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Happy Birthday to You

"Happy Birthday to You" known as "Happy Birthday", is a song traditionally sung to celebrate the anniversary of a person's birth. According to the 1998 Guinness World Records, it is the most recognized song in the English language, followed by "For He's a Jolly Good Fellow"; the song's base lyrics have been translated into at least 18 languages. The melody of "Happy Birthday to You" comes from the song "Good Morning to All", which has traditionally been attributed to American sisters Patty and Mildred J. Hill in 1893, although the claim that the sisters composed the tune is disputed. Patty Hill was a kindergarten principal in Louisville, developing various teaching methods at what is now the Little Loomhouse; the sisters used "Good Morning to All" as a song. The combination of melody and lyrics in "Happy Birthday to You" first appeared in print in 1912, existed earlier. None of the early appearances of the "Happy Birthday to You" lyrics included credits or copyright notices; the Summy Company registered a copyright in 1935, crediting authors Preston Ware Orem and Mrs. R. R. Forman.

In 1988, Warner/Chappell Music purchased the company owning the copyright for US$25 million, with the value of "Happy Birthday" estimated at US$5 million. Based on the 1935 copyright registration, Warner claimed that the United States copyright will not expire until 2030, that unauthorized public performances of the song are illegal unless royalties are paid to Warner. In one specific instance in February 2010, the royalty for a single use was said to be US$700. By one estimate, the song is the highest-earning single song in history. In the European Union, the copyright for the song expired on January 1, 2017; the American copyright status of "Happy Birthday to You" began to draw more attention with the passage of the Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act in 1998. When the U. S. Supreme Court upheld the Act in Eldred v. Ashcroft in 2003, Associate Justice Stephen Breyer mentioned "Happy Birthday to You" in his dissenting opinion. American law professor Robert Brauneis, who extensively researched the song, concluded in 2010 that "It is certainly no longer under copyright."

In 2013, based in large part on Brauneis's research, Good Morning to You Productions, a company producing a documentary about "Good Morning to All", sued Warner/Chappell for falsely claiming copyright to the song. In September 2015, a federal judge declared that the Warner/Chappell copyright claim was invalid, ruling that the copyright registration applied only to a specific piano arrangement of the song, not to its lyrics and melody. In 2016, Warner/Chappell settled for US $14 million, the court declared that "Happy Birthday to You" was in the public domain; the person whose birthday is being celebrated is filled in for "". The earliest known publication used "John" as the example, it is traditional, among English-speakers, that at a birthday party, the song "Happy Birthday to You" be sung to the birthday person by the other guests celebrating the birthday when presented with a birthday cake. After the song is sung, party guests sometimes add wishes like "and many more!" Expressing the hope that the birthday person will enjoy a long life.

In the United Kingdom, Ireland and New Zealand after "Happy Birthday" has been sung, it is traditional for one of the guests to lead with "Hip hip..." and for all of the other guests to join in and say "... hooray!" This is repeated three times. In Canada at young children's birthdays after "Happy Birthday" has been sung, the singers segue into "How old are you now? How old are you now? How old are you now-ow, how old are you now?" and count up: "Are you one? Are you two? Are you..." until they reach the right age. Both the music and lyrics are in public domain in both United States; the copyright expired in the European Union on January 1, 2017. In the United States, a federal court ruled in 2016 that Warner/Chappell's copyright claim was invalid and there was no other claim to copyright; the origins of "Happy Birthday to You" date from at least the late 19th century, when two sisters and Mildred J. Hill, introduced the song "Good Morning to All" to Patty's kindergarten class in Kentucky. Years in 1893, they published the tune in their songbook, Song Stories for the Kindergarten with the Chicago publisher Clayton F. Summy.

