Demography is the statistical study of populations, especially human beings. As a very general science, it can analyse any kind of dynamic living population, Demography encompasses the study of the size and distribution of these populations, and spatial or temporal changes in them in response to birth, migration and death. Based on the research of the earth, earths population up to the year 2050 and 2100 can be estimated by demographers. Demographics are quantifiable characteristics of a given population, demographic analysis can cover whole societies or groups defined by criteria such as education, nationality and ethnicity. Educational institutions usually treat demography as a field of sociology, though there are a number of independent demography departments, demographic thoughts can be traced back to antiquity, and were present in many civilizations and cultures, like Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome and China. In ancient Greece, this can be found in the writings of Herodotus, Hippocrates, Protagoras, Polus and Aristotle.
In Rome and philosophers like Cicero, Pliny the elder, Marcus Aurelius, Cato, in the Middle ages, Christian thinkers devoted much time in refuting the Classical ideas on demography. Important contributors to the field were William of Conches, Bartholomew of Lucca, William of Auvergne, William of Pagula, and Ibn Khaldun. One of the earliest demographic studies in the period was Natural and Political Observations Made upon the Bills of Mortality by John Graunt. Among the studys findings were that one third of the children in London died before their sixteenth birthday, such as Edmond Halley, developed the life table as the basis for life insurance mathematics. Richard Price was credited with the first textbook on life contingencies published in 1771, followed by Augustus de Morgan, at the end of the 18th century, Thomas Robert Malthus concluded that, if unchecked, populations would be subject to exponential growth. He feared that population growth would tend to outstrip growth in production, leading to ever-increasing famine.
He is seen as the father of ideas of overpopulation. Later, more sophisticated and realistic models were presented by Benjamin Gompertz, the period 1860-1910 can be characterized as a period of transition wherein demography emerged from statistics as a separate field of interest. There are two types of data collection—direct and indirect—with several different methods of each type, direct data comes from vital statistics registries that track all births and deaths as well as certain changes in legal status such as marriage and migration. In developed countries with good registration systems, registry statistics are the best method for estimating the number of births and deaths, a census is the other common direct method of collecting demographic data. A census is conducted by a national government and attempts to enumerate every person in a country. Analyses are conducted after a census to estimate how much over or undercounting took place and these compare the sex ratios from the census data to those estimated from natural values and mortality data
Social stratification is a societys categorization of people into socioeconomic strata, based upon their occupation and income and social status, or derived power. As such, stratification is the social position of persons within a social group, geographic region. The upper-stratum, the middle-stratum, and the lower stratum, moreover, a social stratum can be formed upon the bases of kinship or caste, or both. Determining the structures of social stratification arises from inequalities of status among persons, generally, the greater the social complexity of a society, the more social strata exist, by way of social differentiation. Social stratification is a used in the social sciences to describe the relative social position of persons in a given social group, category. In modern Western societies, stratification is often classified into three major divisions of social class, upper class, middle class, and lower class. Each of these classes can be subdivided into smaller classes. Social strata may be delineated on the basis of kinship ties or caste relations, the concept of social stratification is often used and interpreted differently within specific theories.
So-called conflict theories, such as Marxism, point to the inaccessibility of resources, talcott Parsons, an American sociologist, asserted that stability and social order are regulated, in part, by universal values. Such values are not identical with consensus but can as well be an impetus for ardent social conflict as it has multiple times through history. Parsons never claimed that universal values, in and by themselves, the constitution of society is a much more complicated codification of emerging historical factors. Theorists such as Ralf Dahrendorf alternately note the tendency toward an enlarged middle-class in modern Western societies due to the necessity of a workforce in technological economies. Various social and political perspectives concerning globalization, such as dependency theory, four principles are posited to underlie social stratification. First, social stratification is socially defined as a property of a society rather than individuals in that society, social stratification is reproduced from generation to generation.
