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Hapkido is a eclectic Korean martial art. It is a form of self-defense that employs joint locks and throwing techniques kicks and other striking attacks, it teaches the use of traditional weapons, including knife, rope, ssang juhl bong, short stick, middle-length staff, bō, which vary in emphasis depending on the particular tradition examined. Hapkido employs both long-range and close-range fighting techniques, utilizing jumping kicks and percussive hand strikes at longer ranges, pressure point strikes, joint locks, throws at closer fighting distances. Hapkido emphasizes circular motion, redirection of force, control of the opponent. Practitioners seek to gain advantage over their opponents through footwork and body positioning to incorporate the use of leverage, avoiding the use of brute strength against brute strength; the art was adapted from Daitō-ryū Aiki-jūjutsu as it was taught by Choi Yong-Sool when he returned to Korea after World War II after having lived in Japan for 30 years. This system was combined by Choi´s disciples with kicking and striking techniques of indigenous and contemporary arts such as Taekkyon, Tang Soo Do.

Hapkido is rendered "합기도" in the native Korean writing system known as hangul, the script used most in modern Korea. The art's name can however be written "合氣道" utilizing the same traditional Chinese characters which would have been used to refer to the Japanese martial art of aikido in the pre-1946 period; the current preference in Japan is for the use of a modern simplified second character. The character 合 hap means "coordinated", "joining", or "harmony", it is most translated as "the way of coordinating energy", "the way of coordinated power", or "the way of harmony". Although Japanese aikido and Korean hapkido share common technical origins, in time they have become separate and distinct from one another, they differ in philosophy, range of responses, manner of executing techniques. The fact that they share the same Japanese technical ancestry represented by their respective founders practice of Daitō-ryū Aiki-jūjutsu, that they share the same Chinese characters, despite 合 being pronounced "ai" in Japanese and "hap" in Korean, has proved problematic in promoting Hapkido internationally as a discipline with its own set of unique characteristics differing from those common to Japanese martial arts.

The birth of modern hapkido can be traced to the efforts of a group of Korean nationals in the post Japanese colonial period of Korea, Choi Yong-Sool and his most prominent students. Choi Yong-Sool's training in martial arts is a subject of contention, it is known that Choi was sent to Japan as a young boy and returned to Korea with techniques characteristic of Daitō-ryū Aiki-jūjutsu, a forerunner of aikido. The subsequent history is quite controversial in Daitō-ryū circles but is claimed by many contemporary hapkido-ists and is attributed to Choi in an interview that took place during a trip Choi made to the United States in 1980 to visit his direct lineage successor Chin il Chang in New York City. In the interview with Chin Il Chang, Choi claimed to have been adopted by Takeda Sōkaku when he was 11 years old and to have been given the Japanese name, Yoshida Asao, he claims to have been taken to Takeda's home and dojo in Akita on Shin Shu mountain where he lived and trained with the master for 30 years.

The interview asserts that he travelled with him as a teaching assistant, that he was employed to catch war deserters and that he was the only student to have a complete understanding of the system taught by Takeda. This is contradicted by other claims asserting that Choi was a worker in the home of Takeda; the meticulous enrollment and fee records of Tokimune Takeda, Takeda's eldest son and Daitō-ryū's successor, do not seem to include Choi's name among them. Therefore, except for claims made by Choi himself, there is little evidence that Choi was the adopted son of Takeda, or that he formally studied Daitō-ryū under the founder of the art. Stanley Pranin of Aiki News and now editor of the, asked Kisshomaru Ueshiba about Choi Yong-Sool and hapkido: Some argue that Choi Yong-Sool's potential omission from the records, the ensuing debate over hapkido's origins, may be due to tensions between Koreans and Japanese as a result of the Japanese occupation of Korea. At the height of dispute, it is claimed by hapkido practitioners that Koreans were excluded from listing, though this is contradicted by Takeda's records which contain other Korean names.

