The Malayan Campaign was a military campaign fought by Allied and Axis forces in Malaya, from 8 December 1941 – 31 January 1942 during the Second World War. It was dominated by land battles between British Commonwealth army units, the Imperial Japanese Army with minor skirmishes at the beginning of the campaign between British Commonwealth and Royal Thai Armed Forces; the Japanese had air and naval supremacy from the opening days of the campaign. For the British, Indian and Malayan forces defending the colony, the campaign was a total disaster; the operation is notable for the Japanese use of bicycle infantry, which allowed troops to carry more equipment and swiftly move through thick jungle terrain. Royal Engineers, equipped with demolition charges, destroyed over a hundred bridges during the retreat, yet this did little to delay the Japanese. By the time the Japanese had captured Singapore, they had suffered 9,657 casualties. By 1941 the Japanese had been engaged for four years in trying to subjugate China.
They were reliant on imported materials for their military forces oil from the United States. From 1940 to 1941, the United States, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands imposed embargoes on supplying oil and war materials to Japan; the object of the embargoes was to assist the Chinese and encourage the Japanese to halt military action in China. The Japanese considered that pulling out of China would result in a loss of face and decided instead to take military action against US, British and Dutch territories in South East Asia; the Japanese forces for the invasion were assembled in 1941 on Hainan Island and in French Indochina. This troop build-up was noticed by the Allies and, when asked, the Japanese advised that it related to its operations in China; when the Japanese invaded, they had over 200 tanks, consisting of the Type 95 Ha-Go, Type 97 Chi-Ha, Type 89 I-Go and Type 97 Te-Ke. In addition, they had over 500 combat aircraft available. Commonwealth troops were equipped with the Lanchester 6x4 Armoured Car, Marmon-Herrington Armoured Car, Universal Carrier and only 23 obsolete Mk VIB light tanks, none of which were sufficiently armed for armoured warfare.
They had just over 250 combat aircraft, but half of these were destroyed inside the first few days of combat. Between the wars, the British military strategy in the Far East was undermined by a lack of attention and funding. In 1937, Major-General William Dobbie, General Officer Commanding Malaya, looked at Malaya's defences and reported that during the monsoon season, from October to March, landings could be made by an enemy on the east coast and bases could be established in Siam, he predicted that landings could be made at Songkhla and Pattani in Siam, Kota Bharu in Malaya. He recommended large reinforcements to be sent immediately, his predictions turned out to be correct. The British government's plans relied on the stationing of a strong fleet at the Singapore Naval Base in the event of any enemy hostility, in order to defend both Britain's Far Eastern possessions and the route to Australia. A strong naval presence was thought to act as a deterrent against possible aggressors. By 1940, the army commander in Malaya, Lieutenant-General Lionel Bond, conceded that a successful defence of Singapore demanded the defence of the whole peninsula, that the naval base alone would not be sufficient to deter a Japanese invasion.
Military planners concluded that the desired Malayan air force strength would be 300–500 aircraft, but this was never reached because of the higher priorities in the allocation of men and material for Britain and the Middle East. The defence strategy for Malaya rested on two basic assumptions: first, that there would be sufficient early warning of an attack to allow for reinforcement of British troops, second, that American help was at hand in case of attack. By late 1941, after Lieutenant-General Arthur E. Percival had taken over as GOC Malaya, it became clear that neither of these assumptions had any real substance. In addition and Roosevelt had agreed that in the event of war breaking out in South East Asia, priority would be given to finishing the war in Europe; the east, until that time, would be a secondary priority. Containment was considered the primary strategy in the east. Planning for this offensive was undertaken by the Japanese Military Affairs Bureau's Unit 82 based in Taiwan. Intelligence on Malaya was gathered through a network of agents which included Japanese embassy staff.
