Happy Feet is a 2006 computer-animated musical comedy film directed, co-written by George Miller. It stars the voices of Elijah Wood, Robin Williams, Brittany Murphy, Hugh Jackman, Nicole Kidman, Hugo Weaving, E. G. Daily. An international co-production between the United States and Australia, the film was produced at Sydney-based visual effects and animation studio Animal Logic for Warner Bros. Village Roadshow Pictures, Kingdom Feature Productions, was released in North American theaters on November 17, 2006, it is the first animated film produced by Animal Logic. Though an animated film, the film does incorporate motion capture of live action humans in certain scenes; the film was released in both conventional theatres and in IMAX 2D format. The studio had hinted. However, Warner Bros. the film's production company, was on too tight a budget to release Happy Feet in IMAX digital 3D. Happy Feet received positive reviews from critics, becoming the recipient of the inaugural BAFTA Award for Best Animated Film, the fourth non-Disney or Pixar to win the Academy Award for Best Animated Feature.
It was nominated for the Annie Award for Best Animated Feature and the Saturn Award for Best Animated Film. A sequel, Happy Feet Two, was released on November 18, 2011; every emperor penguin sings. If the male penguin's heartsong matches the female's song, the two penguins mate. Norma Jean, a female penguin, falls for Memphis, a male penguin and they become mates, they lay an egg, left in Memphis' care, while Norma Jean leaves with the other females to fish. While the males struggle through the harsh blizzard, Memphis drops the egg; as a result, their son, Mumble, is unable to sing. He is enamored with Gloria, a female penguin, regarded as the most talented of her age. One day, Mumble encounters a group of hostile skua, with a leader, tagged with a yellow band, which he says is from an alien abduction. Mumble narrowly escapes the hungry birds by falling into a crevice. Now a young adult, Mumble is ridiculed by the elders. After escaping from a leopard seal attack, Mumble befriends a group of Adelie penguins called "the Amigos", who embrace Mumble's dance moves and assimilate him into their group.
After seeing a hidden human excavator in an avalanche, they opt to ask Lovelace, a rockhopper penguin, about its origin. Lovelace has the plastic rings of a six pack entangled around his neck, which he claims have been bestowed upon him by mystic beings. For the emperor penguins, it is mating season and Gloria is the center of attention. Ramón, one of the Amigos, attempts to help Mumble win her affection by singing a Spanish version of "My Way", with Mumble lip syncing, but the plan fails, Gloria finds it embarrassing. In desperation, Mumble begins tap dancing in synch with her song, she falls for him and the youthful penguins join in for singing and dancing to "Boogie Wonderland". The elders are appalled by Mumble's conduct, which they see as the reason for their lean fishing season. Memphis begs Mumble to stop dancing, for his own sake, but when Mumble refuses, he is exiled, prompting him to curse revenge on the elders for their blind belief. Mumble and the Amigos return to Lovelace, only to find him being choked by the plastic rings.
Lovelace confesses they were snagged on him while swimming off the forbidden shores, beyond the land of the elephant seals. Not long into their journey, they are met by Gloria. Fearing for her safety, he ridicules Gloria. At the forbidden shore, the group finds a fishing boat. Mumble pursues it solo to the brink of exhaustion, he is washed up on the shore of Australia, where he is rescued and kept at Marine World with Magellanic penguins. After a long and secluded confinement in addition to fruitlessly trying to communicate with the humans, he nearly succumbs to madness; when a girl attempts to interact with Mumble by tapping the glass, he starts dancing, which attracts a large crowd. He is released back with a tracking device attached to his back, he challenges the will of the elders. Memphis reconciles with him, just as a research team arrives, proving the claims of the existence of "aliens" to be true; the whole of the colony Noah the leader of the elders, engages in dance. The research team returns their expedition footage.
The governments realize they are leading to the banning of all Antarctic fishing. At this, the emperor penguins and the Amigos celebrate. George Miller cites as an initial inspiration for the film an encounter with a grizzled old cameraman, whose father was Frank Hurley of the Shackleton expeditions, during the shooting of Mad Max 2: "We were sitting in this bar, having a milkshake, he looked across at me and said, ‘Antarctica.’ He'd shot a documentary there. He said, ‘You’ve got to make a film in Antarctica. It’s just like out here, in the wasteland. It’s spectacular.’ And that always stuck in my head.”Happy Feet was partially inspired by earlier documentaries such as the BBC's Life in the Freezer. In 2001, during an otherwise non-sequitur meeting, Doug Mitchell impulsively presented Warner Bros. studio president Alan Horn with an early rough draft of the film's screenplay, asked them to read it while he and Miller flew back to Australia. By the time they'd landed, Warner had decided to provide funding on the film.
Blas Nicolás Riquelme Centurión was a Paraguayan politician and businessman. He was a member of the Senate of Paraguay for the Colorado Party from 1989 to 2008, was elected President of the party, succeeding Luis María Argaña, he was a candidate in the Colorado Party's 1996 primary election for the 1998 presidential election, backed by Lino Oviedo. He was leader of the Movimiento Tradicionalismo Democrático, one of the major financiers of the Colorado Party, he was President of the Chamber of Industry until 1984. As a businessman, Riquelme was director/president of a number of companies, including Cereales S. A.. A. and Cervecera Itapúa S. A.. A.. A.. A.. He is a major landowner. In 1985 he ordered the removal of 100 Mbayá people from his 75,000 hectare landholding in the Alto Paraná Department. In 2012 the violent removal of occupying farmers from Riquelme's land in the Canindeyú Department sparked the impeachment of Fernando Lugo, he has been unsuccessfully sued by farmers alleging irregularities in his 1975 acquisition of land, following Truth and Justice Commission conclusions of irregularities.