Third, social stratification is universal but variable, social stratification involves not just quantitative inequality but qualitative beliefs and attitudes about social status. Although stratification is not limited to complex societies, all complex societies exhibit features of stratification, the term stratification system is sometimes used to refer to the complex social relationships and social structure that generate these observed inequalities. Social mobility is the movement of individuals, social groups or categories of people between the layers or strata in a stratification system and this movement can be intragenerational or intergenerational. Such mobility is used to classify different systems of social stratification
Sociology of the family
The sociology of the family examines the family as an institution and a unit of socialization. Family is said to be an essential for a healthy mind, how they rely on one another. How they work together/rely on the work of someone in the family, examples of specific issues looked at include, Changing roles of family members. Each member is restricted by the sex roles of the traditional family and these roles such as the father as the worker and the mother as the homemaker are declining. The mother is becoming the supplementary provider and she retains the responsibilities of child rearing, the female role in the labor force is “compatible with the demands of the traditional family. ”Sociology studies the adaptation of the males role to caregiver as well as provider. The gender roles are increasingly interwoven, one approach is survey research of contemporary families. This holds the benefit of leaving statistical data and large and hopefully random samples from which a researcher can interpolate the general traits of a society, survey respondents tend to answer as would feel regular or ideal rather than as things might actually be.
It gives a very one-sided explanation view of a larger group, the information is often outdated, not representing the true statistics of the world. The information can be deceiving and not represent the points that the surveys. Another method is ethnographic research of families, where surveys allow for broad but shallow analyses, observation allows sociologists to obtain rich information on a source of a much more limited size. It allows the research an insider perspective, and through this closer look, where surveys are strong, ethnographic research is weak. Finally, a researcher can use documented studies of families from the past as a source of information and these sources may include very personal items, legal records, and matters of public record. The construction of race in Western society and, to a degree and these bans functioned to enforce the one-drop rule and reenforce identity and privilege. Internationally, the far right continues to promote ideas of purity by working against the normalization of interracial couples and families.
An example of the role of religion in this respect was thewitchcraft craze in Medieval Europe, according to Turner, this was a device to regulate the behavior of women, and the attack on women as witches was principally a critique of their sexuality. Thus, for the aristocracy, the point of marriage was to produce a male heir to the property of the household. Since child mortality was common, women had to be more or less continuously pregnant during their marriage to guarantee a living male heir, this heir had to be legitimate, if disputes over inheritance were to be avoided. This legitimacy could only be ensured by the heads of households marrying virgins, daughters had to be sexually pure if they were to be eligible for marriage to other property-holding families
Positivism is a philosophical theory stating that positive knowledge is based on natural phenomena and their properties and relations. Thus, information derived from experience, interpreted through reason and logic. Positivism holds that knowledge is found only in this derived knowledge. Verified data received from the senses are known as empirical evidence, Positivism holds that society, like the physical world, operates according to general laws. Introspective and intuitive knowledge is rejected, as are metaphysics and theology, Comte argued that, much as the physical world operates according to gravity and other absolute laws, so does society, and further developed positivism into a Religion of Humanity. The English noun positivism was re-imported in the 19th century from the French word positivisme, the corresponding adjective has been used in similar sense to discuss law since the time of Chaucer. Wilhelm Dilthey popularized the distinction between Geisteswissenschaft and Naturwissenschaften, the consideration that laws in physics may not be absolute but relative, and, if so, this might be more true of social sciences, was stated, in different terms, by G. B.
Vico, in contrast to the positivist movement, asserted the superiority of the science of the human mind, Positivism asserts that all authentic knowledge allows verification and that all authentic knowledge assumes that the only valid knowledge is scientific. Émile Durkheim reformulated sociological positivism as a foundation of social research, Wilhelm Dilthey, in contrast, fought strenuously against the assumption that only explanations derived from science are valid. Dilthey was in part influenced by the historicism of Leopold von Ranke, at the turn of the 20th century the first wave of German sociologists, including Max Weber and Georg Simmel, rejected the doctrine, thus founding the antipositivist tradition in sociology. Later antipositivists and critical theorists have associated positivism with scientism, science as ideology, but can any one conceive of a more pointless philosophy, seeing that what we can say clearly amounts to next to nothing. If we omitted all that is unclear we would probably be left with completely uninteresting, Logical positivists rejected metaphysical speculation and attempted to reduce statements and propositions to pure logic.
Strong critiques of this approach by philosophers such as Karl Popper, Willard Van Orman Quine and Thomas Kuhn have been highly influential, in historiography the debate on positivism has been characterized by the quarrel between positivism and historicism. Arguments against positivist approaches in historiography include that history differs from sciences like physics and ethology in subject matter and that much of what history studies is nonquantifiable, and therefore to quantify is to lose in precision. Experimental methods and mathematical models do not generally apply to history, Positivism in the social sciences is usually characterized by quantitative approaches and the proposition of quasi-absolute laws. A significant exception to this trend is represented by cultural anthropology, in psychology the positivist movement was influential in the development of operationalism. Economic thinker Friedrich Hayek rejected positivism in the sciences as hopelessly limited in comparison to evolved and divided knowledge.