Japanese spies, which included a British intelligence officer, Captain Patrick Stanley Vaughan Heenan provided intelligence and assistance. Prior to hostilities Japanese intelligence officers like Iwaichi Fujiwara had established covert intelligence offices that linked up with the Malay and Indian pro-independence organisations such as Kesatuan Melayu Muda in Malaya Indian Independence League; the Japanese gave these movements financial support in return for their members providing intelligence and assistance in determining Allied troop movements and dispositions prior to the invasion. Through the operation of these networks prior to the invasion the Japanese knew where the Commonwealth forces were based and their unit strengths, had good maps of Malaya, had local guides available to provide them with directions. In November 1941 the British became aware of the large scale buildup of Japanese troops in French Indo-China. Thailand was seen to be under threat from this build
Lahore is a city in the Pakistani province of Punjab. Lahore is the country's second-most populous city after Karachi, is one of Pakistan's wealthiest cities with an estimated GDP of $58.14 billion as of 2015. Lahore is the largest city, historic cultural centre of the Punjab region, one of Pakistan's most liberal and cosmopolitan cities. Lahore's origins reach into antiquity; the city has been controlled by numerous empires throughout the course of its history, including the Hindu Shahis, Ghaznavids and Delhi Sultanate by the medieval era. Lahore reached the height of its splendour under the Mughal Empire between the late 16th and early 18th century, served as its capital city for a number of years; the city was captured by the forces of the Afsharid ruler Nader Shah in 1739, fell into a period of decay while being contested between the Afghans and the Sikhs. Lahore became capital of the Sikh Empire in the early 19th century, regained much of its lost grandeur. Lahore was annexed to the British Empire, made capital of British Punjab.
Lahore was central to the independence movements of both India and Pakistan, with the city being the site of both the declaration of Indian Independence, the resolution calling for the establishment of Pakistan. Lahore experienced some of the worst rioting during the Partition period preceding Pakistan's independence. Following independence in 1947, Lahore was declared capital of Pakistan's Punjab province. Lahore exerts a strong cultural influence over Pakistan. Lahore is a major centre for Pakistan's publishing industry, remains the foremost centre of Pakistan's literary scene; the city is a major centre of education in Pakistan, with some of Pakistan's leading universities based in the city. Lahore is home to Pakistan's film industry, is a major centre of Qawwali music; the city hosts much of Pakistan's tourist industry, with major attractions including the Walled City, the famous Badshahi and Wazir Khan mosques and Sikh shrines. Lahore is home to the Lahore Fort and Shalimar Gardens, both of which are UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
The origins of Lahore's name are unclear. Lahore's name had been recorded by early Muslim historians as Lōhar, Lōhār, Rahwar. Al-Biruni referred to the city as Lohāwar in his 11th century work, while the poet Amir Khusrow, who lived during the Delhi Sultanate, recorded the city's name as Lāhanūr. Medieval Rajput sources recorded the city's name as Lavkot. One theory suggests that Lahore's name is a corruption of the word Ravāwar, as R to L shifts are common in languages derived from Sanskrit. Ravāwar is the simplified pronunciation of the name Iravatyāwar - a name derived from the Ravi River, known as the Iravati River in the Vedas. Another theory suggests the city's name may derive from the word Lohar, meaning "blacksmith."According to Hindu legend, Lahore's name derives from Lavpur or Lavapuri, is said to have been founded by Prince Lava, the son of Sita and Rama. The same account attributes the founding of nearby Kasur by his twin brother Prince Kusha, Historic record shows, that Kasur was founded by Pashtun migrants in 1525.
No definitive records exist to elucidate Lahore's earliest history, Lahore's ambiguous early history have given rise to various theories about its establishment and history. Hindu mythology states that Keneksen, the founder of the mythological Suryavansha dynasty, is believed to have migrated out from the city. Early records of Lahore are scant, but Alexander the Great's historians make no mention of any city near Lahore's location during his invasion in 326 BCE, suggesting the city had not been founded by that point, or was unimportant. Ptolemy mentions in his Geographia a city called Labokla situated near the Chenab and Ravi River which may have been in reference to ancient Lahore, or an abandoned predecessor of the city. Chinese pilgrim Xuanzang gave a vivid description of a large and prosperous unnamed city when he visited the region in 630 CE, identified as Lahore; the first document that mentions Lahore by name is the Hudud al-'Alam, written in 982 C. E. in which Lahore is mentioned as a town which had "impressive temples, large markets and huge orchards."Few other references to Lahore remain from before its capture by the Ghaznavid Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni in the 11th century.
