UFA GmbH is a German film and television production company that unites all production activities of Bertelsmann in Germany. Its history comes from Universum Film AG, a major German film company headquartered in Babelsberg and distributing motion pictures from 1917 through to the end of the Nazi era; the name UFA was revived for an otherwise new television outfit. The former UFA was established as Universum-Film Aktiengesellschaft on December 18, 1917, as a direct response to foreign competition in film and propaganda. UFA was founded by a consortium headed by a former Deutsche Bank board member. In 1925, financial pressures compelled UFA to enter into distribution agreements with American studios Paramount and Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer to form Parufamet. UFA's weekly newsreels continued to contain reference to the Paramount deal until 1940, at which point Die Deutsche Wochenschau was consolidated and used as an instrument of Nazi propaganda. In March 1927, Alfred Hugenberg, an influential German media entrepreneur and Minister of the Economy and Nutrition in Hitler's cabinet, purchased UFA and transferred it to the Nazi Party in 1933.
In 1942, as a result of the Nazi policy of "forcible coordination" known as the Gleichschaltung, UFA and all of its competitors, including Tobis, Bavaria Film and Wien-Film, were bundled together with foreign film production companies Nazi-controlled to form the super-corporation UFA-Film GmbH, with headquarters in Berlin. After the Red Army occupied the UFA complex in 1945 in Babelsberg, after the privatization of Bavaria and UFA in 1956 in West-Germany, the company was restructured to form Universum Film AG and taken over by a consortium of banks. In 1964, Bertelsmann's Chief Representative, Manfred Köhnlechner, acquired the entire Universum Film AG from Deutsche Bank, the main UFA shareholder and which had determined the company's business policy as head of the shareholders' consortium. Köhnlechner bought UFA, in debt, on behalf of Reinhard Mohn for five million Deutschmarks. Only a few months Köhnlechner acquired the UFA-Filmtheaterkette, a movie theater chain, for eleven million Deutschmarks.
In 1997, UFA and the Luxembourgish rival CLT established the joint venture CLT-UFA, following the takeover of British rival Pearson TV, was restructered as RTL Group in 2000. Today, UFA GmbH works as a subsidiary of RTL Group's production division FremantleMedia, formed out of Pearson TV, is responsible for all production activities of Bertelsmann and FremantleMedia in Germany; until August 2013, eight subsidiaries operated under the UFA umbrella: UFA Fernsehproduktion, UFA Entertainment, Grundy UFA, Grundy Light Entertainment, UFA Cinema, Phoenix Film and UFA Brand Communication. In August 2013, UFA underwent an organizational restructuring that simplified the company down to three production divisions. Today, UFA Fiction, UFA Serial Drama and UFA Show & Factual are the three units responsible for production. In February 2019, Universum was sold to Kohlberg Kravis Roberts. An early step towards the founding of UFA was taken on January 13, 1917 with the creation of the Bild- und Filmamt by Germany's Supreme Army Command.
Formed as a reaction to the perceived advantage of Germany's enemies in the realm of film propaganda, Bufa's task was to make use of film for the purposes of psychological warfare. However, the plans envisaged by the German General Staff – those of Erich Ludendorff – went far beyond the creation of Bufa. Ludendorff foresaw a large-scale, state-controlled film corporation that would serve national interests. In this spirit, Universum-Film AG was founded as a consolidation of private film companies on December 18, 1917 in Berlin; the company's starting capital amounted to 25 million Reichsmark: among the contributors were the German government, the War Ministry and Deutsche Bank. The Board Chairman of the new company was Deutsche Bank director Emil Georg von Stauß. Prior to establishing the company, the General Staff had considered taking over the Deutsche Lichtbild-Gesellschaft e. V., founded in 1916. This agency, was far too much under the influence of heavy industry and, in particular, of Alfred Hugenberg, chairman of Krupp.
Hugenberg would take over UFA in 1927. Three main film companies formed the nucleus of UFA from the end of 1917: Messter Film, owned by Oskar Messter, a dominant German producer PAGU formed by Paul Davidson in Frankfurt, with the Templehof Studios in Oberlandstraße in Berlin-Tempelhof and in Weissensee; the studios were owned by Continental-Kunstfilm, whose production had slowed since 1915 and didn't join UFA. Greenbaum-Film joined in 1919, but the deal was disastrous for Jules Greenbaum who died in a mental institution in 1924. Deutsche Bioscope.