Kembrew McLeod stated that the Hill sisters copied the tune and lyrical idea from other popular and similar nineteenth-century songs that predated theirs, including Horace Waters' "Happy Greetings to All", "Good Night to You All" from 1858, "A Happy New Year to All" from 1875, "A Happy Greeting to All", published 1885. However, U. S. law professor Robert Brauneis disputes this, noting that these earlier songs had quite different melodies. It is that teachers and students spontaneously adapted the published version of "Good Morning to All" to celebrate birthdays in the classroom, changing the lyrics to "Happy Birthday" in the process; the complete text of "Happy Birthday to You" first appeared in print as the final four lines of Edith Goodyear Alger's poem "Roy's Birthday", published in her book A Primer of Work and Play, copyrighted by D. C. Heath in 1901, with no reference to the words being sung; the first book including "Happy Birthday" lyrics set to the tune of "Good Morning to All" that bears a date of publication is from 1911 in The Elementary Worker and His Work, but earlier references exist to a song called "Happy Birthday to You", including an article from 1901 in the Inland Educator and Indiana School Journal.

In 1924, Robert Coleman included "Good Morning to All" in a songbook with the

Benzene 1,2-dioxygenase

In enzymology, a benzene 1,2-dioxygenase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction The 4 substrates of this enzyme are benzene, NADH, H+, O2, whereas its two products are cis-cyclohexa-3,5-diene-1,2-diol and NAD+. This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases those acting on paired donors, with O2 as oxidant and incorporation or reduction of oxygen; the oxygen incorporated need not be derived from O2 with NADH or NADPH as one donor, incorporation of two atoms of oxygen into the other donor. The systematic name of this enzyme class is NADH: oxygen oxidoreductase. Other names in common use include benzene hydroxylase, benzene dioxygenase; this enzyme participates in anthracene degradation. It has 4 cofactors: FAD, Iron and Iron-sulfur. Gibson DT, Koch JR, Kallio RE. "Oxidative degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons by microorganisms. I Enzymatic formation of catechol from benzene". Biochemistry. 7: 2653–62. Doi:10.1021/bi00847a031. PMID 4298226

Mitsubishi Endeavor

The Mitsubishi Endeavor is a mid-size crossover SUV built by Mitsubishi Motors at their manufacturing facility in Normal, Illinois. Based on the PS platform, it was the first vehicle built under Mitsubishi's "Project America", a program aimed at introducing vehicles for North America without having to compromise to accommodate other export markets, its design origins can be traced back to the Mitsubishi SSU which debuted at the 1999 North American International Auto Show, although the Endeavor does not share the concept's mechanical underpinnings. The prototype was powered by a 305 hp version of the 6A13TT 2.5 liter twin-turbo V6, which directed the power to a full-time all wheel drive system through its INVECS-II five-speed semi-automatic transmission and AYC. When the Endeavor debuted, it used the 6G75 3.8 liter V6 offering 215 hp and 250 lb⋅ft, mated to a four-speed semi-automatic transmission with an optional all-wheel drive system that splits the torque 50/50 by default. In 2011, the Endeavor again featured a 3.8L V6 but upgraded once more to produce 225 hp and 255 lb⋅ft of torque.

It received a mild restyle for the 2006 model year. Despite some reasonably favorable reviews on its release, the Endeavor's performance in the marketplace failed to meet Mitsubishi's expectations. On its release in March 2003 the company aimed for 80,000 annual sales but achieved only 32,054 by the end of its debut year, sales fell every year since. Mitsubishi did not produce any 2009 Endeavor models for the retail market, they did produce a 2009 model for fleet customers as used, off lease vehicles. They share the exterior appearance with the 2010 model, however are equipped with cloth interior and bluetooth. For the 2010 model year, the Endeavor gets another facelift, with newer rear fascias; the 2010 Endeavor went on sale in June 2009. It only came in one trim level for 2010, lacking the navigation package of the 2008 Limited trim, but equipped with leather seating and hands free bluetooth calling. On April 25, 2011, it was announced that Endeavor production would end in August 2011. Mitsubishi Endeavor official page,

Portuguese India

The State of India referred as the Portuguese State of India or Portuguese India, was a state of the Portuguese Empire, founded six years after the discovery of a sea route between Portugal and the Indian Subcontinent to serve as the governing body of a string of Portuguese fortresses and colonies overseas. The first viceroy, Francisco de Almeida, established his headquarters in Cochin. After 1510, the capital of the Portuguese viceroyalty was transferred to Goa. Bombay was part of Portuguese India until ceded to the British in 1661; until the 18th century, the Portuguese governor in Goa had authority over all Portuguese possessions in the Indian Ocean, from southern Africa to southeast Asia. In 1752 Mozambique got its own separate government and in 1844 the Portuguese Government of India stopped administering the territory of Macau and Timor, its authority was confined to the colonial holdings on the Malabar Coast of present-day India. At the time of the British Indian Empire's dissolution in 1947, Portuguese India was subdivided into three districts located on modern-day India's western coast, sometimes referred to collectively as Goa: namely Goa.

