The Hanseatic League was a commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and market towns in Northwestern and Central Europe. Growing from a few North German towns in the late 1100s, the league came to dominate Baltic maritime trade for three centuries along the coasts of Northern Europe. Hansa territories stretched from the Baltic to the North Sea and inland during the Late Middle Ages, diminished after 1450. Hanse spelled as Hansa, was the Old High German word for a convoy, this word was applied to bands of merchants traveling between the Hanseatic cities — whether by land or by sea. Merchant circles established the league to protect the guilds' economic interests and diplomatic privileges in their affiliated cities and countries, as well as along the trade routes which the merchants used; the Hanseatic cities had their own legal system and operated their own armies for mutual protection and aid. Despite this, the organization was not a state, nor could it be called a confederation of city-states.
Exploratory trading adventures and piracy occurred early throughout the Baltic region. Scandinavians led international trade in the Baltic area before the Hanseatic League, who establishing major trading hubs at Birka and Schleswig by the 9th century CE; the Hanseatic ports between Mecklenburg and Königsberg formed part of the Scandinavian-led Baltic trade-system. Historians trace the origins of the Hanseatic League to the rebuilding of the north German town of Lübeck in 1159 by the powerful Henry the Lion, Duke of Saxony and Bavaria, after he had captured the area from Adolf II, Count of Schauenburg and Holstein. More recent scholarship has deemphasized the focus on Lübeck due to it having been designed as one of several regional trading centers. German cities achieved domination of trade in the Baltic with striking speed during the 13th century, Lübeck became a central node in the seaborne trade that linked the areas around the North and Baltic seas; the hegemony of Lübeck peaked during the 15th century.
Lübeck became a base for merchants from Westphalia trading eastward and northward. Well before the term Hanse appeared in a document in 1267, merchants in different cities began to form guilds, or Hansa, with the intention of trading with towns overseas in the economically less-developed eastern Baltic; this area could supply timber, amber and furs, along with rye and wheat brought down on barges from the hinterland to port markets. The towns raised their own armies, with each guild required to provide levies; the Hanseatic cities came to the aid of one another, commercial ships had to be used to carry soldiers and their arms. Visby functioned as the leading centre in the Baltic before the Hansa. Sailing east, Visby merchants established a trading post at Novgorod called Gutagard in 1080. Merchants from northern Germany stayed there in the early period of the Gotlander settlement, they established their own trading station in Novgorod, known as Peterhof, further up-river, in the first half of the 13th century.
In 1229 German merchants at Novgorod were granted certain privileges that made their positions more secure. Hansa societies worked to remove restrictions on trade for their members; the earliest remaining documentary mention, although without a name, of a specific German commercial federation dates from 1157 in London. That year, the merchants of the Hansa in Cologne convinced Henry II, King of England, to free them from all tolls in London and allow them to trade at fairs throughout England; the "Queen of the Hansa", Lübeck, where traders were required to trans-ship goods between the North Sea and the Baltic, gained imperial privileges to become a free imperial city in 1226, as its potential trading-partner Hamburg had in 1189. In 1241 Lübeck, which had access to the Baltic and North seas' fishing grounds, formed an alliance—a precursor to the league—with Hamburg, another trading city, which controlled access to salt-trade routes from Lüneburg; the allied cities gained control over most of the salt-fish trade the Scania Market.
In 1266 King Henry III of England granted the Lübeck and Hamburg Hansa a charter for operations in England, the Cologne Hansa joined them in 1282 to form the most powerful Hanseatic colony in London. Much of the drive for this co-operation came from the fragmented nature of existing territorial governments, which failed to provide security for trade. Over the next 50 years the Hansa itself emerged with formal agreements for confederation and co-operation covering the west and east trade routes; the principal city and linchpin remained Lübeck. Lübeck's location on the Baltic provided access for trade with Scandinavia and Kievan Rus', putting it in direct competition with the Scandinavians who had controlled most of the Baltic trade-routes. A treaty with the Visby Hansa put an end to this competition: through this treaty the Lübeck merchants gained access to the inland Russian port of Novgorod, where they built a trading post or Kontor. Although such alliances formed throughout the Holy Roman Empire, the league never became a closely-managed forma
5-Minute Crafts is a DIY-style YouTube channel owned by TheSoul Publishing, a company based in Limassol, Cyprus. The logo of the channel is a yellow light bulb on a blue background; the company employs 550 people who work on various YouTube channels, Facebook pages, Instagram pages. The channel is under the Channel Frederator multi-channel network. 5-Minute Crafts YouTube videos are compilations of videos posted on Instagram or Facebook. The channel's content consists of videos relating to crafts and life hacks, styled in how-to formats, science experiments; the channel's videos employ a style popularized by BuzzFeed's Tasty web series, where the camera is focused on a table with objects while only a person's hands appear in the frame, making content with aid of these objects food and DIY ingredients and tools. After completing the demonstration, sometimes the full body of the individual is displayed as they present the finished product. Most of 5-Minute Crafts' videos are compilations of different life hacks and are over ten minutes long, despite the channel's name.