For example, much legislation falls short in contrast to pre-literate or incompletely defined common or evolved law, in contemporary social science, strong accounts of positivism have long since fallen out of favour
Social network analysis
Social network analysis is the process of investigating social structures through the use of networks and graph theory. It characterizes networked structures in terms of nodes and the ties and these networks are often visualized through sociograms in which nodes are represented as points and ties are represented as lines. Social network analysis has emerged as a key technique in modern sociology, in the 1930s Jacob Moreno and Helen Jennings introduced basic analytical methods. Even in the study of literature, network analysis has been applied by Anheier and Romo, Wouter De Nooy, social network analysis has found applications in various academic disciplines, as well as practical applications such as countering money laundering and terrorism. Homophily, The extent to which actors form ties with similar versus dissimilar others, similarity can be defined by gender, age, educational achievement, values or any other salient characteristic. Homophily is referred to as assortativity, The number of content-forms contained in a tie.
For example, two people who are friends and work together would have a multiplexity of 2, multiplexity has been associated with relationship strength. Mutuality/Reciprocity, The extent to which two actors reciprocate each others friendship or other interaction, Network Closure, A measure of the completeness of relational triads. An individuals assumption of network closure is called transitivity, transitivity is an outcome of the individual or situational trait of Need for Cognitive Closure. Propinquity, The tendency for actors to have ties with geographically close others. Bridge, An individual whose weak ties fill a structural hole and it includes the shortest route when a longer one is unfeasible due to a high risk of message distortion or delivery failure. Centrality, Centrality refers to a group of metrics that aim to quantify the importance or influence of a node within a network. Examples of common methods of measuring centrality include betweenness centrality, closeness centrality, eigenvector centrality, alpha centrality, The proportion of direct ties in a network relative to the total number possible.
Distance, The minimum number of required to connect two particular actors, as popularized by Stanley Milgrams small world experiment and the idea of six degrees of separation. Structural holes, The absence of ties between two parts of a network and exploiting a structural hole can give an entrepreneur a competitive advantage. This concept was developed by sociologist Ronald Burt, and is referred to as an alternate conception of social capital. Tie Strength, Defined by the combination of time, emotional intensity, intimacy. Strong ties are associated with homophily and transitivity, while ties are associated with bridges
Sociology of race and ethnic relations
The sociology of race and ethnic relations is the study of social and economic relations between races and ethnicities at all levels of society. This area encompasses the study of racism, residential segregation, the sociological analysis of race and ethnicity frequently interacts with other areas of sociology such as stratification and social psychology, as well as with postcolonial theory. At the level of policy, ethnic relations is discussed in terms of either assimilationism or multiculturalism. Anti-racism forms another style of policy, particularly popular in the 1960s and 1970s, at the level of academic inquiry, ethnic relations is discussed either by the experiences of individual racial-ethnic groups or else by overarching theoretical issues. Marx described society as having nine great classes, the capitalist class and he hoped for the working class to rise up against the capitalist class in an attempt to stop the exploitation of the working class. He blamed part of their failure to organize on the capitalist class, as they separated black and this separation, specifically between Blacks and Whites in America, contributed to racism.
Marx attributes capitalisms contribution to racism through segmented labor markets and a racial inequality of earnings, weber laid the foundations for a micro-sociology of ethnic relations beginning in 1906. Weber argued that biological traits could not be the basis for group foundation unless they were conceived as shared characteristics and it was this shared perception and common customs that create and distinguish one ethnicity from another. This differs from the views of many of his contemporaries who believed that a group was formed from biological similarities alone apart from social perception of membership in a group. Du Bois is well known as one of the most influential black scholars, du Bois educated himself on his people, and sought academia as a way to enlighten others on the social injustices against his people. Du Bois believed that Black Americans should embrace higher education and use their new access to schooling to achieve a position within society. He referred to this idea as the Talented Tenth, with gaining popularity, he preached the belief that for blacks to be free in some places, they must be free everywhere.