Lahore appears to have served as the capital of Punjab during this time under Anandapala of the Kabul Shahi empire, who had moved the capital there from Waihind. The capital would be moved to Sialkot following Ghaznavid incursions. Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni captured Lahore on an uncertain date, but under Ghaznavid rule, Lahore emerged as the empire's second capital. In 1021, Sultan Mahmud appointed Malik Ayaz to the Throne of Lahore—a governorship of the Ghaznavid Empire; the city was captured by Nialtigin, the rebellious Governor of Multan, in 1034, although his forces were expelled by Malik Ayaz in 1036. With the support of Sultan Ibrahim Ghaznavi, Malik Ayaz rebuilt and repopulated the city, devastated after the Ghaznavid invasion. Ayaz erected city walls and a masonry fort built in 1037–1040 on the ruins of the previous one, demolished during the Ghaznavid invasion. A confederation of Hindu princes unsuccessfully laid siege to Lahore in 1043-44 during Ayaz' rule; the city became a academic centre, renowned for poetry under Malik Ayaz' reign.
Lahore was formally made the eastern capital of the Ghaznavid empire in 1152, under the reign of Khusrau Shah. The city became the sole capital of the Ghaznavid empire in 1163 after the fall of Ghazni; the entire city of Lahore during the medieval Ghaznavid era was probably
Indo-Pakistani War of 1965
The Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 was a culmination of skirmishes that took place between April 1965 and September 1965 between Pakistan and India. The conflict began following Pakistan's Operation Gibraltar, designed to infiltrate forces into Jammu and Kashmir to precipitate an insurgency against Indian rule. India retaliated by launching a full-scale military attack on West Pakistan; the seventeen-day war caused thousands of casualties on both sides and witnessed the largest engagement of armored vehicles and the largest tank battle since World War II. Hostilities between the two countries ended after a United Nations-mandated ceasefire was declared following diplomatic intervention by the Soviet Union and the United States, the subsequent issuance of the Tashkent Declaration. Much of the war was fought by the countries' land forces in Kashmir and along the border between India and Pakistan; this war saw the largest amassing of troops in Kashmir since the Partition of British India in 1947, a number, overshadowed only during the 2001–2002 military standoff between India and Pakistan.
Most of the battles were fought by opposing infantry and armoured units, with substantial backing from air forces, naval operations. Many details of this war, like those of other Indo-Pakistani Wars, remain unclear. India had the upper hand over Pakistan. Although the two countries fought to a standoff, the conflict is seen as a strategic and political defeat for Pakistan, as it had neither succeeded in fomenting insurrection in Kashmir nor had it been able to gain meaningful support at an international level. Internationally, the war was viewed in the context of the greater Cold War, resulted in a significant geopolitical shift in the subcontinent. Before the war, the United States and the United Kingdom had been major material allies of both India and Pakistan, as their primary suppliers of military hardware and foreign developmental aid. During and after the conflict, both India and Pakistan felt betrayed by the perceived lack of support by the western powers for their respective positions.
As a consequence and Pakistan developed closer relationships with the Soviet Union and China, respectively. The perceived negative stance of the western powers during the conflict, during the 1971 war, has continued to affect relations between the West and the subcontinent. In spite of improved relations with the U. S. and Britain since the end of the Cold War, the conflict generated a deep distrust of both countries within the subcontinent which to an extent lingers to this day. Since the Partition of British India in 1947, Pakistan and India remained in contention over several issues. Although the Kashmir conflict was the predominant issue dividing the nations, other border disputes existed, most notably over the Rann of Kutch, a barren region in the Indian state of Gujarat; the issue first arose in 1956. Pakistani patrols began patrolling in territory controlled by India in January 1965, followed by attacks by both countries on each other's posts on 8 April 1965. Involving border police from both nations, the disputed area soon witnessed intermittent skirmishes between the countries' armed forces.
