Castaic Dam is an embankment dam in northern Los Angeles County, near the unincorporated area of Castaic. Although located on Castaic Creek, a major tributary of the Santa Clara River, Castaic Creek provides little of its water; the lake is the terminus of the West Branch of the California Aqueduct, part of the State Water Project. The dam was built by the California Department of Water Resources and construction was completed in 1973; the lake has a capacity of 325,000 acre feet and stores drinking water for the western portion of the Greater Los Angeles Area. Castaic is an earth-fill dam with its surfaces covered with boulders and cobble-sized rocks to prevent erosion; the dam is 340 feet high above the streambed, 425 feet above the foundations, 5,200 feet long, containing 44 million cubic yards of material. The maximum thickness of the base is 2,350 feet. Flood waters are released through an ungated, concrete overflow spillway on the west side of the dam, emptying into a stilling basin called Castaic Lagoon.
The total storage capacity of Castaic Lake is 325,000 acre⋅ft, of which 31,000 acre feet is considered active capacity and 294,000 acre feet are considered inactive. The inactive capacity is only used during periods of extended drought or interrupted water delivery, most in 2014. At maximum water elevation of 1,515 ft AMSL, the lake covers 2,235 acres, with 29 miles of shoreline; the much smaller Castaic Lagoon covers 200 acres. Castaic Lake is the lower and larger of two main storage reservoirs for the West Branch of the California Aqueduct. Water drawn from the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta is transported down the San Joaquin Valley via the California Aqueduct and pumped over the Tehachapi Mountains, where it splits into the East Branch – providing water for Riverside and San Bernardino and eastern Los Angeles Counties – and the West Branch, which supplies western Los Angeles and parts of Ventura County; the West Branch first enters Pyramid Lake, formed by Pyramid Dam, before traveling through the 7.2-mile Angeles Tunnel to the upper end of Castaic Lake.
Together, the two reservoirs can store about a year's supply of water. During normal operations, Castaic Lake serves as a regulatory reservoir for water delivered through the California Aqueduct, releasing it at times of peak demand. However, the dam and lake was built to provide a pool of "emergency storage" that can be drawn down if water deliveries from northern California are interrupted, whether due to construction, equipment malfunction or severe drought. Below the dam, the majority of the water flows to Los Angeles via a system known as the Foothill Feeder, operated by the Metropolitan Water District of Southern California; the water travels about 20 miles south via a 16.75-foot diameter pipeline to the Jensen Filtration Plant near San Fernando, where it connects to the municipal water system. The underground, pre-stressed concrete pipe has walls nearly 4 feet thick. Water from the Foothill Feeder is stored in the smaller Los Angeles Reservoir in the San Fernando Valley; the water continues south via the 45-mile Sepulveda Feeder, which provides water to Los Angeles proper and other municipalities in south Los Angeles and Orange Counties.
The main customer water agencies are the Central Basin Municipal Water District, West Basin Municipal District, Municipal Water District of Orange County. As many as 12 million people in these areas receive their full or supplemental water supply from Castaic Lake and the feeder system. A smaller portion of the water supply is distributed by the Castaic Lake Water Agency; the service area covers about 195 square miles in Ventura and north Los Angeles counties, providing water to about 287,000 people. The main constituents of the agency include the Los Angeles County Waterworks District No. 36, Newhall County Water District, Santa Clara Water Division, Valencia Water Company. The 11 MW Foothill Feeder hydroelectric power plant is located at the base of the dam and generates electricity when water is needed in Los Angeles. In 2009, the Foothill Feeder plant generated 49 million kilowatt hours; the 1,495 MW Castaic Pumped-Storage Plant is located at the upper end of the west arm of Castaic Lake. The Elderberry Forebay Dam separates the upper arm from the rest of Castaic Lake, maintaining a small pool for power generation known as the Elderberry Forebay, serving as the lower reservoir of the pumped-storage operation.