After traveling to Africa and Russia, he recanted his original philosophy of integration, booker T. Washington was considered one of the most influential black educators of the 19th and 20th centuries. Born in 1856 as a slave in Virginia, Washington came of age as slavery was coming to an end, just as slavery ended, however, it was replaced by a system of sharecropping in the South that resulted in black indebtedness. By focusing on education for blacks, rather than political advancement, however, he pursued legal challenges against segregation and disfranchisement of blacks. The effect is so strong that even simply asking the test-taker to state her or his race before taking the test will significantly alter test performance, psychoanalysis has much to offer the study of racism. Its central proposition is that rationality is not the state of the individual. Humans resist change because change threatens established ways of dealing with anxiety, individual defence mechanisms contribute to social defence mechanisms
Sociology of health and illness
The sociology of health and illness, alternatively the sociology of health and wellness, examines the interaction between society and health. The objective of this topic is to see how social life affects morbidity and mortality rate and this aspect of sociology differs from medical sociology in that this branch of sociology discusses health and illness in relation to social institutions such as family and school. The sociology of medicine limits its concern to the patient-practitioner relationship, the sociology of health and illness covers sociological pathology, reasons for seeking particular types of medical aid, and patient compliance or noncompliance with medical regimes. Health, or lack of health, was once attributed to biological or natural conditions. Sociologists have demonstrated that the spread of diseases is influenced by the socioeconomic status of individuals, ethnic traditions or beliefs. This topic requires an approach of analysis because the influence of societal factors varies throughout the world.
This will be demonstrated through discussion of the diseases of each continent. These diseases are sociologically examined and compared based on the medicine, religion. HIV/AIDS serves as a basis of comparison among regions. While it is problematic in certain areas, in others it has affected a relatively small percentage of the population. Sociological factors can help to explain why these discrepancies exist, there are obvious differences in patterns of health and illness across societies, over time, and within particular society types. Patterns of global change in health care systems make it more imperative than ever to research and comprehend the sociology of health, continuous changes in economy, therapy and insurance can affect the way individual communities view and respond to the medical care available. These rapid fluctuations cause the issue of health and illness within social life to be dynamic in definition. Advancing information is vital because as patterns evolve, the study of the sociology of health, humans have long sought advice from those with knowledge or skill in healing.
Paleopathology and other records, allow an examination of how ancient societies dealt with illness. Rulers in Ancient Egypt sponsored physicians that were specialists in specific diseases, imhotep was the first medical doctor known by name. An Egyptian who lived around 2650 B. C. he was an adviser to King Zoser at a time when Egyptians were making progress in medicine, among his contributions to medicine was a textbook on the treatment of wounds, broken bones, and even tumors. Stopping the spread of disease was of utmost importance for maintaining a healthy society
Social change refers to an alteration in the social order of a society. Social change may include changes in nature, social institutions, social behaviours, Social change may refer to the notion of social progress or sociocultural evolution, the philosophical idea that society moves forward by dialectical or evolutionary means. It may refer to a change in the socio-economic structure, for instance a shift away from feudalism. Accordingly, it may refer to social revolution, such as the Socialist revolution presented in Marxism, or to other social movements. Social change may be driven by cultural, economic, scientific or technological forces, Developmental psychology can play a role in social change. Social change comes about with tangible/intangible resource inputs as social investment. One source is random or unique factors such as climate, for example, successful development has the same general requirements, such as a stable and flexible government, enough free and available resources, and a diverse social organization of society.
On the whole, social change is usually a combination of systematic factors along with some random or unique factors, there are many theories of social change. Generally, a theory of change should include elements such as aspects of change and mechanisms of social change. Hegelian, The classic Hegelian dialectic model of change is based on the interaction of opposing forces, starting from a point of momentary stasis, Thesis countered by Antithesis first yields conflict, it subsequently results in a new Synthesis. Marxist, Marxism presents a dialectical and materialist concept of history, The Greek philosopher Heraclitus used the metaphor of a river to speak of change thus, On those stepping into rivers staying the same other and other waters flow. What Heraclitus seems to be suggesting here, interpretations notwithstanding, is that, in order for the river to remain the river, change must constantly be taking place. Thus one may think of the Heraclitan model as parallel to that of a living organism, a contemporary application of this approach is shown in the social change theory SEED-SCALE which builds off of the complexity theory subfield of Emergence.