William Henry Pratt, better known by his stage name Boris Karloff, was an English actor, known for his roles in horror films. He portrayed Frankenstein's monster in Bride of Frankenstein and Son of Frankenstein, he appeared as Imhotep in The Mummy. In non-horror roles, he is best known to modern audiences for narrating and as the voice of Grinch in the animated television special of Dr. Seuss' How the Grinch Stole Christmas!. For his contribution to film and television, Boris Karloff was awarded two stars on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. Boris Karloff was born William Henry Pratt on 23 November 1887, at 36 Forest Hill Road, Surrey, but Pratt stated that he was born in nearby Dulwich, his parents were Jr. and Eliza Sarah Millard. His brother, Sir John Thomas Pratt, was a British diplomat. Edward John Pratt, Jr. was an Anglo-Indian, from a British father and Indian mother, while Karloff's mother had some Indian ancestry, thus Karloff had a dark complexion that stood out in British society at the time.
His mother's maternal aunt was Anna Leonowens, whose tales about life in the royal court of Siam were the basis of the musical The King and I. Pratt was bow-legged, had a lisp, stuttered as a young boy, he conquered his stutter, but not his lisp, noticeable throughout his career in the film industry. Pratt spent his childhood years in the County of Middlesex, he was the youngest of nine children, following his mother's death was brought up by his elder siblings. He received his early education at Enfield Grammar School, at the private schools of Uppingham School and Merchant Taylors' School. After this, he attended King's College London where he took studies aimed at a career with the British Government's Consular Service. However, in 1909, he left university without graduating and drifted, departing England for Canada, where he worked as a farm labourer and did various odd itinerant jobs until happening upon acting. Pratt began appearing in theatrical performances in Canada, during this period he chose Boris Karloff as his stage name.
Some have theorised that he took the stage name from a mad scientist character in the novel The Drums of Jeopardy called "Boris Karlov". However, the novel was not published until 1920, at least eight years after Karloff had been using the name on stage and in silent films, opening the possibility that the Karlov character might have been named after Karloff after the novel's author noticed it in a cast listing and liked the sound of it rather than being a coincidence. Warner Oland played "Boris Karlov" in a film version in 1931. Another possible influence was thought to be a character in the Edgar Rice Burroughs fantasy novel H. R. H; the Rider which features a "Prince Boris of Karlova", but as the novel was not published until 1915, the influence may be backward, that Burroughs saw Karloff in a play and adapted the name for the character. Karloff always claimed he chose the first name "Boris" because it sounded foreign and exotic, that "Karloff" was a family name. However, his daughter Sara Karloff publicly denied any knowledge of Slavic forebears, "Karloff" or otherwise.
One reason for the name change was to prevent embarrassment to his family. Whether or not his brothers considered young William the "black sheep of the family" for having become an actor, Karloff worried they felt that way, he did not reunite with his family until he returned to Britain to make The Ghoul worried that his siblings would disapprove of his new, macabre claim to world fame. Instead, his brothers jostled for position around him and posed for publicity photographs. After the photo was taken, Karloff's brothers started asking about getting a copy of their own; the story of the photo became one of Karloff's favorites. Karloff joined the Jeanne Russell Company in 1911 and performed in towns like Kamloops and Prince Albert. After the devastating tornado in Regina on 30 June 1912, Karloff and other performers helped with clean-up efforts, he took a job as a railway baggage handler and joined the Harry St. Clair Co. that performed in Minot, North Dakota, for a year in an opera house above a hardware store.
Whilst he was trying to establish his acting career, Karloff had to perform years of manual labour in Canada and the U. S. in order to make ends meet. He was left with back problems from; because of his health, he did not enlist in World War I. During this period, Karloff worked in various theatrical stock companies across the U. S. to hone his acting skills. Some acting companies mentioned were the Harry St. Clair Players and the Billie Bennett Touring Company. By early 1918 he was working with the Maud Amber Players in Vallejo, but because of the Spanish Flu outbreak in the San Francisco area and the fear of infection, the troupe was disbanded, he was able to find work with the Haggerty Repertory for a while. According to Karloff, in his first film he appeared as an extra in a crowd scene for a Frank Borzage picture at Universal for which he received $5. Once Karloff arrived in Hollywood, he made dozens of silent films, but this work was sporadic, he had to take up manual labour such as digging ditches or delivering construction plaster to earn a living.