In June 1965, British Prime Minister Harold Wilson persuaded both countries to end hostilities and set up a tribunal to resolve the dispute. The verdict, which came in 1968, saw Pakistan awarded 350 square miles of the Rann of Kutch, as against its original claim of 3,500 square miles. After its success in the Rann of Kutch, under the leadership of General Ayub Khan, believed the Indian Army would be unable to defend itself against a quick military campaign in the disputed territory of Kashmir as the Indian military had suffered a loss to China in 1962 in the Sino-Indian War. Pakistan believed that the population of Kashmir was discontented with Indian rule and that a resistance movement could be ignited by a few infiltrating saboteurs. Pakistan attempted to ignite the resistance movement by means of a covert infiltration, codenamed Operation Gibraltar; the Pakistani infiltrators were soon discovered, their presence reported by local Kashmiris, the operation ended unsuccessfully. On 5 August 1965 between 26,000 and 33,000 Pakistani soldiers crossed the Line of Control dressed as Kashmiri locals headed for various areas within Kashmir.
Indian forces, tipped off by the local populace, crossed the cease fire line on 15 August. The Indian Army met with considerable success, capturing three important mountain positions after a prolonged artillery barrage. By the end of August, both sides had relative progress. On 1 September 1965, Pakistan launched a counterattack, called Operation Grand Slam, with the objective to capture the vital town of Akhnoor in Jammu, which would sever communications and cut off supply routes to Indian troops. Ayub Khan calculated that "Hindu morale would not stand more than a couple of hard blows at the right time and place" although by this time Operation Gibraltar had failed and India had captured the Haji Pir Pass. At 3:30 hours, on 1 September 1965, the entire Chhamb area came under massive artillery bombardment. Pakistan had launched operation Grand Slam and India's Army Headquarter was taken by surprise. Attacking with an overwhelming ratio of troops and technically superior tanks, Pakistan made gains against Indian forces, who were caught unprepared and suffered heav
Shimla known as Simla, is the capital and the largest city of the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh. Shimla is a district, bounded by the state of Uttarakhand in the south-east, districts of Mandi and Kullu in the north, Kinnaur in the east, Sirmaur in the south and Solan in the west. In 1864, Shimla was declared as the summer capital of British India, succeeding Murree, northeast of Rawalpindi. After independence, the city became the capital of Punjab and was made the capital of Himachal Pradesh, it is the principal commercial and educational centre of the state. Small hamlets were recorded prior to 1815; the climatic conditions attracted the British to establish the city in the dense forests of Himalayas. As the summer capital, Shimla hosted many important political meetings including the Simla Accord of 1914 and the Simla Conference of 1945. After independence, the state of Himachal Pradesh came into being in 1948 as a result of integration of 28 princely states. After independence, the city remained an important political centre, hosting the Simla Agreement of 1972.
After reorganisation of state of Himachal Pradesh, the existing Mahasu district was named Shimla. Shimla is home to a number of buildings that are styled in the Tudorbethan and neo-Gothic architectures dating from the colonial era, as well as multiple temples and churches; the colonial architecture and churches, the temples and the natural environment of the city attracts tourists. Attractions include the Viceroy Lodge, the Christ Church, the Jakhoo Temple, the Mall Road and the Ridge, which together form the city centre; the Kalka–Shimla Railway line built by the British, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is a major tourist attraction. Owing to its steep terrain, Shimla hosts the mountain biking race MTB Himalaya, which started in 2005 and is regarded as the biggest event of its kind in South Asia. Shimla has the largest natural ice skating rink in South Asia. Apart from being a tourism centre, the city is an educational hub with a number of colleges and research institutions. Most of the area occupied by present-day Shimla city was dense forest during the 18th century.