Daoist, The Chinese philosophical work Dao De Jing, I.8, although soft and yielding, will eventually wear away stone. Change in this model is to be natural and steady, one of the most obvious changes currently occurring is the change in the relative global population distribution between countries. China and India continue to be the largest countries, followed by the US as a distant third, population growth throughout the world is slowing. Population growth among developed countries has been slowing since the 1950s, population growth among the less developed countries excluding the least developed has been slowing, since 1960, and is now at 1. 3% annual growth. Population growth among the least developed countries has slowed relatively little, in much of the developed world, changes from distinct mens and womens work to more gender equal patterns have been economically important since the mid 20th century. Both men and women are to be considered to be contributors to social change world wide
Computational sociology is a branch of sociology that uses computationally intensive methods to analyze and model social phenomena. It involves the understanding of social agents, the interaction among these agents, in relevant literature, computational sociology is often related to the study of social complexity. Social complexity concepts such as systems, non-linear interconnection among macro and micro process. A practical and well-known example is the construction of a model in the form of an artificial society. However, these models did not permit individuals to interact or adapt and were not intended for basic theoretical research. This cellular automata paradigm gave rise to a wave of social simulation emphasizing agent-based modeling. Like micro-simulations, these models emphasized bottom-up designs but adopted four key assumptions that diverged from microsimulation, interdependency, simple rules, agent-based models are less concerned with predictive accuracy and instead emphasize theoretical development.
The automatic parsing of textual corpora has enabled the extraction of actors and their networks on a vast scale. Content analysis has been a part of social sciences and media studies for a long time. The automation of content analysis has allowed a big data revolution to take place in field, with studies in social media. Gender bias, content similarity, reader preferences, in 2008, Yukihiko Yoshida did a study called Leni Riefenstahl and German expressionism, research in Visual Cultural Studies using the trans-disciplinary semantic spaces of specialized dictionaries. The analysis of vast quantities of historical newspaper content has been pioneered by Dzogang et al. which showed how periodic structures can be discovered in historical newspapers. A similar analysis was performed on social media, again revealing strongly periodic structures, the most relevant journal of the discipline is the Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation. of Michigan, Minor in Complex Systems Systems Sciences Programs List, Portland State.
List of other related programs. Center for Complex Networks and Systems Research, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, Center for Complex Systems Research, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL, USA. Center for Social Complexity, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, Center for Social Dynamics and Complexity, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA. Center of the Study of Complex Systems, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, human Complex Systems, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA. Institute for Quantitative Social Science, Harvard University, Boston, MA, Northwestern Institute on Complex Systems, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL USA
Bibliography of sociology
This bibliography of sociology is a list of works, organized by subdiscipline, on the subject of sociology. Including Theses on Feuerbach and introduction to The critique of political economy, die protestantische Ethik und der Geist des Kapitalismus. Translated by Peter Baehr, Gordon C, puts forward a thesis that Puritan ethic and ideas had influenced the development of capitalism. However religious devotion usually was accompanied by rejection of mundane affairs including economic pursuit, why was that not the case with Protestantism. Weber addresses that paradox in that work, de La Division Du Travail Social. A case study of suicide rates amongst Catholic and Jewish populations, a major contribution to structural functionalism. Cladis, Mark S. ed. Les formes élémentaires de la vie religieuse, Les Règles de la Méthode Sociologique. Halls with an introduction by Steven Lukes, demography is the statistical study of human population. It encompasses the study of the size and distribution of these populations, Thomas Malthus, An Essay on the Principle of Population with A Summary View, and Introduction by Professor Antony Flew.
Crisis in the Population Question Economic sociology attempts to explain economic phenomena and it overlaps with economics but concentrates on the roles of social relations and institutions. The Old Regime and the French Revolution, de La Division Du Travail Social. The Great Transformation, the political and economic origins of our time, rival Interpretations of Market Society, Destructive, or Feeble. Economic Action and Social Structure, The Problem of Embeddedness, markets from Networks, Socioeconomic Models of Production. Princeton, Princeton University Press Smelser and Richard Swedberg, industrial sociology is the sociology of technological change, labor markets, work organization, managerial practices and employment relations. Environmental sociology, a social constructionist perspective and society, the enduring conflict. Demonstrates how our global economy requires increasing levels of economic expansion, Riley E. ed. Handbook of environmental sociology. Provides an overview of the field of sociology and its various research emphases.
