii, some remaining Romans, Allemanni, Thuringians, Scirians, the name Bavarian means Men of Baia which may indicate Bohemia, the homeland of the Celtic Boii and of the Marcomanni. They first appear in written sources circa 520, a 17th century Jewish chronicler David Solomon Ganz, citing Cyriacus Spangenberg, claimed that the diocese was named after an ancient Bohemian king, Boiia, in the 14th century BCE. From about 554 to 788, the house of Agilolfing ruled the Duchy of Bavaria and their daughter, became Queen of the Lombards in northern Italy and Garibald was forced to flee to her when he fell out with his Frankish overlords. Garibalds successor, Tassilo I, tried unsuccessfully to hold the frontier against the expansion of Slavs.
Tassilos son Garibald II seems to have achieved a balance of power between 610 and 616, after Garibald II little is known of the Bavarians until Duke Theodo I, whose reign may have begun as early as 680. From 696 onwards he invited churchmen from the west to organize churches and his son, led a decisive Bavarian campaign to intervene in a succession dispute in the Lombard Kingdom in 714, and married his sister Guntrud to the Lombard King Liutprand. At Theodos death the duchy was divided among his sons, at Hugberts death the duchy passed to a distant relative named Odilo, from neighbouring Alemannia. He was defeated near Augsburg in 743 but continued to rule until his death in 748, saint Boniface completed the peoples conversion to Christianity in the early 8th century. Bavaria was in ways affected by the Protestant Reformation in the 16th century
The Hitler Youth was the youth organisation of the Nazi Party in Germany. Its origins dated back to 1922, with the surrender of Nazi Germany in 1945, the organisation de facto ceased to exist. On 10 October 1945, it was outlawed by the Allied Control Council along with other Nazi Party organisations, in 1922 the Munich-based Nazi Party established its official youth organisation called Jugendbund der NSDAP. It was announced on 8 March 1922 in the Völkischer Beobachter, another youth group was established in 1922 as the Jungsturm Adolf Hitler. Based in Munich, Bavaria, it served to train and recruit members of the Sturmabteilung. Following the abortive Beer Hall Putsch the Nazi youth groups ostensibly disbanded, in April 1924 the Jugendbund der NSDAP was renamed Grossdeutsche Jugendbewegung. On 4 July 1926 the Grossdeutsche Jugendbewegung was officially renamed Hitler Jugend Bund der deutschen Arbeiterjugend and this event took place a year after the Nazi Party itself had been reorganised. The architect of the re-organisation was Kurt Gruber, a law student from Plauen in Saxony, after a short power-struggle with a rival organisation—Gerhard Roßbachs Schilljugend—Gruber prevailed and his Greater German Youth Movement became the Nazi Partys official youth organisation.
In July 1926 it was renamed Hitler-Jugend, Bund deutscher Arbeiterjugend and, for the first time, the name Hitler-Jugend was taken up on the suggestion of Hans Severus Ziegler. By 1930 the Hitlerjugend had enlisted over 25,000 boys aged 14 and it set up a junior branch, the Deutsches Jungvolk, for boys aged 10 to 14. Girls from 10 to 18 were given their own parallel organisation, in April 1932 Chancellor Heinrich Brüning banned the Hitler Youth movement in an attempt to stop widespread political violence. But in June Brünings successor as Chancellor, Franz von Papen, lifted the ban as a way of appeasing Hitler, a further significant expansion drive started in 1933, after Baldur von Schirach was appointed by Hitler as the first Reichsjugendführer. All youth organizations were brought under Schirachs control, the members of the Hitler Youth were viewed as insuring the future of Nazi Germany and were indoctrinated in Nazi ideology, including racism. The Hitler Youth appropriated many of its activities of the Boy Scout movement, although over time it changed in content and intention.