His first on
Expressionist architecture is an architectural movement in Europe during the first decades of the 20th century in parallel with the expressionist visual and performing arts that developed and dominated in Germany. Brick Expressionism is a special variant of this movement in western and northern Germany and in The Netherlands. Expressionist architecture is one of the three dominant styles of Modern architecture; the term "Expressionist architecture" described the activity of the German, Austrian and Danish avant garde from 1910 until 1930. Subsequent redefinitions extended the term backwards to 1905 and widened it to encompass the rest of Europe. Today the meaning has broadened further to refer to architecture of any date or location that exhibits some of the qualities of the original movement such as; the style was characterised by an early-modernist adoption of novel materials, formal innovation, unusual massing, sometimes inspired by natural biomorphic forms, sometimes by the new technical possibilities offered by the mass production of brick and glass.
Many expressionist architects fought in World War I and their experiences, combined with the political turmoil and social upheaval that followed the German Revolution of 1919, resulted in a utopian outlook and a romantic socialist agenda. Economic conditions limited the number of built commissions between 1914 and the mid-1920s, resulting in many of the most important expressionist works remaining as projects on paper, such as Bruno Taut's Alpine Architecture and Hermann Finsterlin's Formspiels. Ephemeral exhibition buildings were numerous and significant during this period. Scenography for theatre and films provided another outlet for the expressionist imagination, provided supplemental incomes for designers attempting to challenge conventions in a harsh economicate. Important events in expressionist architecture include; the major permanent extant landmark of Expressionism is Erich Mendelsohn's Einstein Tower in Potsdam. By 1925 most of the leading architects of Expressionism such as. A few, notably Hans Scharoun, continued to work in an expressionist idiom.
In 1933, after the Nazi seizure of power in Germany, expressionist art was outlawed as degenerate. Until the 1970s scholars played down the influence of the expressionists on the International style, but this has been re-evaluated in recent years. Expressionist architecture was individualistic and in many ways eschewed aesthetic dogma, but it is still useful to develop some criteria which defines it. Though containing a great variety and differentiation, many points can be found as recurring in works of Expressionist architecture, are evident in some degree in each of its works. Distortion of form for an emotional effect. Subordination of realism to symbolic or stylistic expression of inner experience. An underlying effort at achieving the new and visionary. Profusion of works on paper, models, with discovery and representations of concepts more important than pragmatic finished products. Hybrid solutions, irreducible to a single concept. Themes of natural romantic phenomena, such as caves, lightning and rock formations.
As such it is more mineral and elemental than florid and organic which characterized its close contemporary art nouveau. Uses creative potential of artisan craftsmanship. Tendency more towards the gothic than the classical. Expressionist architecture tends more towards the romanesque and the rococo than the classical. Though a movement in Europe, expressionism is as eastern as western, it draws as much from Moorish, Islamic and Indian art and architecture as from Roman or Greek. Conception of architecture as a work of art. Political and artistic shifts provided a context for the early manifestations of expressionist architecture; the loss of the war, the subsequent removal of Kaiser Wilhelm II, the depravations and the rise of social democracy and the optimism of the Weimar republic created a reluctance amongst architects to pursue projects initiated before the war and provided the impetus to seek new solutions. An influential body of the artistic community, including architects, sought a similar revolution as had occurred in Russia.