TheSoul Publishing was founded by Pavel Radaev and Marat Mukhametov, a Cyprus-based team noticed for their backgrounds in social media content creation, for launching AdMe.ru and BrightSide.me. In March 2017, the company founded the YouTube channel, BRIGHT SIDE. On November 15, 2016, 5-Minute Crafts was registered on YouTube by TheSoul Publishing; the channel's first video, "5 essential DIY hacks that you need to know" was uploaded the following day. In 2017, the channel's subscriber and video view counts started to grow rapidly. In an article published by Mic in June 2017, 5-Minute Crafts was noted to have accumulated over 4 million subscribers. In 2017 and onward, various sub-channels were created by TheSoul Publishing; these sub-channels were launched with the purpose to give certain content to specific audiences. In April 2018, Tubefilter covered a trend regarding springtime cleaning videos on YouTube, noting 5-Minute Crafts' participation. By November, Vox wrote that 5-Minute Crafts was a "wildly successful" channel, citing its over 10 billion video views and its ranking as the fifth most-subscribed channel on YouTube, having nearly 40 million subscribers at the time.
During one week in December 2018, the channel received over 238 million video views. As of March 2020, the channel had 67 million subscribers, ranking it as the fifth most-subscribed channel on the platform, not operated by YouTube, behind T-Series, PewDiePie, Cocomelon and SET India. Joshua Cohen of Tubefilter described the channel as a "kid-friendly purveyor of DIY videos."Common Sense Media, a content review website with children in mind, has mixed reviews of 5-Minute Crafts. The reviews describe 5-Minute crafts as "being creative videos" that can "help to reuse used objects." However, the channel was criticized for "reusing clips to compile new videos," and for creating "clickbait." The use of sharp tools was criticized as dangerous for children. Rebecca Jennings of Vox characterized 5-Minute Crafts as "bizarre," describing its content as "do-it-yourself-how-to's that no person could or should replicate," and criticizing the channel's heavy use of clickbait thumbnails. Nadine DeNinno of the New York Post wrote that a "bizarre" 5-Minute Hack video illustrating the use of human hair as a makeup brush was received negatively on Twitter.
Sage Anderson of Mashable questioned the utility of one of the channel's videos, "14 AMAZING EGGSPERIMENTS YOU CAN DO AT HOME," which depicts a "life hack" that involves soaking an egg in vinegar for 24 hours to make the egg bigger. He described 5-Minute Crafts' videos as "nonsensical and trolly." List of most-subscribed YouTube channels List of most-viewed YouTube channels Clickbait DIY
John Pearson VC was an English recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to members of the British and Commonwealth forces. John Pearson was born 19 January 1825 in Leeds, England, he married Selina Smart in the General Baptist Church in Trowbridge, England on 6 April 1851. He was aged 25 and was a private in the 8th Hussars, living in the barracks in Trowbridge, the son of Stephen Pearson, a gardener. Selina Smart is shown as age 20, a spinner, a feeder by profession, living on Stallard Street, daughter of Edward Smart, a spinner, he was 33 years old and a private in the 8th Hussars, British Army during the Indian Mutiny when the following deed took place for which he was awarded the VC: On 17 June 1858 at Gwalior, Pearson - together with Sergeant Joseph Ward, Farrier George Hollis and Captain Clement Walker Heneage - was in a charge made by a squadron of the 8th Hussars. His citation reads: 8th Hussars Selected for the Victoria Cross by their companions in the gallant charge made by a squadron of the Regiment at Gwalior, on the 17th of June, 1858, supported by a division of the Bombay Horse Artillery, Her Majesty's 95th Regiment, they routed the enemy, who were advancing against Brigadier Smith's position, charged through the rebel camp into two batteries and bringing into their camp two of the enemy's guns, under a heavy and converging fire from the Fort and Town.
(Field Force Orders by Major-General Sir Hugh Henry Rose, G. C. B. Commanding Central India Field Force, dated Camp, Gwalior, 28th June, 1858, he achieved the rank of sergeant with the 19th Hussars and was awarded the Meritorious Service Medal. He died on 18 April 1892 in Lion's Head, Eastnor Township, Bruce County, Ontario after emigrating to Canada, his VC was auctioned by Morton & Eden Ltd of London on 23 November 2004 and is now on display in the Lord Ashcroft Gallery at the Imperial War Museum, London. Biography of John Pearson Burial location of John Pearson "Ontario" John Pearson at Find a Grave