Pyramid Lake, located 7.2 miles to the west, serves as the upper. When demand for electricity is high during the afternoon, water is withdrawn from Pyramid Lake and released into Castaic Lake. At night, when demand is low, water is pumped back into Pyramid Lake; the sale of peak electricity reduces the Department of Water Resources' overall electric costs for operating the California Aqueduct. In 2009, the Castaic pumped-storage plant generated a net 465 million KWh. List of dams and reservoirs in California List of power stations in California List of the tallest dams in the United States "Castaic Lake Dam". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. "Dams Within the Jurisdiction of the State of California". California Department of Water Resources, Division of Safety of Dams. Archived from the original on 2012-03-09. Retrieved December 3, 2012
The Creek Fire was a large wildfire that burned in Kagel Canyon and the Angeles National Forest north of Sylmar, a neighborhood in Los Angeles, United States, one of multiple wildfires that broke out across Southern California in December 2017. The Creek Fire has burned 15,619 acres and destroyed 123 structures, including 60 homes, before being contained on January 9, 2018, following heavy rainfall from a winter storm; the fire threatened the communities of Santa Clarita, Olive View, Lake View Terrace, Sunland-Tujunga, Shadow Hills, Pacoima, Lopez Canyon, Kagel Canyon, as well as the Olive View–UCLA Medical Center. During the wildfire, 115,000 residents were forced to evacuate their homes; the Creek Fire was reported on December 5, 2017, at 3:44 AM PST, on Kagel Canyon Road, north of Los Angeles. By the afternoon, the fire had jumped Interstate 210 and moved into the Shadow Hills neighborhood, traveling an estimated 15 miles from its starting point in Kagel Canyon and threatening ranches in the area.
By the end of the day, a barn in Rancho Padilla burned. The city government of Los Angeles and state governor Jerry Brown declared a state of emergency, due to the Creek Fire and other fires in the area. By December 6, the Creek Fire had destroyed 15 structures, including 5 homes, damaged 15 structures, including 8 homes. Mandatory evacuations were put in place for areas north and south of State Route 210 and portions of Kagel Canyon, Lakeview Terrace, Sylmar, Lopez Canyon, Shadow Hills. 115,000 residents were forced to evacuate. Three firefighters were injured. One was injured by a propane tank explosion, another one was injured when a bulldozer rolled over; the rugged, steep terrain where the fire was burning, as well as the heavy Santa Ana winds, caused the fire to grow and challenged firefighters. On the evening of December 7, all evacuation orders were lifted except for Limekiln Canyon; the fire had grown to 15,323 acres by December 8, as Santa Ana winds continued to pick up across the San Gabriel Mountains, continuing to impact the control of the fire.
The Angeles National Forest declared its fire danger level at "extreme" and put in place fire restrictions, including no open flames, no campfires, no BBQs, or grilling. The area of Limekiln Canyon, including Santiago Estates, remained evacuated and closed to the public. Schools remained closed in the area. On December 8, the Creek Fire increased in size to 15,619 acres, while containment of the fire increased to 70%. By December 9, 123 buildings had been destroyed, including 60 homes. Evacuations orders were ended and the American Red Cross began providing equipment to people returning to their destroyed homes. Fire crews continue to monitor the area. Smoke advisories were declared in the San Fernando Valley and the coastal areas of the county due to the Creek Fire and Skirball Fire. CAL FIRE transferred management responsibilities to the Angeles National Forest, Los Angeles County Fire Department, Los Angeles Fire Department on December 11. On December 23, the fire was 98 % contained. Crews continued to reinforce containment lines while patrolling, as well as extinguishing hot spots, mopping up, implementing suppression repair.