The costly and grandiose remodelling of the Grosses Schauspielhaus, was more reminiscent of the imperial past, than wartime budgeting and post-war depression. Artistic movements that preceded expressionist architecture and continued with some overlap were the arts and crafts movement and art nouveau or in Germany, jugendstil. Unity of designers with artisans, was a major preoccupation of the Arts and Crafts movement which extended into expressionist architecture; the frequent topic of naturalism in art nouveau, prevalent in romanticism, continued as well, but took a turn for the more earthen than floral. The naturalist, Ernst Haeckel was known by Finsterlin and shared his
Prussian Academy of Arts
The Prussian Academy of Arts was a state arts academy first established in Berlin, Brandenburg, in 1694/1696 by prince-elector Frederick III, in personal union Duke Frederick I of Prussia, king in Prussia. After the Accademia dei Lincei in Rome and the Académies Royales in Paris, the Prussian Academy of Art was the oldest institution of its kind in Europe, with a similar mission to other royal academies of that time, such as the Real Academia Española in Madrid, the Royal Society in London, or the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in Stockholm; the academy had a decisive influence on art and its development in the German-speaking world throughout its existence. For an extended period of time it was the German artists' society and training organisation, whilst the Academy's Senate became Prussia's arts council as early as 1699, it dropped'Prussian' from its name in 1945 and was disbanded in 1955 after the 1954 foundation of two separate academies of art for East Berlin and West Berlin in 1954.
Those two separate academies merged in 1993 to form Berlin's present-day Academy of Arts. Most artists were associated with the academy as members. Membership was an honorary distinction extended to prominent domestic Prussian artists and selected foreign figures as well. A'deliberative' body of senators was chosen from the membership – some elected, some automatically included due to other rank; the academy was not a school, although it had associations with educational institutions, notably the state school that evolved into the present-day Berlin University of the Arts. Joseph Werner Blaise Nicholas Le Sueur Bernhard Rode Daniel Chodowiecki Johann Gottfried Schadow Anton von Werner Franz Heinrich Schwechten Max Liebermann Max von Schillings The academy was founded to include painters and architects as members, reflecting the classical unity of the arts ideal; the scope was expanded in 1704 to include "Mechanical Sciences". The academy's first director was Swiss painter Joseph Werner. Name changes: 1696–1704 Kurfürstliche Academie der Mahler-, Bildhauer- und Architectur-Kunst 1704–1790 Königlich-Preussische Akademie der Künste und mechanischen Wissenschaften 1790–1809 Königliche Akademie der bildenden Künste und mechanischen Wissenschaften zu Berlin Longtime director and sculptor Johann Gottfried Schadow served from 1815 to 1850.
In 1833 the academy added a fine arts division, a music division in 1835. Emil Fuchs studied at the Academy under Fritz Schaper and Anton von Werner, shortly before 1891. Otto Geyer studied there from 1859–1864. Sculptor Wilhelm Neumann-Torborg studied at the academy from 1878 until 1885, under Otto Knille and Fritz Schaper. In 1885, he won the Academy's Rome Scholarship for his thesis, "The Judgment of Paris". Anna Gerresheim studied there from 1876 for four years in the "ladies class" under Karl Gussow. Oskar Frenzel studied there between 1889 under Paul Friedrich Meyerheim and Eugen Bracht, he was from 1904 until his death a member of the Academy. Painter Friedrich Wachenhusen studied there in 1889 under Eugen Bracht. Name changes: 1790–1809 Königliche Akademie der bildenden Künste und mechanischen Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1809–1875 Königlich Preussische Akademie der Künste 1875–1882 Königlich Preussische Akademie der Künste zu Berlin 1882–1918 Königliche Akademie der Künste zu Berlin In 1926 the academy added a Dichtkunst division, a Dichtung division in 1932, the German Academy of Poetry from the beginning of June 1933.
From 1930 until his parting into exile in 1933, novelist Heinrich Mann was its president. Painter and sculptor Paul Wallat studied there from 1902–1909 under Otto Brausewetter and Carl Saltzmann. On December 29, 1906 he received the award of the Ginsberg Foundation of the Berlin Academy. In 1920, Käthe Kollwitz became the first woman elected to the Prussian Academy, but with the coming to power of Adolf Hitler in 1933 she was expelled because of her beliefs and her art. Name changes: 1882–1918 Königliche Akademie der Künste zu Berlin 1918–1926 Akademie der Künste zu Berlin 1926–1931 Preußische Akademie der Künste zu Berlin 1931–1954 Preussische Akademie der Künste
The Friedrichstadt-Palast shortened to Palast Berlin, is a revue in the Berlin district of Mitte. The term Friedrichstadt-Palast designates both the building itself, the revue theater as a body with his ensemble; the present building is distinct from its predecessor, the Old Friedrichstadt-Palast, therefore now called the New Friedrichstadt-Palast. The history of the Friedrichstadt-Palast goes back to an earlier market hall, about 200 meters southwest of present-day location between the Bertolt-Brecht-Platz and the road was at the circus, official address was in 1867 at the 1st Circus; the building was built from 1865 to 1867 on behalf of the Berlin real estate stock company under the plans of the Privy building advice of Friedrich Hitzig. This was under the direction of the architect who built Lent and on 29 September 1867, Berlin's first market hall was opened; the building was 64 meters wide. Just seven months after its opening, 18 April 1868, for economic reasons, which arose from the bad traffic situation at that time, it closed.
