Harare is the capital and most populous city of Zimbabwe. The city proper has an area of 960.6 km2 and an estimated population of 1,606,000 in 2009, with 2,800,000 in its metropolitan area in 2006. Situated in north-eastern Zimbabwe in the country's Mashonaland region, Harare is a metropolitan province, which incorporates the municipalities of Chitungwiza and Epworth; the city sits on a plateau at an elevation of 1,483 metres above sea level and its climate falls into the subtropical highland category. The city was founded in 1890 by the Pioneer Column, a small military force of the British South Africa Company, named Fort Salisbury after the UK Prime Minister Lord Salisbury. Company administrators demarcated the city and ran it until Southern Rhodesia achieved responsible government in 1923. Salisbury was thereafter the seat of the Southern Rhodesian government and, between 1953-63, the capital of the Central African Federation, it retained the name Salisbury until 1982, when it was renamed Harare on the second anniversary of Zimbabwean independence from the United Kingdom.
The Pioneer Column, a military volunteer force of settlers organised by Cecil Rhodes, founded the city on 12 September 1890 as a fort. They named the city Fort Salisbury after The 3rd Marquess of Salisbury, then-Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, it subsequently became known as Salisbury; the Salisbury Polo Club was formed in 1896. It was declared to be a municipality in 1897 and it became a city in 1935; the area at the time of founding of the city was poorly drained and earliest development was on sloping ground along the left bank of a stream, now the course of a trunk road. The first area to be drained was near the head of the stream and was named Causeway as a result; this area is now the site of many of the most important government buildings, including the Senate House and the Office of the Prime Minister, now renamed for the use of the President after the position was abolished in January 1988. Salisbury was the capital of the self-governing British colony of Southern Rhodesia from 1923, of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland from 1953-63.
Ian Smith's Rhodesian Front government declared Rhodesia independent from the United Kingdom on 11 November 1965, proclaimed the Republic of Rhodesia in 1970. Subsequently, the nation became the short-lived state of Zimbabwe Rhodesia, it was not until 18 April 1980 that the country was internationally recognised as independent as the Republic of Zimbabwe; the name of the city was changed to Harare on 18 April 1982, the second anniversary of Zimbabwean independence, taking its name from the village near Harare Kopje of the Shona chief Neharawa, whose nickname was "he who does not sleep". Prior to independence, "Harare" was the name of the black residential area now known as Mbare. In the early twenty-first century, Harare has been adversely affected by the political and economic crisis, plaguing Zimbabwe, after the contested 2002 presidential election and 2005 parliamentary elections; the elected council was replaced by a government-appointed commission for alleged inefficiency, but essential services such as rubbish collection and street repairs have worsened, are now non-existent.
In May 2006, the Zimbabwean newspaper the Financial Gazette, described the city in an editorial as a "sunshine city-turned-sewage farm". In 2009, Harare was voted to be the toughest city to live in according to the Economist Intelligence Unit's livability poll; the situation was unchanged in 2011, according to the same poll, based on stability, healthcare and environment, infrastructure. In May 2005, the Zimbabwean government demolished shanties and backyard cottages in Harare and the other cities in the country in Operation Murambatsvina, it was alleged that the true purpose of the campaign was to punish the urban poor for supporting the opposition Movement for Democratic Change and to reduce the likelihood of mass action against the government by driving people out of the cities. The government claimed it was necessitated by a rise of disease; this was followed by Operation Garikayi/Hlalani Kuhle a year which consisted of building concrete housing of poor quality.. In late-March 2010, Harare's Joina City Tower was opened after fourteen years of delayed construction, marketed as Harare's new Pride.
Uptake of space in the tower was low, with office occupancy at only 3% in October 2011. By May 2013, office occupancy had risen to around half; the Economist Intelligence Unit rated Harare as the world's least liveable city out of 140 surveyed in February 2011, rising to 137th out of 140 in August 2012. In 2018, the Harare was ranked 137 out of the 140 surveyed cities by The Economist Intelligence Unit's Global Liveablity Ranking, making it the World's sixth least liveable city. During late-2012, plans to build a new capital district in Mt. Hampden, about twenty kilometres north-west of Harare's central business district, were announced and illustrations shown in Harare's daily newspapers; the location of this new district would imply an expansion into Zvimba District. The plan generated varied opinions. In March 2015, Harare City Council planned a two-year project to install 4,000 solar street lights, at a cost of $15,000,000 starting in the central business district. In November 2017, the biggest demonstration in the history of the Republic of Zimbabwe was held in Harare which led to the forced resignation of the long-serving 93-year-old President of Zimbabwe, Robert Mugabe an event, part of the first successful coup
Glean is the seventeenth studio album from New York City-based alternative rock band They Might Be Giants, released on April 21, 2015. It is composed of releases from the first four months of the band's 2015 Dial-A-Song project. In late 2014, the band began advertising the relaunch of their Dial-A-Song service, which had its origins in the early 1980s when the band would record songs onto an answering machine and advertise the phone number; the service was discontinued in 2006, but the band sought to restart it online. A modified version of the original phone number was reclaimed as well, both outlets were updated every Tuesday with a new recording starting in December 2014. Announced in late 2014 was the return of Instant Fan Club, a year-long subscription service offered by the band upon each of their studio album releases since 2011. Among the products promised to members were free digital downloads of all Dial-A-Song releases, CD copies of the band's upcoming rock and children's albums, as well as LP copies of each for "Super President" tier members.