On December 27, the Creek Fire was still at 98% containment. On January 9, 2018, a winter storm dropped heavy rainfall across the region, extinguishing the Creek Fire and triggering mudslides in areas burned by the December 2017 wildfires. However, by 10:00 AM PST that day, mandatory evacuations for residents near the Creek Fire burn area were lifted, after the worst of the mudslide threat for the area had passed. Soon after the Creek Fire ignited, authorities began investigation the cause of the wildfire. Locals reported that around the time that the Creek Fire had started, early on December 5, a steel power pylon near Sylmar had snapped and sent sparks flying, which ignited the Creek Fire. However, the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power, which owns the power lines in the area, denied that there had been any breaks in the power line, though their logs indicated that the power lines were experiencing trouble at around 4:40 AM PST. 2017 California wildfires December 2017 Southern California wildfires SDSC WiFire Interactive Map - San Diego Supercomputer Center Creek Fire Incident Information - InciWeb Incident Update Dec 14 2017 archived at archive.org
In geography, a confluence occurs where two or more flowing bodies of water join together to form a single channel. A confluence can occur in several configurations: at the point where a tributary joins a larger river. Confluences are studied in a variety of sciences. Hydrology studies the characteristic flow patterns of confluences and how they give rise to patterns of erosion and scour pools; the water flows and their consequences are studied with mathematical models. Confluences are relevant to the distribution of living organisms as well; the United States Geological Survey gives an example: "chemical changes occur when a stream contaminated with acid mine drainage combines with a stream with near-neutral pH water. According to Lynch, "the color of each river is determined by many things: type and amount of vegetation in the watershed, geological properties, dissolved chemicals and biologic content – algae." Lynch notes that color differences can persist for miles downstream before they blend completely.
Hydrodynamic behaviour of flow in a confluence can be divided into six distinct features which are called confluence flow zones. These include Stagnation zone Flow deflection zone Flow separation zone / recirculation zone Maximum velocity zone Flow recovery zone Shear layers Since rivers serve as political boundaries, confluences sometimes demarcate three abutting political entities, such as nations, states, or provinces, forming a tripoint. Various examples are found in the list below. A number of major cities, such as Chongqing, St. Louis, Khartoum, arose at confluences. Within a city, a confluence forms a visually prominent point, so that confluences are sometimes chosen as the site of prominent public buildings or monuments, as in Koblenz and Winnipeg. Cities often build parks at confluences, sometimes as projects of municipal improvement, as at Portland and Pittsburgh. In other cases, a confluence is an industrial site, as in Mannheim. A confluence lies in the shared floodplain of the two rivers and nothing is built on it, for example at Manaus, described below.
One other way that confluences may be employed by humans is as a sacred place in a religion. Rogers suggests that for the ancient peoples of the Iron Age in northwest Europe, watery locations were sacred sources and confluences. Pre-Christian Slavic peoples chose confluences as the sites for fortified triangular temples, where they practiced human sacrifice and other sacred rites. In Hinduism, the confluence of two sacred rivers is a pilgrimage site for ritual bathing. In Pittsburgh, a number of adherents to Mayanism consider their city's confluence to be sacred. At Lokoja, the Benue River flows into the Niger. At Kazungula in Zambia, the Chobe River flows into the Zambezi; the confluence defines the tripoint of Zambia and Namibia. The land border between Botswana and Zimbabwe to the east reaches the Zambezi at this confluence, so there is a second tripoint only 150 meters downstream from the first. See Kazungula and Quadripoint, Gallery below for image; the Sudanese capital of Khartoum is located at the confluence of the White Nile and the Blue Nile, the beginning of the Nile.
82 km north of Basra in Iraq at the town of Al-Qurnah is the confluence of the rivers Tigris and Euphrates, forming the Shatt al-Arab. At Devprayag in India, the Ganges River originates at the confluence of the Bhagirathi and the Alaknanda. Near Allahabad, the Yamuna flows into the Ganges. In Hinduism, this is a pilgrimage site for ritual bathing. In Hindu belief the site is held to be a triple confluence, the third river being the metaphysical Sarasvati. Kuala Lumpur, the capital of Malaysia, is where the Gombak River flows into the Klang River at the site of the Jamek Mosque; the Kolam Biru, a pool with elaborate fountains, has been installed at the apex of the confluence. The Nam Khan River flows into the Mekong at Luang Prabang in Laos; the Jialing flows into the Yangtze at Chongqing in China. The confluence forms a focal point in the city, marked by Chaotianmen Square, built in 1998. In the Far East, the Amur forms the international boundary between Russia; the Ussuri, which demarcates the border, flows into the Amur at a point midway between Fuyuan in China and Khabarovsk in Russia.