Official page at Senate of Paraguay
Gastric antral vascular ectasia is an uncommon cause of chronic gastrointestinal bleeding or iron deficiency anemia. The condition is associated with dilated small blood vessels in the pyloric antrum, a distal part of the stomach; the dilated vessels result in intestinal bleeding. It is called watermelon stomach because streaky long red areas that are present in the stomach may resemble the markings on watermelon; the condition was first discovered in 1952, reported in the literature in 1953. Watermelon disease was first diagnosed by Wheeler et al. in 1979, definitively described in four living patients by Jabbari et al. only in 1984. As of 2011, the cause and pathogenesis are still not known. However, there are several competing hypotheses as to various causes. Most patients who are diagnosed with watermelon stomach come to a physician complaining of anemia and blood loss. Sometimes, a patient may come to the physician because he or she notices blood in the stools—either melena and/or hematochezia.
The literature, from 1953 through 2010 cited that the cause of gastric antral vascular ectasia is unknown. The causal connection between cirrhosis and GAVE has not been proven. A connective tissue disease has been suspected in some cases. Autoimmunity may have something to do with it, as 25% of all sclerosis patients who had a certain anti-RNA marker have GAVE. RNA autoimmunity has been suspected as a cause or marker since at least 1996. Gastrin levels may indicate a hormonal connection. GAVE is associated with a number of conditions, including portal hypertension, chronic kidney failure, collagen vascular diseases. Watermelon stomach occurs with scleroderma, the subtype known as systemic sclerosis. A full 5.7% of persons with sclerosis have GAVE, 25% of all sclerosis patients who had a certain anti-RNA polymerase marker have GAVE. In fact: Most patients with GAVE suffer from liver cirrhosis, autoimmune disease, chronic kidney failure and bone marrow transplantation; the typical initial presentations range from occult bleeding causing transfusion-dependent chronic iron-deficiency anemia to severe acute gastrointestinal bleeding.
The endoscopic appearance of GAVE is similar to portal hypertensive gastropathy, but is not the same condition, may be concurrent with cirrhosis of the liver. 30% of all patients have cirrhosis associated with GAVE. Sjögren's syndrome has been associated with at least one patient; the first case of ectopic pancreas associated with watermelon stomach was reported in 2010. Patients with GAVE may have elevated gastrin levels; the Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center states that pernicious anemia is one of the conditions associated with GAVE's, one separate study showed that over three-fourths of the patients in the study with GAVE's had some kind of Vitamin B12 deficiency including the associated condition pernicious anemia. Intestinal permeability and diverticulitis may occur in some patients with GAVE. GAVE is characterized by dilated capillaries in the lamina propria with fibrin thrombi; the main histomorphologic differential diagnosis is portal hypertension, apparent from clinical findings.
Research in 2010 has shown that anti-RNA polymerase III antibodies may be used as a risk marker for GAVE in systemic sclerosis patients. GAVE is diagnosed definitively by means of an endoscopic biopsy; the tell-tale watermelon stripes show up during the endoscopy. Surgical exploration of the abdomen may be needed to diagnose some cases if the liver or other organs are involved. GAVE results in intestinal bleeding similar to duodenal ulcers and portal hypertension; the GI bleeding can result in anemia. It is overlooked, but can be more common in elderly patients, it has been seen in a female patient of 26 years of age. Watermelon stomach has a different etiology and has a differential diagnosis from portal hypertension. In fact and portal hypertension may be missing in a patient with GAVE; the differential diagnosis is important. GAVE is treated by means of an endoscope, including argon plasma coagulation and electrocautery. Since endoscopy with argon photocoagulation is "usually effective", surgery is "usually not required".
Coagulation therapy is well tolerated but "tends to induce oozing and bleeding." "Endoscopy with thermal ablation" is favored medical treatment because of its low side effects and low mortality, but is "rarely curative." Treatment of GAVE can be categorized into endoscopic and pharmacologic. Surgical treatment is definitive but it is done nowadays with the variety of treatment options available; some of the discussed modalities have been used in GAVE patients with another underlying disease rather than SSc. Symptomatic treatment includes iron supplementation and blood transfusion for cases with severe anemia, proton pump inhibitors may ameliorate the background chronic gastritis and minute erosions that co-existed in biopsy reports. Other medical treatments have been tried and include estrogen and progesterone therapy, Corticostreoids are effective, but are "limited by their side effects." A transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt procedure is used to treat portal hypertension when, present as an associated condition.
The TIPSS, used for similar conditions, may cause or exacerbate hepatic encephalopathy. TIPSS-related encephalopathy occurs in about 30% of cases, with the risk being higher in those with previous episodes of encephalopathy, higher age, female sex, liver disease due to causes other than alcohol; the patient, with his or her physician and family, mus