For example, many activities closely resembled military training, with training, assault course circuits. The aim was to instill the motivation that would enable its members as soldiers, there was great emphasis on physical fitness and hardness and military training than on academic study. The Hitler Youth were used to break up Church youth groups, and in anti-Church indoctrination, used to spy on religious classes and Bible studies, and interfere with church attendance. Members summer uniform consisted of a black shorts and tan shirt with pockets, worn with a black neckerchief secured with a woggle
2006 FIFA World Cup
The 2006 FIFA World Cup was the 18th FIFA World Cup, the quadrennial international football world championship tournament. It was held from 9 June to 9 July 2006 in Germany, teams representing 198 national football associations from all six populated continents participated in the qualification process which began in September 2003. Thirty-one teams qualified from this process, along with the host nation, Germany and it was the second time that Germany staged the competition, and the tenth time that it was held in Europe. Italy won the tournament, claiming their fourth World Cup title and they defeated France 5–3 in a penalty shootout in the final, after extra time had finished in a 1–1 draw. Germany defeated Portugal 3–1 to finish in third place, Ghana, Ivory Coast and Montenegro, Trinidad and Tobago, and Togo made their first appearances in the finals. The 2006 World Cup stands as one of the most watched events in history, garnering an estimated 26.29 billion non-unique viewers. The final attracted an audience of 715.1 million people.
The 2006 World Cup ranks fourth in non-unique viewers, behind the World Cup in 1994,2002, as the winner, Italy represented the World in the 2009 FIFA Confederations Cup. The vote to choose the hosts of the 2006 tournament was held in July 2000 in Zürich and it involved four bidding nations after Brazil had withdrawn three days earlier, South Africa and Morocco. Three rounds of voting were required, each round eliminating the nation with the least votes, the first two rounds were held on 6 July 2000, and the final round was held on 7 July 2000, which Germany won over South Africa. Accusations of bribery and corruption have marred the success of Germanys bid from the very beginning, on the very day of the vote, a hoax bribery affair was made public, leading to calls for a re-vote. Oceania delegate Charlie Dempsey, who had initially backed England, had been instructed to support South Africa following Englands elimination and he abstained, citing intolerable pressure on the eve of the vote. Just a week before the vote, the German government under Chancellor Gerhard Schröder lifted their arms embargo on Saudi Arabia, daimlerChrysler invested several hundred million Euro in Hyundai, while one of the sons of the companys founders was a member of FIFAs executive committee.
Both Volkswagen and Bayer announced investments in Thailand and South Korea, whose respective delegates Worawi Makudi, the sum of 6.7 million Euro was demanded back by Dreyfus. In order to retrieve the money, the Organizing Committee paid an aquivalent sum to the FIFA, allegedly as a German share for the cost of a closing ceremony, the DFB announced they would consider seeking legal action against Der Spiegel. During a press conference on 22 October 2015, Nierbach repeated his stance, according to Niersbach, the payment had been agreed upon during a meeting between Franz Beckenbauer and FIFA president Blatter, with the money being provided by Dreyfus. On the same day, FIFA contradicted Niersbachs statement, saying, By our current state of knowledge, the following day, former DFB president Theo Zwanziger publicly accused Niersbach of lying, saying, It is evident that there was a slush fund for the German World Cup application. According to Zwanziger, the 6.7 million Euros went to Mohamed Bin Hammam, on 22 March 2016 it was announced that the FIFA Ethics Committee was opening proceedings into the bid
Literature, in its broadest sense, is any single body of written works. Its Latin root literatura/litteratura was used to refer to all written accounts, developments in print technology have allowed an evergrowing distribution and proliferation of written works, culminating in electronic literature. There have been attempts to define literature. Simon and Delyse Ryan begin their attempt to answer the question What is Literature, with the observation, The quest to discover a definition for literature is a road that is much travelled, though the point of arrival, if ever reached, is seldom satisfactory. Most attempted definitions are broad and vague, and they change over time. In fact, the thing that is certain about defining literature is that the definition will change. Concepts of what is literature change over time as well, definitions of literature have varied over time, it is a culturally relative definition. In Western Europe prior to the century, literature as a term indicated all books.
A more restricted sense of the term emerged during the Romantic period, contemporary debates over what constitutes literature can be seen as returning to the older, more inclusive notion of what constitutes literature. Cultural studies, for instance, takes as its subject of both popular and minority genres, in addition to canonical works. The value judgment definition of literature considers it to cover exclusively those writings that possess high quality or distinction and this sort of definition is that used in the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition when it classifies literature as the best expression of the best thought reduced to writing. The formalist definition is that literature foregrounds poetic effects, it is the literariness or poetic of literature that distinguishes it from ordinary speech or other kinds of writing. Etymologically, the term derives from Latin literatura/litteratura learning, a writing, originally writing formed with letters, in spite of this, the term has been applied to spoken or sung texts.