The apex of the confluence is located in a rural area, part of China, where a commemorative park, Dongji Square, has been built.
Hesperoyucca whipplei (chaparral yucca, our Lord's candle, Spanish bayonet, Quixote yucca or foothill yucca is a species of flowering plant related to, usually included in, the genus Yucca. It is native to southern California, United States and Baja California, where it occurs in chaparral, coastal sage scrub, oak woodland plant communities at altitudes of 0–2500 m, it produces a stemless cluster of rigid leaves which end in a sharp point. The leaves are 20–90 cm long and 0.7–2 cm wide, gray-green in color. The leaf edges are finely saw-toothed; the single inflorescence grows fast, reaches 0.9–3 m tall, bearing hundreds of elliptical white to purplish flowers 3 cm diameter on a densely branched panicle up to 70 cm broad, covering the upper half of the inflorescence. The fruit is a dry winged capsule; the plant takes several years to reach maturity and flower, at which point it dies. Most subspecies produce offshoots from the base, so that although the parent plant flowers and dies, a cluster of clones around its base continue to grow and reproduce.
It may grow back from its base after much of its foliage has been scorched off by the wildfires that frequent its range. The taxonomy of Hesperoyucca whipplei is controversial. Hesperoyucca was described as a genus by Georg Engelmann as long ago as 1892, but it has taken recent DNA analysis to confirm that they are genetically distinct from Yucca; the splitting of Hesperoyucca from Yucca is still not reflected in available literature or online. Among those botanists who have treated it as a species of Yucca, six subspecies have been recognised, yet others do not recognise any subspecies or varieties, as the wide variability within the species precludes the segregation of discrete subspecies. Hochstätter's subspecies are: Yucca whipplei ssp. whipplei Yucca whipplei ssp. caespitosa Yucca whipplei ssp. intermedia Yucca whipplei ssp. percursa Yucca whipplei ssp. newberryi Yucca whipplei ssp. eremicaThe plant treated as the subspecies Yucca whipplei subsp. Newberryi has been shown to be genetically distinct, is treated as a distinct species, Hesperoyucca newberryi.
It is native further east, in Arizona, differs in the capsules being unwinged or with only slight wings. It is pollinated by the California yucca moth, a relationship which has become a classic example of symbiosis; the female yucca moth collects up to a dozen sacks of pollen grains called pollinia and forms them into a massive ball. She flies to another plant and lands on the ovary of a flower. Standing with her head near the stigma, she inserts her ovipositor into the ovary wall and lays a single egg, she rubs her pollen mass against the central stigmatic depression, ensuring pollination. The pollinated ovary will now produce many seeds. Although many associations of Yucca and yucca moth exist, Tegeticula muculata and Hesperoyucca whipplei form an exclusive relationship. "Yuca" is a native name for the unrelated Manihot. Yucca whipplei is named after Amiel Weeks Whipple, a surveyor who oversaw the Pacific Railroad Survey to Los Angeles in 1853; the name our Lord's candle is derived from its huge, flame-shaped inflorescence.
Spanish bayonet refers to the needle-sharp leaf tips which can cause discomfort to the unwary passer-by. Hesperoyucca whipplei is used in xeriscaping in Southern California, but is difficult to grow outside of its native range, it is drought tolerant and thrives in clay soils. It was used extensively by Native Americans. Yucca species such as the Yucca whipplei have been documented to have been used as a fiber and food source by Native Americans in the western United States prior to European settlement efforts. Archaeological evidence show that use of yucca species extends to 5000 years ago within groups such as the Serrano of the San Bernardino Mountains and San Gabriel Mountains of the transverse mountain ranges of Southern California; the Serrano harvested the hearts of the plant during the spring growing season. Yucca whipplei grows on the rocky slopes and washes of the chaparral area of the transverse mountains of Southern California up to 4000 feet above mean sea level. Harvested plants were chosen based on the growth of the stalk.