The only civilisation was a few scattered houses. The area was named after a Hindu goddess, Shyamala Devi, an incarnation of Kali; the area of present-day Shimla was invaded and captured by Bhimsen Thapa of Nepal in 1806. The British East India Company took control of the territory as per the Sugauli Treaty after the Anglo-Nepalese War; the Gurkha leaders were quelled by storming the fort of Malaun under the command of David Ochterlony in May 1815. In a diary entry dated 30 August 1817, the Gerard brothers, who surveyed the area, describe Shimla as "a middling-sized village where a fakir is situated to give water to the travellers". In 1819, Lieutenant Ross, the Assistant Political Agent in the Hill States, set up a wood cottage in Shimla. Three years his successor and the Scottish civil servant Charles Pratt Kennedy built the first pucca house in the area in 1822, near what is now the Himachal Pradesh Legislative Assembly building; the accounts of the Britain-like climate started attracting several British officers to the area during the hot Indian summers.
By 1826, some officers had started spending their entire vacation in Shimla. In 1827, Lord Amherst, the Governor-General of Bengal, visited Shimla and stayed in the Kennedy House. A year Lord Combermere, the Commander-in-Chief of the British forces in India, stayed at the same residence. During his stay, a three-mile road and a bridge were constructed near Jakhu. In 1830, the British acquired the surrounding land from the chiefs of Keonthal and Patiala in exchange for the Rawin pargana and a portion of the Bharauli pargana; the settlement grew after this, from 30 houses in 1830 to 1,141 houses in 1881. In 1832, Shimla saw its first political meeting: between the Governor-General William Bentinck and the emissaries of Maharaja Ranjit Singh. In a letter to Colonel Churchill, he wrote: Combermere's successor Earl Dalhousie visited Shimla in the same year. After this, the town was under Nawab Kumar Ghosal of Bally, West Bengal and saw regular visits from the Governors General and Commanders-in-Chief of British India.
A number of young British officers started visiting the area to socialise with the higher-ups. Shimla thus became a hill station famous for balls and other festivities. Subsequently, residential schools for pupils from upper-class families were established nearby. By the late 1830s, the city became a centre for theatre and art exhibitions; as the population increased, a number of bungalows were built and a big bazaar was established in the town. The Indian businessmen from Sood and Parsi communities, arrived in the area to cater to the needs of the growing European population. On 9 September 1844 the foundation of the Christ Church was laid. Subsequently, several roads were widened and the construction of the Hindustan-Tibet road with a 560-feet tunnel was taken up in 1851–52; this tunnel, now known as the Dhalli Tunnel, was started by a Major Briggs in 1850 and completed in the winter of 1851–52. The 1857 uprising caused a panic among the European residents of the town, but Shimla remained unaffected by the rebellion.
In 1863, the Viceroy of India, John Lawrence, decided to shift the summer capital of the British Raj to Shimla. He took the trouble of moving the administration twice a year between Calcutta and this separate centre over 1,000 miles away, despite the fact that it was difficult to reach. Lord Lytton made efforts to plan the town from
The Sikh Regiment is an infantry regiment of the Indian Army that recruits from the Sikh community. It is the most decorated regiment of the Indian Army and in 1979, the 1st battalion was the Commonwealth's most decorated battalion with 245 pre-independence and 82 post-independence gallantry awards, when it was transformed into the 4th battalion, Mechanised Infantry Regiment; the first battalion of the regiment was raised just before the annexation of the Sikh Empire on August 1 1846, by the British East India Company. The Sikh Regimental Centre is located in Ramgarh Cantonment, Jharkhand; the Centre was earlier located in Uttar Pradesh. The modern Sikh Regiment traces its roots directly from the 11th Sikh Regiment of the British Indian Army; when transferred to the Indian Army like its sister regiments, the numeral prefix was removed and extra battalions were raised, transferred or disbanded to meet army needs. With a humble beginning of two battalions, today the fraternity has grown to a regiment of 19 regular infantry and two reserve battalions strong.