While some commentators claim hapkido has a Japanese lineage, others state that its origins lay with indigenous Korean martial arts. Choi Yong-Sool's first student, the man whom some claim helped him develop the art of hapkido was Seo Bok-Seob, a Korean judo black belt when they met; some of Choi's other respected senior students are: Chini

Morning on the White River

Morning on the White River is a 2013 painted landscape diptych by Mason Archie of the White River in Indianapolis, Indiana. The paintings are located on the Eskenazi Health campus, near downtown Indianapolis and are part of the Eskenazi Health Art Collection. Morning on the White River is a 2013 oil on linen canvas landscape diptych by artist Mason Archie, which depicts a view of the White River from a location ¼ mile from Sidney & Lois Eskenazi Hospital. Archie selected this specific location along the river to paint when he encountered human traces left behind there. Makeshift fishing props and a worn path serve as evidence of the frequency with which local residents visit, these details can be seen within the paintings: Each of the two paintings measure 38.25" x 61.5", framed. Morning on the White River was commissioned by Eskenazi Health as part of a re-imagining of the organization's historical art collection and to support "the sense of optimism and energy" of its new campus in 2013. In response to its nationwide request for proposals, Eskenazi Health received more than 500 submissions from 39 states, which were narrowed to 54 finalists by an independent jury.

Each of the 54 proposals was assigned an area of the new hospital by Eskenazi Health's art committee and publicly displayed in the existing Wishard Hospital and online for public comment. Morning on the White River is credited as "Dedicated with gratitude by Kathi and Bob Postlethwait.” Morning on the White River is located in the 6th Floor Robert & Gina Laikin Intensive Care Waiting Room of the Sidney & Lois Eskenazi Hospital. A self-taught artist born and raised in Dayton, Mason Archie began his career as a commercial sign painter with Lamar Outdoor Advertising. In 2005, he decided to pursue fine art painting in the style of traditional realism full-time, has exhibited and sold his paintings nationally since. Archie is a member of the Oil Painters of America, the Hoosier Salon Patrons Association, the Portrait Society of America, the International Guild of Realism and the African American Visual Artist Guild, he received the Creative Renewal Arts Fellowship from the Arts Council of Indianapolis and Lilly Endowment in 2007.

Eskenazi Health Art Collection Sidney & Lois Eskenazi Hospital Mason Archie, Artist's Website Eskenazi Health, Interview with Mason Archie Eskenazi Health Art Installations


XHMC-FM is a commercial radio station located in Mexicali, Baja California, broadcasting to the Valley of Mexicali, Imperial Valley, California area of the United States on 104.9 FM. XHMC airs a Spanish Contemporary Hit Radio music format branded as Arroba FM. XHMC received its concession on November 10, 1987, it was owned by Rosa Ruíz de Reyes and operated by Radiorama for most of its history. In 2017, control of the Radiorama Mexicali cluster was transferred to Grupo Larsa Comunicaciones, marking its first expansion outside of the state of Sonora. On December 1, XHMC was relaunched as "Arroba Sin Límites", retaining the name of its previous pop format while adding that used on Larsa's other formatted stations

Common Open Software Environment

The Common Open Software Environment was an initiative formed in March 1993 by the major Unix vendors of the time to create open, unified operating system standards. The COSE process was established during a time when the "Unix wars" had become an impediment to the growth of Unix. Microsoft dominant on the corporate desktop, was beginning to make a bid for two Unix strongholds: technical workstations and the enterprise data center. In addition, Novell was seeing its NetWare installed base eroding in favor of Microsoft-based networks. Unlike other Unix unification efforts that preceded it, COSE was notable in two ways: it was not formed in opposition to another set of Unix vendors, it was more oriented toward making standards of existing technologies than creating new offerings from scratch; the initial members, were: The Santa Cruz Operation Unix System Laboratories Univel Sun Microsystems Hewlett-Packard IBMThese represented the significant Unix system and OS vendors of the time, as well as the holders of the Unix brand and AT&T-derived source code.

They represented all the key players in the two major Unix factions of the late 1980s and early 1990s, the OSF and Unix International. Notable in its absence was OSF co-founder Digital Equipment Corporation. COSE's announced areas of focus were: a common desktop environment. On September 1, 1993 it was announced that the COSE vendors were developing a unified Unix specification with the support of over 75 companies. Unlike OSF or UI, the COSE initiative was not tasked to promote a single operating system, their approach was to instead survey and document the OS interfaces in use by Unix software vendors of the time. This resulting list known as "Spec 1170", evolved to become what is now known as the Single Unix Specification. Spec 1170 was named after the results of the first COSE effort to determine which Unix interfaces were in use; as might be expected, the actual number of interfaces cataloged continued to grow over time. Management of the specification was given to X/Open. In October 1993, it was announced that the UNIX trademark, at that time owned by Novell, would be transferred to X/Open.