Collapse, How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed, lenses of Gender, Transforming the Debate on Sexual Inequality
Sociology is the study of social behaviour or society, including its origins, organisation and institutions. It is a science that uses various methods of empirical investigation and critical analysis to develop a body of knowledge about social order, disorder. Many sociologists aim to research that may be applied directly to social policy and welfare. Subject matter ranges from the level of individual agency and interaction to the macro level of systems. The traditional focuses of sociology include social stratification, social class, social mobility, secularization, sexuality, the range of social scientific methods has expanded. Social researchers draw upon a variety of qualitative and quantitative techniques, the linguistic and cultural turns of the mid-twentieth century led to increasingly interpretative and philosophic approaches towards the analysis of society. There is often a great deal of crossover between social research, market research, and other statistical fields, Sociology is distinguished from various general social studies courses, which bear little relation to sociological theory or to social-science research-methodology.
The US National Science Foundation classifies sociology as a STEM field, Sociological reasoning pre-dates the foundation of the discipline. Social analysis has origins in the stock of Western knowledge and philosophy. The origin of the survey, i. e, there is evidence of early sociology in medieval Arab writings. The word sociology is derived from both Latin and Greek origins, the Latin word, companion, the suffix -logy, the study of from Greek -λογία from λόγος, lógos, knowledge. It was first coined in 1780 by the French essayist Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyès in an unpublished manuscript, Sociology was defined independently by the French philosopher of science, Auguste Comte, in 1838. Comte used this term to describe a new way of looking at society, Comte had earlier used the term social physics, but that had subsequently been appropriated by others, most notably the Belgian statistician Adolphe Quetelet. Comte endeavoured to unify history and economics through the understanding of the social realm.
Comte believed a positivist stage would mark the final era, after conjectural theological and metaphysical phases, Comte gave a powerful impetus to the development of sociology, an impetus which bore fruit in the decades of the nineteenth century. To say this is not to claim that French sociologists such as Durkheim were devoted disciples of the high priest of positivism. To be sure, beginnings can be traced back well beyond Montesquieu, for example, Marx rejected Comtean positivism but in attempting to develop a science of society nevertheless came to be recognized as a founder of sociology as the word gained wider meaning. For Isaiah Berlin, Marx may be regarded as the father of modern sociology
Ethnography is the systematic study of people and cultures. It is designed to explore cultural phenomena where the researcher observes society from the point of view of the subject of the study, an ethnography is a means to represent graphically and in writing the culture of a group. The word can thus be said to have a double meaning, the resulting field study or a case report reflects the knowledge and the system of meanings in the lives of a cultural group. The typical ethnography is a study and so includes a brief history, and an analysis of the terrain, the climate. In all cases it should be reflexive, make a contribution toward the understanding of the social life of humans, have an aesthetic impact on the reader. An ethnography records all observed behavior and describes all symbol-meaning relations, the word ethnography is derived from the Greek ἔθνος, meaning a company, a people, nation and -graphy meaning field of study. Ethnographic studies focus on large groups of people who interact over time.
Ethnography is a design, where the researcher explains about shared learnt patterns of values, beliefs. The field of anthropology originated from Europe and England designed in late 19th century and it spread its roots to the United States at the beginning of the 20th century. Some of the main contributors like EB Tylor from Britain and Lewis H Morgan, franz Boas, Bronislaw Malinowski, Ruth Benedict and Margaret Mead, were a group of researchers from United States who contributed the idea of cultural relativism to the literature. He gives the point of the native and this became the origin of field work. Since Malinowski was very firm with his approach he applied it practically and he was interested in learning the language of the islanders and stayed there for a long time doing his field work. The field of ethnography became very popular in the late 19th century, again, in the latter part of the 19th century, the field of anthropology became a good support for scientific formation. Though the field was flourishing it had a lot of threat to encounter, post colonialism, the research climate shifted towards post-modernism and feminism.
Therefore, the field of anthropology moved into discipline of social science, gerhard Friedrich Müller developed the concept of ethnography as a separate discipline whilst participating in the Second Kamchatka Expedition as a professor of history and geography. Whilst involved in the expedition, he differentiated Völker-Beschreibung as an area of study. This became known as ethnography, following the introduction of the Greek neologism ethnographia by Johann Friedrich Schöpperlin, there are different forms of ethnography, confessional ethnography, life history, feminist ethnography etc. Two popular forms of ethnography are realist ethnography and critical ethnography, realist ethnography, is a traditional approach used by cultural anthropologists