The building was empty at first and was used as a food depot. During the German-Prussian War of 1870–71 the Prussian Army command sent in the construction of a replenishment arsenal. After the war the hall was again unused. In 1873, the building was converted into a 5,000 seat circus arena. On December 25, 1873 it was opened as a covered market by Circus Director Albert Salomonsky; the ideas offered above all included training horses. On April 20, 1879, the building was acquired by Ernst Renz and let Circus Renz continue its operation. Renz had the building rebuilt in 1888. Over the subsequent admission capacity, figures from various sources differ, yet it hold up to 8000 seats. Renz made use of its closeness to water to its advantage by the fact that the building sat on 863 piles over the course of a swamp by the suburb of Oranienburg; the nearby river used in the days of the market hall to keep fish and vegetables fresh, was now led through the building. According to Renz's obituary in 1892, the enterprise was continued by his son Franz Renz, but it closed in July 1897 under the great pressure of competition.
The building came into the possession of Bolossy Kiralfy and Hermann Haller. They directed the rebuilding again of the nightclub New Olympic giant theater or giant Olympia Theatre; the proscenium arch was widened to 44 meters and four of the eight major pillars in the auditorium were removed. However, after two years, the duo Kiralfy/Haller gave up again, their ostentatious shows with too little content finding little favour with audiences. On October 1899, the circus reopened. Schumann decided on classic circus programs featuring numerous dressage horses. Another renovation in 1901 led to the enlargement of the stage area to 800 square meters and a modernization of the installed technology. From 1910, Berlin audiences preferred programs with trained predator animals, interest in Schumann's performances waned; the first World War brought him to ruin. At the beginning of the war, his horses were requisitioned for the Imperial Cavalry, earnings went to paying taxes. On March 31, 1918 the Circus Schumann held its last performance.
Ringmasters Salomonsky, Renz and the artistes Kiralfy/Haller followed Max Reinhardt, wanted to use his monumental circus for the staging of classic plays. April 1918 had the takeover of the National-Theater AG's house on behalf of Reinhardt. Reinhardt decided to rebuild the building for the new use for it was rebuilt again by the renowned architect Hans Poelzig. After this, the cast-iron columns and struts through a stucco ceiling with dangling teardrop pin architecture, the market hall had been transformed; the building had movable proscenium. Added to this was modern lighting and effects technology. In November 1919, the now large theater building called The Oresteia by Aeschylus in the processing and translation of Karl Gustav Vollmoeller directed by Max Reinhardt solemnly opened. 1924 had the staged Erik Charell with his "Charellrevue" with lyrics by Robert Gilbert, the music show "The White Horse Inn.” July 1925 brought Erwin Piscator's Political Review "Still," on stage. During the Nazi era, the theater was renamed Theater des Volkes.
The dome hanging pins were cut off. Now late-bourgeois operettas were performed; the theatre was at this time under the name Palace of 5000 and under the private management Spadonis Marion and Nicola Lupo. The building suffered most in March 1945 due to repeated air attacks. Damage caused the plays to be removed from March until August 1945. Now, led the artists Spadoni and Lupo the house as a palace of the 3000/Theater of 3000 or Palace at the Friedrichstrasse station and Palace Variety. In 1949 the owners abandoned the theater and the city of Berlin took over the facility, the original name Friedrichstadtpalast got back; the first director was following the expropriation of Gottfried Hermann, he was succeeded in 1961, Wolfgang E. Struck. On February 29, 1980, the building was closed after the inspection by construction experts; the reason was a strong subsidence of the foundation as well as the moulding of the supporting piles. In an ADN -message the same day it said: "No performances will be offered in March.