After the First Anglo-Sikh War, Sikhs who lived in the territory ruled by the Sikh Empire began to be recruited into the Bengal Army of the British East India Company. Among the earliest Sikh units of the Bengal Army were the Regiment of Ferozepore which became the 14th King George's Own Ferozepore Sikhs, the Regiment of Ludhiana which became the 15th Ludhiana Sikhs. After the Second Anglo-Sikh War more Punjabis began to be recruited into the Bengal Army, forming regiments such as the 1st Bengal Military Police Battalion, which became the 45th Rattray's Sikhs. Sikh units remained loyal to the British during the Indian Rebellion of 1857, in which many regiments of the Bengal Army mutinied against their British officers. After the rebellion, troops from Bihar and Awadh were recruited less. A number of new Sikh regiments were raised, such as the 36th Sikhs and 35th Sikhs, both raised in 1887. 21 soldiers of the 36th Sikhs fought in the Battle of Saragarhi against 6,000-10,000 Pashtun tribesmen in 1897 during campaigns in the North-West Frontier, in what is considered by some military historians as one of history's greatest last stands.
In 1922 the Indian government reformed the British Indian Army by amalgamating single battalion regiments into multi-battalion regiments. The 11th Sikh Regiment served during World War II and on the partition of India, the regiment was allotted to the newly formed Indian Army, becoming the Sikh Regiment; as part of the British Indian Army, Sikh regiments fought in numerous wars all over the world, such as the Second Opium War in China, the Second Anglo-Afghan War, many campaigns on the North-West Frontier, the Western Front and Mesopotamia campaigns of the First World War, the Third Anglo-Afghan War, the North African and Burma campaigns of the Second World War, earning many gallantry awards and battle honours in the process. During the Indo-Pakistani War of 1947-1948, the 1st battalion of the Sikh Regiment was the first unit to be airlifted to Srinagar to aid in the defence of the Kashmir Valley against Pakistani irregular forces. Battalions of the Sikh Regiment fought in the Sino-Indian War in 1962, the Indo-Pakistani wars of 1965 and 1971, the Kargil War in 1999.
Enlisted soldiers are recruited from the Jat Sikhs of Punjab and its surrounding states. They trained in the Sikh Regimental Centre located in Ramgarh Cantonment, Jharkhand; the war cry of regiment, taken from Sikh scriptures, is Bole So Sat Sri Akal. In a departure from the single class composition, the 13th battalion was raised with multiple class composition: a company each of Jat Sikhs, Dogras and South Indians; however these units were reverted to their original class composition later. 2nd Battalion 3rd Battalion 4th Battalion 5th Battalion 6th Battalion 7th Battalion 8th Battalion 10th Battalion 11th Battalion 13th Battalion 14th Battalion 16th Battalion 17th Battalion 18th Battalion 19th Battalion 20th Battalion 21st Battalion 22nd Battalion 23rd Battalion 24th Battalion 124 Infantry Battalion Territorial Army 152 Infantry Battalion Territorial Army 167 Infantry Battalion Territorial Army Others: 1st Battalion is now 4th Battalion, Mechanised Infantry Regiment 9th Battalion was disbanded in 1984 Pre-IndependenceLucknow 1857-58, 1 Sikh Arrah 1857, 3 Sikh Bihar 1857, 3 Sikh China 1860-62, 2 Sikh Ali Masjid 1878, 1 & 3 Sikh Ahmed Khel 1880, 2 Sikh Afghanistan 1878-79, 1 Sikh Afghanistan 1878-80, 2 & 3 Sikh Kandahar 1880, 2 Sikh Suakin 1885, 2 Sikh Tofrek 1885, 2 Sikh Manipur 1891, 4 Sikh Chitral 1895, 1 & 2 Sikh Samana 1897, 4 Sikh Saragarhi/Gulistan 1897, 4 Sikh Punjab Frontier 1897, 2, 3, 4 & 35 Sikh Malakand 1897, 3 & 35 Sikh Tirah 1897-98, 2 & 4 Sikh China 1900, 1 Sikh North-West Frontier 1908, 3 SikhWorld War I La Bassée 1914, 2 & 5 Sikh St-Julien 1914, 2 & 5 Sikh Armentières 1914-15, 5 Sikh Auber 1914, 2 & 5 Sikh Givens 1914, 4 Sikh Tsingtao 1914, 4 & 5 Sikh Neuve Chapelle 1914-15, 2, 3 & 5 Sikh France and Flanders 1914-15, 2 & 5 Sikh Suez Canal 1914-15, 1 Sikh Festubert 1915, 2 Sikh Tigris 1916, 3 & 5 Sikh Pyres 1915, 2 & 4 Sikh Sari Bair 1915, 1 Sikh Helles 1915, 1 Sikh Krishna 1915, 1 Sikh Suva 1915, 1 Sikh Gall