These developments meant. Besides the opening and standardization of the UNIX brand, the most notable product of the COSE initiative was the Common Desktop Environment, or CDE. CDE was an X11-based user environment jointly developed by HP, IBM, Sun, with an interface and productivity tools based on OSF's Motif graphical widget toolkit. Although in the areas of desktop and the OS itself the COSE process was one of unification, in other announced areas, it was decided to endorse existing technologies from both camps rather than pick one. For example, the announced direction for networking was for all participants to sell and support OSF's DCE, UI's ONC+, a NetWare client. Other areas were addressed in broad terms. For object-based technology, CORBA was called out as the underlying technology, but method of implementation was left to the individual companies. In March 1994 UI and OSF announced their merger into a new organization, which retained the OSF name; the COSE initiative became the basis of the new OSF's "Pre-Structured Technology" process.

These efforts in turn became the responsibility of The Open Group, an entity formed by the merger of the new OSF and X/Open in 1996. In the end, the most significant product of the COSE process was the creation of a universally-recognized single UNIX standard and an independent organization to administer it, it marked the end of Sun's OPEN LOOK graphical environment in favor of a Motif-based desktop, at the same time making the latter a standard rather than a proprietary toolkit. Although it had less impact on the other standardization areas it intended to address, it nonetheless had a major influence on the future of Unix extending far beyond the 12 months of its independent existence

Monti Marsicani

The Monti Marsicani are the sixth highest group of Apennines located in the Abruzzo region in the Province of L’Aquila and in the Province of Frosinone and Province of Isernia. The highest peak is Monte Greco, they are limited in north by the Fucino plateau and Peligna Valley, on the east by the River Gizio and Altopiano delle Cinque Miglia, on the south by the Valley Sangro and Volturno, on the east by valley Liri and Melfa. The main feature of this area is the rugged landscape characterized by a wild and well-preserved natural environment with dense forests composed of beech and with the presence of many endangered species, their survival was possible thanks to the National Park of Abruzzo and Molise that protects a huge part of this mountain group. The Marsicani Mountains can be divided into numerous subgroups that are each greater than the height of 2000 metres and are separated by valleys in which there are rivers and streams leading into the Tyrrhenian and Adriatic Seas and the riverbed of Fucino.

The most important lakes are the Barrea and the Montagna Spaccata, that are artificial and the Scanno. The lake at Villalago, the Lake of the Castel San Vincenzo, the Vivo and the Pantaniello are the minor natural lakes in this area. All protected parts are crossed by the river Sangro; the subgroups that compose the Marsicani Mountains: Monti di Roccaraso Monte Genzana e Monte Greco Montagna di Godi La Camosciara Monti della Meta Le Mainarde Montagna Grande e Monte Marsicano Monte Palombo Monte Turchio Monte di Valle Caprara e Monte Ceraso Monte La Rocca e Serra Traversa Monte Panico e Serra delle Gravare Monte Cornacchia The area is made of 21 municipal communities from which lead various paths, part of the organized structure for tourists, that include visitor centers, museums and many other attractions. The most popular trails are those that lead to the Camosciara Fondillo, the Cicerana and Mount Marsicano; the origin of this Mountains reach the Mesozoic era and the Tertiary, about 170 – 30 million years ago.

Limestone was created in marine territories, by lagoons and cliffs with important impact of algae, mollusks, gastropods. The most important characteristics of that period are various types of sedimentation, such as a platform that origins from the sea territory with small amounts of oxygen and lots of algae, calcareous substances and creatures adapted to survive in muddy territories. More on east other types of territories were formed; the area was far more nutritive, which permitted the existence of numerous living forms and their fossils now are an important source for geological researches. The diversity of landscape in the past result in the creation of different forms such as glaciers, valleys, ravines. Monti Marsicani has one of the best preserved flora in Europe; the flora has Mediterranean and Mountainous features. In general, in the forest on the height of 1000 – 1100 meters dominates the broad-leaved three. Up to 1700–1800 meters dominates the beech. Other important trees are black pine with some subspecies such as "Pino nero di Villetta Barrea" and mountain pine.