This marked the announcement of the band's 17th and 18th albums. In mid-February, They Might Be Giants announced details on their upcoming rock album, including the title, some tracks, the release date. "Erase", released in January as the first Dial-A-Song track of 2015, was announced to be the lead single off Glean. Glean was released on April 20, 2015 in Europe on Lojinx and April 21 in America on the band's own Idlewild Recordings. CD and vinyl editions were included, along with digital releases of the album, the original releases of the songs via the Dial-A-Song service. Instant Fan Club members received CD copies of Glean upon its release. Super President tier members received copies with the booklet signed by both John Flansburgh and John Linnell. Australian copies came with a bonus CD of the Flood Live In Australia album, containing the entire Flood album performed live in reverse running order. All tracks are written by They Might Be Giants, except. John Flansburgh – vocals, etc. John Linnell – vocals, woodwinds, etc.
Marty Beller – drums, percussion Danny Weinkauf – bass Dan Miller – guitars Dan Levine – trombone on 4, 14 Curt Ramm – trumpet on 3, 4, 14 Stan Harrison – saxophones on 4, 6, 14 Rob Moose – violins on 4, 6, 9 Pat Dillett – co-producer, mixing Jon Altschuler – engineer UE Nastasi – mastering Paul Sahre – design.
The World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts is a global association supporting the female-oriented and female-only Guiding and Scouting organizations in 150 countries. It was established in 1928 in Parád, has its headquarters in London, England, it is the counterpart of the World Organization of the Scout Movement. WAGGGS operates five international Guiding centers, it holds full member status in the European Youth Forum, which operates within the Council of Europe and European Union areas and works with these bodies. The mission of the WAGGGS is to enable girls and young women to develop their fullest potential as responsible citizens of the world. WAGGGS provides a non-formal educational program that provides training in life skills and decision making, it offers projects and programs at an international level that enable Girl Guides and Girl Scouts to be responsible world citizens through action and activity in the community. WAGGGS is run by women for young women. Girl Guides and Girl Scouts are trained in leadership and decision-making, are encouraged to participate in the governance and leadership of WAGGGS.
Each individual unit is democratically run with Girl Guides and Girl Scouts involved in leadership and in decision making. Girl Guiding/Girl Scouting is open to all girls and young women without distinction of creed, nationality, or any other circumstance. WAGGGS believes that the education of girls, the education of boys, includes education for equal partnership. Young men and young women are taught to recognize their differences and their similarities, to respect each other as individuals. Girl Guiding/Girl Scouting is a voluntary organisation that relies on over 100,000 volunteers around the world to implement programs for Girl Guides and Girl Scouts, to give girls and young women support and leadership. There are over 10 million Girl Guides and Girl Scouts in 145 countries. Girl Guides and Girl Scouts from around the world can meet each other at international events at one of the five World Centers. There are many opportunities to attend international events run by the United Nations or other non-governmental organizations on behalf of the Association.
The WOSM is the non-governmental organization, that represents the Scouting movement at the United Nations. The WOSM and WAGGGS both have General Consultative Status with the United Nations Economic and Social Council. Girl Guiding/Girl Scouting is based on a core set of values that are found in the Girl Guide/Girl Scout Promise and Law; each Girl Guide and Girl Scout promises to do her best to her faith and to others, in so doing she realizes her fullest potential as a responsible citizen. Girl Guiding and Girl Scouting uses non-formal educational methods. Non-formal education is organized educational activity outside colleges; the key components of non-formal education are that: Young people can develop life skills and attitudes based on an integrated value system based on the Promise and Law. Young people learn from their peer group. Young people learn through activities and practical programs that are created by young people for young people Young people volunteer to join non-formal education organizations that are led by volunteers that ensure commitment and maximum learning.