Uri, Jammu and Kashmir
Uri is a town and a tehsil in the Baramulla district, in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. Uri is located on the left bank of the Jhelum River, about 10 kilometres east of the Line of Control with Pakistan. Uri is located at the entrance to the Kashmir Valley from the west. Prior to the partition of Kashmir, the road linked Uri to Srinagar. Another important road linked Uri to Poonch via the Haji Pir pass. Uri is at a distance of 76 miles 42 miles from Muzaffarabad and 49 miles from Poonch. Hari Singh Nalwa, the Sikh commander-administrator of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, built the fort of Uri. Following the First Anglo-Sikh War and the Treaty of Amritsar, Raja Gulab Singh was proclaimed the Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir, acquiring all the lands between the Ravi River and the Indus. Uri became a tehsil in the Muzaffarabad district of the Kashmir province. On 22 October 1947, the tribal invasion led to the fall of Muzaffarabad and Uri to the Pashtun tribes from Pakistan; the raiders halted at Baramulla.
Following the accession of the Maharaja to India on 26 October, India air lifted troops to the Kashmir Valley, who retook Baramulla and Uri by mid-November. The Indian government attached utmost importance to the defence of Uri. Muzaffarabad, on the other hand, came under Pakistani control and became the capital of Azad Kashmir; the tehsil of Uri was subsequently merged into the Baramulla district. At around 5:30 a.m. on 18 September, four terrorists attacked an Indian Army Brigade headquarters at Uri near the Line of Control. They are said to have lobbed 17 grenades in 3 minutes. A rear administrative base camp with tents caught. A six-hour gun battle ensued. An additional 19-30 soldiers were reported to have been injured in the attack; as of 2011, the town of Uri has a population of 9,366 of which 6,674 are males and 2,692 are females according to the report published by Census India in 2011. Uri has an average literacy rate of 88.46%, higher than the national average of 76%. Male literacy is 95.27%, female literacy is 70.02%.
Child sex ratio is 851 as compared to state average of 862 and the population of children under 6 years of age is 879, 9.39% of the total population. Dasgupta, C. War and Diplomacy in Kashmir, 1947-48, SAGE Publications, ISBN 978-81-321-1795-7 Raghavan, Srinath and Peace in Modern India: A Strategic History of the Nehru Years, Palgrave Macmillan, ISBN 978-1-137-00737-7 Snedden, Kashmir: The Unwritten History, HarperCollins India, ISBN 9350298988 A town called Uri — How the September 18 attack may now change it, The Indian Express, 25 September 2016
Ambala, is a city and a municipal corporation in Ambala district in the state of Haryana, located on the border with the Indian state of Punjab and in proximity to both states capital Chandigarh. Politically, it has a large Indian Indian Air Force presence within its cantonment area. Ambala separates the Ganges river network from the Indus river network and is surrounded by two rivers – Ghaggar and Tangri – to the north and to the south. Due to its geographical location, the Ambala district plays an important role in local tourism, being located 47 km south of Chandigarh, the state capital, 148 km southwest of Shimla, 198 km north of New Delhi and 260 km southeast of Amritsar. Gurudwara Manji Sahib is situated in Ambala; the town is said to derive its name from Amba Rajput who founded it during the 14th century CE. According to another version, it is named after goddess "Bhawani Amba" whose temple still exists in Ambala city. Third version mentions that the name is a corruption of Amba Wala meaning the mango-village, from mango groves which existed in its immediate neighborhood.