The City Council of Berlin has, in the interest of public safety,been forced to close down the facilities. The constant monitoring of the palace by the state supervision as well as several special investigations have revealed a deterioration of the foundation construction." Thus passed that evening the last performance. Alth
The Weissenhof Estate is a housing estate built for the Deutscher Werkbund exhibition in Stuttgart in 1927. It was an international showcase of what became known as the International style of architecture. Two of the buildings were designed by the French-Swiss architect Le Corbusier and these are now part of the World Heritage Site The Architectural Work of Le Corbusier, an Outstanding Contribution to the Modern Movement, designated in 2016; the World Heritage Site consists of 17 separate sites in seven countries. The estate was built for the Deutscher Werkbund exhibition in 1927, included twenty-one buildings comprising sixty dwellings, designed by seventeen European architects; the German architect Mies van der Rohe was in charge of the project on behalf of the city, it was he who selected the architects and coordinated their entries, prepared the site, oversaw construction. Le Corbusier was awarded the two prime sites, facing the city, by far the largest budget; the twenty-one buildings vary in form, consisting of terraced and detached houses and apartment buildings, display a strong consistency of design.
What they have in common are their simplified facades, flat roofs used as terraces, window bands, open plan interiors, the high level of prefabrication which permitted their erection in just five months. All but two of the entries were white. Bruno Taut had the smallest, painted in various colors. Advertised as a prototype of future workers' housing, in fact each of these houses was customized and furnished on a budget far out of a normal worker's reach and with little direct relevance to the technical challenges of standardized mass construction; the exhibition opened to the public on 23 July 1927, a year late, drew large crowds. Of the original twenty-one buildings, eleven survive as of 2006. Bombing damage during World War II is responsible for the complete loss of the homes by Gropius, Bruno Taut, Max Taut, Döcker. Another of Max Taut's homes was demolished in the 1950s. 1-4: Ludwig Mies van der Rohe 5-9: J. J. P. Oud 10: Victor Bourgeois Originally, the lot was to be built on by Adolf Loos, but he was scrapped from the list after run-ins with and criticism of the Werkbund.
Instead, Bourgeois built a home, more traditional than the planned design by Loos, to have an innovative relation between up and down. One unique feature is a wine cellar from gravel rather than concrete; the two-story family home was damaged during the war, was turned into a two-family dwelling afterward. 11 and 12: Adolf Gustav Schneck 13-15: Le Corbusier and Pierre Jeanneret 16 and 17: Walter Gropius 18: Ludwig Hilberseimer Designed for a family of six, painted in light gray. For reasons of economy, Hilberseimer's planned sliding windows were replaced with cheaper, conventional ones—when Hilberseimer visited the finished house, he did not recognize it; the building was destroyed in the war. 19: Bruno Taut Taut was part of the group on the recommendation of his older brother, Max Taut. House 19 is a single-family, two-story home with a basement, designed as a "proletarian's home." His house was painted red and yellow, was destroyed in the war. 20: Hans Poelzig Poelzig's contribution is a single-family, two-story home with a winter garden and a sun terrace as prominent features.
It was destroyed in the war. 21 and 22: Richard Döcker Döcker was assigned two lots in van der Rohe's plan, between Rathenaustraße and Bruckmannweg. He designed two connected homes, based on his belief in connections between buildings and spaces, but changed the plans after seeing that none of the other buildings on the estate were connected. Both were no. 22 with one and a half stories, including a garage. Döcker wanted brightly colored homes. 23 and 24: Max Taut 25: Adolf Rading 26 and 27: Josef Frank 28-30: Mart Stam 31 and 32: Peter Behrens 33: Hans Scharoun A much more curved design than the other buildings, Scharoun's is a single-family home with two stories and a basement. New Frankfurt, Frankfurt 1925-32 Berlin Modernism Housing Estates, Berlin 1926 Bauhaus and its Sites in Weimar and Bernau, 1923-1930 The Architectural Work of Le Corbusier, an Outstanding Contribution to the Modern Movement / UNESCO Official WebsiteOfficial website Weissenhofmuseum
Poznań is a city on the Warta River in west-central Poland, in the Greater Poland region and is the fifth-largest city in Poland. It is best known for its renaissance Old Ostrów Tumski Cathedral. Today, Poznań is an important cultural and business centre and one of Poland's most populous regions with many regional customs such as Saint John's Fair, traditional Saint Martin's croissants and a local dialect. Poznań is among the largest cities in Poland; the city's population is 538,633, while the continuous conurbation with Poznań County and several other communities is inhabited by 1.1 million people. The Larger Poznań Metropolitan Area is inhabited by 1.3–1.4 million people and extends to such satellite towns as Nowy Tomyśl, Gniezno and Września, making it the fourth largest metropolitan area in Poland. It is the historical capital of the Greater Poland region and is the administrative capital of the province called Greater Poland Voivodeship. Poznań is a centre of trade, education and tourism.