Young people learn by progressive self-development through: Learning by doing, Teamwork though the patrol system and training for responsible leadership, Active cooperation between young people and adults. Each Guide/Girl Scout defines her own progress and development according to her needs and aspirations within the framework program provided; this contrasts with many formal education systems where young people must fit themselves into a rigid structure with little recognition of individual needs and differences. The Girl Guide/Girl Scout method is the specific way that the leadership works with girls and young women to achieve the mission of WAGGGS, it is an integrated approach with certain key elements: The Girl Guiding/Girl Scouting method can be used effectively with girls of all ages and backgrounds. In his book "Girl Guiding," Lord Baden-Powell wrote: "Our method of training is to educate from within rather than to instruct from without. Senator Hillary Clinton, the Rt. Hon Dr. Marjorie Mowlam MP, Roberta Bondar Ph.
D. MD, Betty Okwir are just a few former and current Girl Guides and Girl Scouts. In 1965, Dame Leslie Whateley of the then-Girl Guides World Bureau was awarded the Bronze Wolf, the only distinction of the World Organization of the Scout Movement, awarded by the World Scout Committee for exceptional services to world Scouting. Amongst its global initiatives, Free Being Me, a collaboration between WAGGS and Unilever's Dove Self Esteem Project was launched in October 2013, with the aim of increasing "self-esteem and body confidence" in girls. Girl Guides were formed in 1910 by Robert Baden-Powell, with the assistance of his sister Agnes Baden-Powell. After his marriage in 1912, his wife Olave Baden-Powell took a leading role in the development of Girl Guiding and Girl Scouting; as the movement spread, independent national Guiding associations were set up. Lady Baden-Powell founded an informal International Council in London in February 1918. At the fourth World Conference held at Camp Edith Macy in 1926, representativ
Guy A. Richard, is a former lawyer and former Chief Justice of the Queen's Bench of New Brunswick from 1982 to 1994. Richard was born in Sainte-Anne-de-Kent, the son of André F. Richard, who served as a MLA, he was a lawyer in Bouctouche from 1958 to 1971. In 1971, he was appointed a Judge of the Provincial Court of New Brunswick, serving in the Northwestern area. In 1976, he was appointed a Judge of the Court of Queen’s Bench. In 1979, he was appointed a Justice of the New Brunswick Court of Appeal. In 1982, Mr. Richard was named Chief Justice of the Court of Queen's Bench of New Brunswick and served the people of his province in that role until his retirement in 1994. Post-retirement, he continued to serve as an adjudicator, notably as mediator in the strike between Canada Post Corporation and the Canadian Union of Postal Workers in 1998. In 2001, he led a committee on the future of the Université de Moncton, helping the university set its future course as a comprehensive, francophone institution of higher learning and research.
In 2003, he served with fellow Order of New Brunswick inductee Roger Augustine as mediator during the dispute between non-Aboriginal and Aboriginal fishers at Burnt Church. In 2004, Mr. Richard was appointed Chair of the Federal Electoral Boundaries Commission of New Brunswick and retired from judicial duties in the summer of 2007. In 1987, the Université de Moncton offered him an honorary doctorate degree, he is married to Germaine Theriault. They had 5 children, Andre G. Richard Q. C. Chief Justice Jolene Richard, Denis Richard, Martine Richard, Dr. Carole Richard
Shakeel Ahmad Bhat is a Kashmiri activist. He has been in photographs on the front pages of many newspapers and has become a cult figure on the Internet, he has been featured in newspapers such as the Times of India, Middle East Times, France 24, The Sunday Mail He has been nicknamed Islamic Rage Boy by several bloggers. He was born into a Sufi family in India, he claims that, around 1990, during a raid on his home, Indian police threw his sister Shareefa out of an upstairs window. He lives in Kashmir, where he is seen participating in demonstrations. Due to his angry look, he is photographed by journalists, he took part in protests against the Indian Army, Pope Benedict, Salman Rushdie, the Muhammed cartoons. He was spent three years in prison, he claims that he has been detained 300 times since 1997. He was featured in numerous blogs and articles by Christopher Hitchens, Robert Spencer, Kathleen Parker, Michelle Malkin, others. On various blogs, he was photoshopped as an opera singer, his picture has been printed on T-shirts, mouse-pads, beer mugs.
Chico DeBarge is the eponymous debut album from R&B/soul singer Chico DeBarge. It includes the hit single "Talk To Me", it peaked at number 90 on the Billboard 200 album chart. Chico DeBarge appeared on Season 3 of Punky Brewster with his brothers of DeBarge in the episode "Reading and Rock & Roll" on October 30, 1987 Chico sang Cross That Line. Chico DeBarge: Vocal Dee Dee Belson, Maxie Anderson, Alfie Silas, Maxie Anderson, Phyllis St. James, Darrell DeBarge, James DeBarge, Gary Taylor, David Paul Bryant: Backing Vocals Dann Huff, Thomas Organ, Larry Lingle, Paul Jackson Jr. Nick Mundy: Guitars