Archaeological Surveyor C. J Rodgers found Indo-Parthian Kingdom coins as well as coins of Hunas and Toramana which indicated that after the disintegration of the Mauryan empire, the area was taken over by Indo-Parthians and was incorporated in the domain of the Hunas. In 1709, Battle of Ambala was fought and Sikhs captured Ambala from mughals. Ambala Army Cantonment was established in 1843 after the British were forced to leave its Karnal Cantonment following the malaria epidemic of 1841–42 in as there were not any known effective means to control malaria epidemic in those days; the cantonment houses one of the three Strike Corps of the Indian Army. Ambala Air Force Base is one of the oldest and largest airbases that were inherited from the British by the IAF, it was from this airbase that Spitfires and Harvards flown by Instructors of the Advanced Flying Training School took part in the Indo-Pakistani War of 1947–1948. Subsequently, Ambala was the front line airfield for many years, it was home to various aircraft.
Vampires, Hunters, etc. all flew from this base. The airbase was attacked in 1965 by B-57 bombers of the Pakistan Air Force. Today, the Airbase houses the' 7 Wing' with squadrons of MiG-21 Bisons. A unit of the French-made Dassault Rafale will be based at Ambala air base. Ambala Cantonment is location of historic European Cemetery. Ambala was given the status of a district in 1847, formed by the merging of the jagir estates of hitherto independent chieftains whose territories had lapsed or had been confiscated by the British Indian Government. In its 160 years of existence as a district, Ambala has witnessed many changes in its boundaries, it extended across tehsils of Ambala, Jagadhri, Kharar and Nalagarh. Kalka-cum-Kurari State, Mani Majra, Kasauli & Sanawar were merged into the district at different times. For their participation in first war of independence, the Chaudharys and Lambardars of villages who participated in rebellion were deprived of their land and property, including 368 people of Hisar and Gurugram were hanged or transported for life, fine was imposed on the people of Thanesar and Rohtak.
In November 1949 Mahatma Gandhi's assassin, Nathuram Godse was hanged at Ambala Central Jail along with Narayan Apte, a co-conspirator. Ambala Cantt is mentioned in Kim by Rudyard Kipling; as of 2011 India census, Ambala UA had a population of 207,934 consisting of 112,840 males and 95,094 females, a ratio of 843. There were 20,687 children 0-6 and Ambala had an average literacy rate of 89.31%, with 91.76% of males and 86.41% of females literate. "Cloth Market" is the charm of the city. The cloth market has a dense cluster of 900-1000 wholesale shops; the market possesses a wide range of cloth items: Hand-loom Silk and Sarees Suitings and Shirtings All kinds of dress materialThe areas surrounding the market thrive on this market for occupation. Market provides all kinds of cloth tailoring related and other transportation occupations to semi-urban areas around; this market remains closed on Thursday, Republic Day, Independence Day and Dussehra are the only other days the market remains closed. Himachal Pradesh and Punjab are major parts.
Silk and Sarees are one of the major type of cloth sold by volume. Ambala used to be a hub of hand-loom factories, man operated industry, which has vanished; this market is regarded as the largest cloth trading market in the sub-continent. Ambala has a large number of colleges. Notable colleges include:- Convent of Jesus and Mary, Ambala E-Max School of Engineering and Applied Research Government Polytechnic College, Ambala Maharishi Markandeshwar University, Mullana Sanatan Dharma College Shri Atmanand Jain Institute of Management and Technology Philadelphia Hospital & School of Nursing, Ambala Ambala is connected to all of the other major cities of north India including Delhi, Kaithal, Ludhiana and Shimla, it is a big interchange for various commuters for all neighbouring states. The Ambala Cantt bus stand witnesses 50,000 commuters daily. National highway NH 1 popularly known as GT road passes through Ambala and connects it to National capital Delhi, Panipat and Amrits