A notable tree is silver birch, rather typical for northern Europe, since in southern Europe can grow only in high altitudes. A complete list of the flora reaches about 2,000 species. Among typical flowers can be found the lily, cyclamen, primrose and rare flowers such as Cypripedium calceolus and Iris marsica As it comes to the fauna, the most notable species are Marsican brown bear, Italian wolf, red deer and roe deer; the number of bear population is declining, from about 100 it has fallen to about 30 in recent years, while the population of wolves is permanently increasing. Among the reclusive species there are the Eurasian lynx, the wild boar, the polecat, the badger, the otter, The pine marten, the beech marten and the chamois; the chamois live above the forest. Among the animals seen there are some species such as the red fox, the red squirrel or dormouse. Other notable species are the western European hedgehog, the European mole, the wildcat, the mountain hare and the crested porcupine.

There are about 60 species of mammals, 300 of birds, 40 of reptiles and fish and they all are protected as a part of National Park of Abruzzo and Molise. Landi Vittorj C.. Guida dei Monti d'Italia: Appennino Centrale. Volume I. Club Alpino Italiano, Milano. II edizione 1989 a cura di Rodolfo Landj Vittori. Damiani A. V.. Geologia dell’Appennino Centrale. In Carlo Landi Vittorj “Guida dei Monti d'Italia: Appennino Centrale. Volume I. II Edizione a cura di Rodolfo Landi Vittorj ” Club Alpino Italiano, Milano. Pignatti S.. Flora d’Italia. Edagricole, Bologna. Ferioli E.. Atlante degli alberi d'Italia. Giorgio Mondadori Editore, Milano. Http://


Alejandro Chal is a Peruvian singer-songwriter and producer. He released his first EP, Ballroom Riots, in 2013, his debut studio album, Welcome to GAZI, was self-released in June 2016. His single, "Round Whippin'", was premiered by Zane Lowe in 2015, he has performed at the Day N Nite Fest. Pigeons & Planes named him one of the best new artists in 2015. A. CHAL was lived there for 4 years before his family moved to Queens, New York, his mother was from rural northern Peru. He began rapping at age 12 and started making beats and writing songs with a friend at the Museum of Science in Cambridge, Massachusetts. In 2010, he moved to Los Angeles to pursue a career as a producer. A. CHAL released his debut EP, Ballroom Riots, in 2013; the album found some success, which he parlayed into a publishing deal with Sony ATV. He spent two years out of the public spotlight before beginning to release a variety of singles in 2015. One of those singles, "Round Whippin'", was debuted online on The Fader and followed up with a world premiere on Zane Lowe's Beats1 channel and supported on OVO Sound Radio.

As a result of this publicity, A. CHAL was named one of Pigeons & Planes best new artists of 2015, he performed at the Interview Magazine event during Coachella that year. In February 2015, he released the single "GAZI". In September 2015, A. CHAL released another a single, "Vibe W/U", first publicized by A$AP Rocky on Twitter. In 2016, A. CHAL performed at the Day N Nite Fest, he released a few more singles before self-releasing his debut studio album, Welcome to GAZI, in June 2016. He has since premiered the official music video for "Round Whippin'" with and been featured on tracks by Ro James and Tess. In March 2018, A. CHAL signed with Epic Records. A. CHAL's music fits into the hip hop and R&B genres. USA Today has described his music as falling somewhere "in the negative space between Hip-Hop, R&B, pop music." A. CHAL himself has described his music's genre as soul, his sound has been characterized as "sedated", "hazy", "almost-psychedelic". Remezcla has called his voice "sultry and desperate".

Lyrically, he discusses anecdotal experiences. Writing about his 2016 album Welcome to GAZI, Jules Muir of Pigeons & Planes noted that A. CHAL attempts to cut "to the core of many of society's ills and triumphs by tapping into a deep well of personal experiences and anecdotes." Ballroom Riots Exotigaz Official website