Portugal lost effective control of the enclaves of Dadra and Nagar Haveli in 1954, the rest of the overseas territory in December 1961, when it was annexed by India. In spite of this, Portugal only recognised Indian control in 1975, after the Carnation Revolution and the fall of the Estado Novo regime; the first Portuguese encounter with the subcontinent was on 20 May 1498 when Vasco da Gama reached Calicut on Malabar Coast. Anchored off the coast of Calicut, the Portuguese invited native fishermen on board and bought some Indian items. One Portuguese met with a Tunisian Muslim. On the advice of this man, Gama sent a couple of his men to Ponnani to meet with ruler of Calicut, the Zamorin. Over the objections of Arab merchants, Gama managed to secure a letter of concession for trading rights from the Zamorin, Calicut's Brahman ruler. But, the Portuguese were unable to pay the prescribed customs duties and price of his goods in gold. Calicut officials temporarily detained Gama's Portuguese agents as security for payment.

This, annoyed Gama, who carried a few natives and sixteen fishermen with him by force. Gama's expedition was successful beyond all reasonable expectation, bringing in cargo, worth sixty times the cost of the expedition. Pedro Álvares Cabral sailed to India, marking the arrival of Europeans to Brazil on the way, to trade for pepper and other spices and establishing a factory at Calicut, where he arrived on 13 September 1500. Matters worsened when the Portuguese factory at Calicut was attacked by surprise by the locals, resulting in the death of more than fifty Portuguese. Cabral was outraged by the attack on the factory and seized ten Arab merchant ships anchored in the harbour, killing about six hundred of their crew and confiscating their cargo before burning the ships. Cabral ordered his ships to bombard Calicut for an entire day in retaliation for the violation of the agreement. In Cochin and Cannanore Cabral succeeded in making advantageous treaties with the local rulers. Cabral started the return voyage on 16 January 1501 and arrived in Portugal with only 4 of 13 ships on 23 June 1501.

The Portuguese built the Pulicat fort with the help of the Vijayanagar ruler. Vasco da Gama sailed to India for a second time with 15 ships and 800 men, arriving at Calicut on 30 October 1502, where the ruler was willing to sign a treaty. Gama this time made a call to expel all Muslims from Calicut, vehemently turned down, he captured several rice vessels. He returned to Portugal in September 1503. On 25 March 1505, Francisco de Almeida was appointed Viceroy of India, on the condition that he would set up four forts on the southwestern Indian coast: at Anjediva Island, Cannanore and Quilon. Francisco de Almeida left Portugal with a fleet of 22 vessels with 1,500 men. On 13 September, Francisco de Almeida reached Anjadip Island, where he started the construction of Fort Anjediva. On 23 October, with the permission of the friendly ruler of Cannanore, he started building St. Angelo Fort at Cannanore, leaving Lourenço de Brito in charge with 150 men and two ships. Francisco de Almeida reached Cochin on 31 October 1505 with only 8 vessels left.

There he learned. He decided to send his son Lourenço de Almeida with 6 ships, who destroyed 27 Calicut vessels in the harbour of Quilon. Almeida took up residence in Cochin, he strengthened the Portuguese fortifications of Fort Manuel on Cochin. The Zamorin prepared a large fleet of 200 ships to oppose the Portuguese, but in March 1506 Lourenço de Almeida was victorious in a sea battle at the entrance to the harbour of Cannanore, the Battle of Cannanore, an important setback for the fleet of the Zamorin. Thereupon Lourenço de Almeida explored the coastal waters southwards to Colombo, in what is now Sri Lanka. In Cannanore, however, a new ruler, hostile to the Portuguese and friendly with the Zamorin, attacked the Portuguese garrison, leading to the Siege of Cannanore. In 1507 Almeida's mission was strengthened by the arrival of Tristão da Cunha's squadron. Afonso de Albuquerque's squadron had, split from that of Cunha off East Africa and was independently conquering territories in the Persian Gulf to the west.