The heart contains the sugars stored to grow a stalk to flower, become bitter as the stalk grows in height. The hearts would be roasted in stone lined pits over several hours in a manner similar to that of agave species. Once cooked, the hearts would be allowed to cool before eating. Uneaten portions could be dried for storage. Though bitter, the stalk and flowers can be harvested and used as food sources as well; the stalks can be prepared roasted in a manner similar to the hearts, while the petals were parboiled. The long leaves of species such as the Yucca whipplei are made of strong fibers which can be pounded and scraped to expose long threads which run the length of the leaf; the leaves could be processed in many ways to remove the outer layer of leaf material which could be processed into thread
Big Tujunga Creek
Big Tujunga Creek is a major stream in Los Angeles County in the U. S. state of California. From its headwaters high in the San Gabriel Mountains, it flows southwest for 28.8 miles, joining Little Tujunga Creek to form the Tujunga Wash near Pacoima. The stream is sometimes considered as one with the Tujunga Wash, the continuation of Big Tujunga to the Los Angeles River, bringing the total length to more than 40 miles; the creek rises near the Angeles Crest Highway in Upper Big Tujunga Canyon, deep within the Angeles National Forest. Its upper course is steep and rocky, sprinkled with rapids and small waterfalls, it flows west northwest, receiving Alder Creek and Lynx Gulch from the right and Wildcat Gulch and Wickiup Creek from the left. As the stream cuts deeper into its gorge, it receives a major tributary, Mill Creek, from the right, Fall Creek from the right just before emptying into Big Tujunga Reservoir, formed by the Big Tujunga Dam. While part of the reservoir, it receives Fox Creek from the right.
Below the dam, the stream flows through a steep rocky gorge, receiving Clear Creek from the left, before turning northwest into a broader valley. It flows through this valley for several miles before receiving Trail Canyon Creek from the right, swinging southwards around a few ridges spills out of the mountains near Sunland. Part of the stream is diverted at Sunland into spreading grounds in order to recharge the local aquifer; the rest of Big Tujunga Creek continues west into the dry Hansen Flood Control Basin, formed by the Hansen Dam. Here it receives Little Tujunga Creek from the right, becomes the Tujunga Wash, which runs south about 8.5 miles to the Los Angeles River near Studio City. In 1931, the Big Tujunga Dam was built by the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power deep within the creek's canyon to provide flood control and block silt. With a capacity of just 5,960 acre feet, the dam is unable to control large floods, has overflowed many times since its construction. During the Los Angeles Flood of 1938, Big Tujunga Creek reached a maximum flow of more than 50,000 cubic feet per second, washing down thousands of tons of silt from the mountains and jumping its banks destroying hundreds of buildings and floodworks.
Following the floods, the 97-foot -high Hansen Dam was built across the lower creek by the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers in 1940 in the hope of controlling future floods. List of rivers of California
A dam is a barrier that stops or restricts the flow of water or underground streams. Reservoirs created by dams not only suppress floods but provide water for activities such as irrigation, human consumption, industrial use and navigability. Hydropower is used in conjunction with dams to generate electricity. A dam can be used to collect water or for storage of water which can be evenly distributed between locations. Dams serve the primary purpose of retaining water, while other structures such as floodgates or levees are used to manage or prevent water flow into specific land regions; the earliest known dam is the Jawa Dam in Jordan, dating to 3,000 BC. The word dam can be traced back to Middle English, before that, from Middle Dutch, as seen in the names of many old cities; the first known appearance of dam occurs in 1165. However, there is one village, mentioned in 1120; the word seems to be related to the Greek word taphos, meaning "grave" or "grave hill". So the word should be understood as "dike from dug out earth".