It is an important academic site, with about 130,000 students and the Adam Mickiewicz University - the third largest Polish university. Poznań is the seat of the oldest Polish diocese, now being one of the most populous archdioceses in the country; the city hosts the Poznań International Fair – the biggest industrial fair in Poland and one of the largest fairs in Europe. The city's most renowned landmarks include Poznań Town Hall, the National Museum, Grand Theatre, Poznań Cathedral and the Imperial Castle. Poznań is classified as a Gamma - global city by World Cities Research Network, it has topped rankings as a city with high quality of education and a high standard of living. It ranks in safety and healthcare quality; the city of Poznań has many times, won the prize awarded by "Superbrands" for a high quality city brand. In 2012, the Poznań's Art and Business Center "Stary Browar" won a competition organised by National Geographic Traveller and was given the first prize as one of the seven "New Polish Wonders".
The official patron saints of Poznań are Saint Peter and Paul of Tarsus, the patrons of the cathedral. Martin of Tours – the patron of the main street Święty Marcin is regarded as one of the patron saints of the city; the name Poznań comes from a personal name and would mean "Poznan's town". It is possible that the name comes directly from the verb poznać, which means "to get to know" or "to recognize," so it may mean "known town"; the earliest surviving references to the city are found in the chronicles of Thietmar of Merseburg, written between 1012 and 1018: episcopus Posnaniensis and ab urbe Posnani. The city's name appears in documents in the Latin nominative case as Posnania in 1236 and Poznania in 1247; the phrase in Poznan appears in 1146 and 1244. The city's full official name is Stołeczne Miasto Poznań, in reference to its role as a centre of political power in the early Polish state. Poznań is known as Posen in German, was called Haupt- und Residenzstadt Posen between 20 August 1910 and 28 November 1918.
The Latin names of the city are Civitas Posnaniensis. Its Yiddish name is Poyzn. In Polish, the city name has masculine grammatical gender. For centuries before the Christianization of Poland, Poznań was an important cultural and political centre of the Polan tribe. Mieszko I, the first recorded ruler of the Polans, of the early Polish state which they dominated, built one of his main stable headquarters in Poznań. Mieszko's baptism of 966, seen as a defining moment in the Christianization of the Polish state, may have taken place in Poznań. Following the baptism, construction began of the first in Poland. Poznań was the main seat of the first missionary bishop sent to Poland, Bishop Jordan; the Congress of Gniezno in 1000 led to the country's first permanent archbishopric being established in Gniezno, although Poznań continued to have independent bishops of its own. Poznań's cathedral was the place of burial of the early Piast monarchs, of Przemysł I and King Przemysł II; the pagan reaction that followed Mieszko II's death in 1034 left the region weak, in 1038, Duke Bretislaus I of Bohemia sacked and destroyed both Poznań and Gniezno.
Poland was reunited under Casimir I the Restorer in 1039, but the capital was moved to Kraków, unaffected by the troubles. In 1138, by the testament of Bolesław III, Poland was divided into separate duchies under the late king's sons, Poznań and its surroundings became the domain of Mieszko III the Old, the first of the Dukes of Greater Poland; this period of fragmentation lasted until 1320. Duchies changed hands. In about 1249, Duke Przemysł I began constructing what would become the Royal Castle on a hill on the left bank of the Warta. In 1253 Przemysł issued a charter to Thomas of Guben for the founding of a town under Magdeburg law, between the castle and the river. Thomas brought a large number of German settlers to aid in