In March 1508 a Portuguese squadron

Philip Smith (VC)

Philip Smith VC was born in Lurgan, County Cavan in 1829. His discharge papers confirming this are on line at under Chelsea Pensioners Records. His parents names are Bridget Mulvaney; this is confirmed by marriage records in Cavan Genealogy Soc. He died in Dublin on 16 January 1906, he was an Irish recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces. He was 26 old, a corporal in the 17th Regiment, British Army during the Siege of Sebastopol in the Crimean War when the following deed took place for which he was awarded the VC. For going out in the front of the advanced trenches against the Great Redan, on the 18th June, 1855, under a heavy fire, after the column had retired from the assault, bringing in wounded comrades. Having achieved the rank of lance sergeant, he was reduced to the ranks and when discharged he was a private, he was buried at Glasnevin Cemetery, Dublin.

His Victoria Cross is displayed at the Museum of the Royal Leicestershire Regiment now housed in the Newarke Houses Museum, England. The Register of the Victoria Cross Clarke, Brian D. H.. "A register of awards to Irish-born officers and men". The Irish Sword. XVI: 185–287. Ireland's VCs ISBN 1-899243-00-3 Monuments to Courage Irish Winners of the Victoria Cross


KKFX-CD, virtual and UHF digital channel 24, is a low-powered, Class A Fox-affiliated television station licensed to San Luis Obispo, United States and serving the Central Coast of California. Owned by the News-Press & Gazette Company, it is a sister station to Santa Barbara-licensed ABC affiliate KEYT-TV. KKFX and KCOY share studios on West McCoy Lane in Santa Maria. KKFX's transmitter is located near US 101 in the Los Padres National Forest; the station can be seen on channel 11 on most cable systems in the market, hence the Fox 11 branding. Although KKFX identifies as a station in its own right, it is licensed as a translator of KCOY. In addition to its own digital signal, KKFX is simulcast in high definition on KCOY's second digital subchannel from a transmitter on Tepusquet Peak in the Los Padres National Forest east of Santa Maria. KCOY, in turn, is simulcast on KKFX's second digital subchannel. KKFX-CD signed on for the first time on November 1998 as the area's Fox affiliate. Network-owned West Coast flagship station KTTV in Los Angeles served as the affiliate of record for the Central Coast before the station began operations.

Before July 1, 2006, this station could be seen in Santa Barbara on KSBB-LP channel 17, but it switched to a repeater of KEYT-TV. On April 20, 2007, Clear Channel Communications entered into an agreement to sell its television station group to Providence Equity Partners; the sale was finalized on March 14, 2008. However, Providence Equity Partners did not keep KKFX and sister station KCOY due to Federal Communications Commission restrictions; as a result, they were resold to the Cowles Publishing Company. On May 7, 2008, the deal between Cowles and Newport Television closed. On September 20, 2013, News-Press & Gazette Company, owner of KEYT-TV in Santa Barbara, announced that it would purchase KKFX-CA as well as Monterey sister stations KION-TV and KMUV-LP. NPG took over some operations of KCOY that Cowles retained under a shared services agreement; the sale was completed on December 13, 2013. On January 20, 2015, KKFX began broadcasting over the air in high definition and providing an HD feed directly to cable and DirecTV.

On that same date, KKFX-CA returned to the airwaves in Santa Barbara on low-power KSBB-LP channel 17. The station's digital signal is multiplexed: Syndicated programming on KKFX includes 25 Words or Less, The Simpsons, Two and a Half Men, Last Man Standing and The Big Bang Theory. Fox 11 News in the Morning airs weekdays on KKFX from 7 a.m. to 8 a.m. A nightly hour-long newscast is included. Channel 11 branded TV stations in the United States Channel 24 low-power TV stations in the United States Official website Man on the Couch's Website Central Coast Deals KKFX-CA/KION-TV/KMUV-LP Asset Purchase Agreement Query the FCC's TV station database for KKFX-CD