The names of more than 40 places from the Middle Dutch era such as Amsterdam and Rotterdam bear testimony to the use of the word in Middle Dutch at that time. Early dam building took place in the Middle East. Dams were used to control the water level, for Mesopotamia's weather affected the Tigris and Euphrates rivers; the earliest known dam is the Jawa Dam in Jordan, 100 kilometres northeast of the capital Amman. This gravity dam featured an 9-metre-high and 1 m-wide stone wall, supported by a 50 m-wide earth rampart; the structure is dated to 3000 BC. The Ancient Egyptian Sadd-el-Kafara Dam at Wadi Al-Garawi, located about 25 km south of Cairo, was 102 m long at its base and 87 m wide; the structure was built around 2800 or 2600 BC as a diversion dam for flood control, but was destroyed by heavy rain during construction or shortly afterwards. During the Twelfth Dynasty in the 19th century BC, the Pharaohs Senosert III, Amenemhat III and Amenemhat IV dug a canal 16 km long linking the Fayum Depression to the Nile in Middle Egypt.
Two dams called Ha-Uar running east-west were built to retain water during the annual flood and release it to surrounding lands. The lake called "Mer-wer" or Lake Moeris is known today as Birket Qarun. By the mid-late third millennium BC, an intricate water-management system within Dholavira in modern-day India was built; the system included 16 reservoirs and various channels for collecting water and storing it. One of the engineering wonders of the ancient world was the Great Dam of Marib in Yemen. Initiated somewhere between 1750 and 1700 BC, it was made of packed earth – triangular in cross section, 580 m in length and 4 m high – running between two groups of rocks on either side, to which it was linked by substantial stonework. Repairs were carried out during various periods, most important around 750 BC, 250 years the dam height was increased to 7 m. After the end of the Kingdom of Saba, the dam fell under the control of the Ḥimyarites who undertook further improvements, creating a structure 14 m high, with five spillway channels, two masonry-reinforced sluices, a settling pond, a 1,000 m canal to a distribution tank.
These extensive works were not finalized until 325 AD and allowed the irrigation of 25,000 acres. Eflatun Pınar is a Hittite spring temple near Konya, Turkey, it is thought to be from the time of the Hittite empire between the 15th and 13th century BC. The Kallanai is constructed of unhewn stone, over 300 m long, 4.5 m high and 20 m wide, across the main stream of the Kaveri river in Tamil Nadu, South India. The basic structure dates to the 2nd century AD and is considered one of the oldest water-diversion or water-regulator structures in the world, still in use; the purpose of the dam was to divert the waters of the Kaveri across the fertile delta region for irrigation via canals. Du Jiang Yan is the oldest surviving irrigation system in China that included a dam that directed waterflow, it was finished in 251 BC. A large earthen dam, made by Sunshu Ao, the prime minister of Chu, flooded a valley in modern-day northern Anhui province that created an enormous irrigation reservoir, a reservoir, still present today.
Roman dam construction was characterized by "the Romans' ability to plan and organize engineering construction on a grand scale." Roman planners introduced the then-novel concept of large reservoir dams which could secure a permanent water supply for urban settlements over the dry season. Their pioneering use of water-proof hydraulic mortar and Roman concrete allowed for much larger dam structures than built, such as the Lake Homs Dam the largest water barrier to that date, the Harbaqa Dam, both in Roman Syria; the highest Roman dam was the Subiaco Dam near Rome. Roman engineers made routine use of ancient standard designs like embankment dams and masonry gravity dams. Apart from that, they displayed a high degree of inventiveness, introducing most of the other basic dam designs, unknown until then; these include arch-gravity dams, arch dams, buttress dams and multiple arch buttress dams, all of which were known and employed by the 2nd century AD. Roman workforces were the first to build dam bridges, such as the Bridge of Valerian in Iran
Angeles National Forest
The Angeles National Forest of the U. S. Forest Service is located in the San Gabriel Mountains and Sierra Pelona Mountains within Los Angeles County in southern California; the ANF manages a majority of the San Gabriel Mountains National Monument. The national forest was established in 1908, incorporating the first San Bernardino National Forest and parts of the former Santa Barbara and San Gabriel National Forests. Angeles National Forest headquarters are located in California; the Angeles National Forest covers a total of 700,176 acres, protecting large areas of the San Gabriel Mountains and Sierra Pelona Mountains. It is located just north of the densely inhabited metropolitan area of Greater Los Angeles. While within Los Angeles County, a small part extends eastward into southwestern San Bernardino County, in the Mount San Antonio area, a tiny section extends westward into northeastern Ventura County, in the Lake Piru area; the San Gabriel Mountains National Monument, established in 2014 and managed by the U.