Poetry is a form of art which uses aesthetic and rhythmic qualities of language to evoke meanings in addition to, or in place of. Possibly as a result of Aristotles influence, poetry before the century was usually less a technical designation for verse than a normative category of fictive or rhetorical art. As a form it may pre-date literacy, with the earliest works being composed within and sustained by an oral tradition, novel, a long fictional prose narrative. It was the close relation to real life that differentiated it from the chivalric romance, in most European languages the equivalent term is roman. In English, the term emerged from the Romance languages in the fifteenth century, with the meaning of news, it came to indicate something new
Julius Streicher was a prominent member of the Nazi Party prior to World War II. He was the founder and publisher of the anti-Semitic newspaper Der Stürmer, after the war, he was convicted of crimes against humanity and executed. Streicher was born in Fleinhausen, Kingdom of Bavaria, one of nine children of the teacher Friedrich Streicher and he worked as an elementary school teacher like his father, and in 1921 he began his political career, joining the NSDAP. He would claim that because his work brought him into contact with German Jews. In 1913 Streicher married Kunigunde Roth, a daughter, in Nuremberg. They had two sons and Elmar, Streicher joined the German Army in 1914. He was awarded the Iron Cross 2nd Class as well as earning a commission as an officer at a time when officers were primarily from aristocratic families. He reached the rank of lieutenant as well as being awarded the Iron Cross, 1st Class, such groups fostered the view that Jews had conspired with Bolshevik traitors in trying to subject Germany to Communist rule.
In 1920 he turned to the Deutschsozialistische Partei, a group whose platform was close to that of the young NSDAP, leading members of the DSP were Hans Georg Müller, Max Sesselmann and Dr. Friedrich Wiesel, the first two being editors of the Münchner Beobachter. Julius Streicher founded his local branch in 1919 in Nuremberg, Streichers arguments were primitive and crude but he believed in what he said and was an uninhibited, wild agitator, to whom masses would listen, which was what mattered to the party. The DSP was officially inaugurated in April 1920 in Hanover, in 1921, Streicher finally found his mentor. He visited Munich in order to hear Adolf Hitler speak, an experience that he said left him transformed. I had been asked for some time. It was on a day in 1922. And there I sat in a meeting, an unknown among unknowns. It was the last hour before midnight when his speech ended and it was an immense wealth of ideas that in a more than three hour long speech came from his mouth, clad into the beauty of a gifted oratory.
When he was standing on the podium with a face radiant with joy and looking at the stormy enthusiasm, everybody could feel it, this man speaks on behalf of a divine appointment, as a messenger sent from heaven at a time when hell had opened to devour everything. That same year, Streicher joined the Nazi Party and merged his personal following with Hitlers, in May 1923 Streicher founded the newspaper, Der Stürmer
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France. It has an area of 105 square kilometres and a population of 2,229,621 in 2013 within its administrative limits, the agglomeration has grown well beyond the citys administrative limits. By the 17th century, Paris was one of Europes major centres of finance, fashion and the arts, and it retains that position still today. The aire urbaine de Paris, a measure of area, spans most of the Île-de-France region and has a population of 12,405,426. It is therefore the second largest metropolitan area in the European Union after London, the Metropole of Grand Paris was created in 2016, combining the commune and its nearest suburbs into a single area for economic and environmental co-operation. Grand Paris covers 814 square kilometres and has a population of 7 million persons, the Paris Region had a GDP of €624 billion in 2012, accounting for 30.0 percent of the GDP of France and ranking it as one of the wealthiest regions in Europe. The city is a rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports, Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the subway system, the Paris Métro. It is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro, Paris Gare du Nord is the busiest railway station in the world outside of Japan, with 262 millions passengers in 2015. In 2015, Paris received 22.2 million visitors, making it one of the top tourist destinations. The association football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris, the 80, 000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros, Paris hosted the 1900 and 1924 Summer Olympics and is bidding to host the 2024 Summer Olympics. The name Paris is derived from its inhabitants, the Celtic Parisii tribe. Thus, though written the same, the name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. In the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps, since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang.
Inhabitants are known in English as Parisians and in French as Parisiens and they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the areas major north-south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité, this place of land and water trade routes gradually became a town