S. Forest Service, is within the Angeles National Forest; the John D. Dingell, Jr. Conservation and Recreation Act of 2019 established the Saint Francis Dam Disaster National Memorial and Saint Francis Dam Disaster National Monument at and around the ruins of the St. Francis Dam in the Forest's San Francisquito Canyon; the Angeles National Forest contains five nationally designated wilderness areas. Two of these extend into neighboring San Bernardino National Forest: Cucamonga Wilderness — in San Bernardino NF Magic Mountain Wilderness Pleasant View Ridge Wilderness San Gabriel Wilderness Sheep Mountain Wilderness — in San Bernardino NF The San Gabriel Forest Reserve was established on December 20, 1892, the San Bernardino Forest Reserve was established on February 25, 1893, the Santa Barbara Forest Reserve was established on December 22, 1903. Together, they became National Forests on March 4, 1907, they were combined on July 1, 1908, with all of the San Bernardino forest and portions of San Gabriel forest and Santa Barbara forest composing the new Angeles National Forest.
On September 30, 1925, portions of the Angeles National Forest and the Cleveland National Forest were detached to re-establish the San Bernardino National Forest. Angeles National Forest is registered as California Historical Landmark #717, for being the first National Forest in the state; the campgrounds at Broken Blade, Twisted Arrow and Pima Loops were closed on July 26, 2013 after squirrel infected with bubonic plague was discovered. Station FireIn the Station Fire, more than 161,000 acres of the forest were burned by an arson fire that began on August 26, 2009, near Angeles Crest Highway in La Cañada and spread, fueled by dry brush that had not burned for over 150 years; the fire burned for more than a month and was the worst in Los Angeles County history, charring one-fourth of the forest, displacing wildlife, destroying 91 homes and outbuildings and the family-owned Hidden Springs Cafe. During the fire, two firefighters died after driving off the Mt. Gleason County Road looking for an alternate route to get the inmates out at Camp 16.
The Station Fire threatened the Mount Wilson Observatory atop Mt. Wilson; the site includes two telescopes, two solar towers, transmitters for 22 television stations, several FM radio stations, police and fire department emergency channels. Although the fire scorched one side of the outhouse at amateur-owned Stony Ridge Observatory, six miles northeast of Mt. Wilson, aside from minor damage from smoke and ash infiltration, the remainder of the observatory and its historic 30-inch Carroll telescope survived. 2012 firesSeveral 2012 wildfires occurred, burning hundreds of acres across the forest-covered mountain range. The Angeles National Forest manages the habitats and fauna ecosystems, watersheds; some of the rivers with watersheds within its boundaries provide valuable non-groundwater recharge water for Southern California. The existing protected and restored native vegetation absorb and slow surface runoff of rainwater to minimize severe floods and landslides in adjacent communities; the land within the forest is diverse, both in terrain.
Elevations range from 1,200 to 10,064 ft. The Pacific Crest Trail crosses the forest. Much of this National Forest is covered with dense chaparral shrub forests with oak woodlands, which changes to pine and fir-covered slopes in the higher elevations. Subsequent to the fire there was a heavy growth of poodle-dog bush triggered by the fire's effect on dormant seeds, that lasted for several years; the plant produces prolific lavender flowers. As visitors to the Forest discovered, contact with it may cause a poison-oak-like rash. Tree species for which the forest is important include bigcone Douglas-fir, Coulter pine, California walnut; the National Forest contains some 29,000 acres of old growth, with: Jeffrey pine forests and mixed conifer forests, lodgepole pine the most abundant types. This forest is home to black bears, gray foxes, bobcats and coyotes. A National Forest Adventure Pass is required for parking at many locations in the Angeles National Forest and other National Forests in Southern California, this can be obtained online or from visitor centers and local merchants.
Los Angeles County has declared. There are many other areas that do not requi