Hard science fiction is a category of science fiction characterized by concern for scientific accuracy and logic. The term was first used in print in 1957 by P. Schuyler Miller in a review of John W. Campbell's Islands of Space in the November issue of Astounding Science Fiction; the complementary term soft science fiction, formed by analogy to hard science fiction, first appeared in the late 1970s. Science fiction critic Gary Westfahl argues. Stories revolving around scientific and technical consistency were written as early as the 1870s with the publication of Jules Verne's Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea in 1870, among other stories; the attention to detail in Verne's work became an inspiration for many future scientists and explorers, although Verne himself denied writing as a scientist or predicting machines and technology of the future. Hugo Gernsback believed from the beginning of his involvement with science fiction in the 1920s that the stories should be instructive, although it was not long before he found it necessary to print fantastical and unscientific fiction in Amazing Stories to attract readers.
During Gernsback's long absence from SF publishing, from 1936 to 1953, the field evolved away from his focus on facts and education. The Golden Age of Science Fiction is considered to have started in the late 1930s and lasted until the mid-1940s, bringing with it "a quantum jump in quality the greatest in the history of the genre", according to science fiction historians Peter Nicholls and Mike Ashley. However, Gernsback's views were unchanged. In his editorial in the first issue of Science-Fiction Plus, he gave his view of the modern sf story: "the fairy tale brand, the weird or fantastic type of what mistakenly masquerades under the name of Science-Fiction today!" and he stated his preference for "truly scientific, prophetic Science-Fiction with the full accent on SCIENCE". In the same editorial, Gernsback called for patent reform to give science fiction authors the right to create patents for ideas without having patent models because many of their ideas predated the technical progress needed to develop specifications for their ideas.
The introduction referenced the numerous prescient technologies described throughout Ralph 124C 41+. The heart of the "hard SF" designation is the relationship of the science content and attitude to the rest of the narrative, the "hardness" or rigor of the science itself. One requirement for hard SF is procedural or intentional: a story should try to be accurate, logical and rigorous in its use of current scientific and technical knowledge about which technology, phenomena and situations that are and/or theoretically possible. For example, the development of concrete proposals for spaceships, space stations, space missions, a US space program in the 1950s and 1960s influenced a widespread proliferation of "hard" space stories. Discoveries do not invalidate the label of hard SF, as evidenced by P. Schuyler Miller, who called Arthur C. Clarke's 1961 novel A Fall of Moondust hard SF, the designation remains valid though a crucial plot element, the existence of deep pockets of "moondust" in lunar craters, is now known to be incorrect.
There is a degree of flexibility in how far from "real science" a story can stray before it leaves the realm of hard SF. HSF authors scrupulously avoid such technology as faster-than-light travel, while authors writing softer SF accept such notions. Readers of "hard SF" try to find inaccuracies in stories. For example, a group at MIT concluded that the planet Mesklin in Hal Clement's 1953 novel Mission of Gravity would have had a sharp edge at the equator, a Florida high-school class calculated that in Larry Niven's 1970 novel Ringworld the topsoil would have slid into the seas in a few thousand years. Niven fixed these errors in his sequel The Ringworld Engineers, noted them in the foreword. Films set in outer space that aspire to the hard SF label try to minimize the artistic liberties taken for the sake of practicality of effect. Factors include:. How the film depicts sound despite the vacuum of space. Whether telecommunications are instant or are limited by the speed of light. Arranged chronologically by publication year.
Robert Heinlein, The Past Through Tomorrow collection of stories Hal Clement, "Uncommon Sense" James Blish, "Surface Tension", (Book 3 of The Seedling Stars Tom Godwin, "The Cold Equations" Isaac Asimov, "Evidence" Poul Anderson, "Kyrie" Frederik Pohl, "Day Million" Larry Niven, "Inconstant Moon" and "The Hole Man" and "Neutron Star" Greg Bear, "Tangents" Geoffrey A. Landis, "A Walk in the Sun" Vernor Vinge, "Fast Times at Fairmont High" Aldous Huxley, Brave New World George Orwell, Nineteen Eighty-Four Robert A. Heinlein, The Rolling Stones Hal Clement, Mission of Gravity Harry Martinson, Aniara Fred Hoyle, The Black Cloud James Blish, A Case of Conscience Jack Vance, The Languages of Pao John Wyndham, The Outward Urge Stanisław Lem, Solaris Arthur C. Clarke, A Fall of Moondust, 2001: A Space Odyssey, Rendezvous with Rama John Brunner, Stand on Zanzibar, The Jagged Orbit, The Sheep Look Up, The Shockwave Rider Michael Crichton, The Andromeda Strain Poul Anderson, Tau Zero Jam
Paradox is the fourth studio album released by the Danish progressive metal band Royal Hunt. This is a concept album, with lyrics inspired by divinity. All songs written by André Andersen except. "The Awakening" – 1:39 "River of Pain" – 7:14 "Tearing Down the World" – 5:32 "Message to God" – 6:41 "Long Way Home" – 5:54 "Time Will Tell" – 9:31 "Silent Scream" – 6:13 "It's Over" – 6:20 "Martial Arts" – 1:51 "The Final Lullaby" – 4:01 "Restless" - 3:21 D. C. Cooper – vocals André Andersen – keyboards and guitars Steen Mogensen – bass guitar Jacob Kjaer – guitar Allan Sørensen – drumsWith Maria McTurk – backing vocals Lise Hansen – backing vocals Kenny Lubcke – backing vocals Mixing – Lars H. Nissen and Royal Hunt Heavy Harmonies page
St. John the Evangelist Roman Catholic Church, now known as Sweet Prospect Baptist Church, is a historic Roman Catholic church located at Baltimore, United States. Designed by Niernsee & Neilson, it is an 1855-1856 Italianate-influenced masonry structure constructed of stuccoed brick walls resting on a rubble stone foundation; the exterior features twin square towers flanking the main façade and a semi-octagonal apse flanked by one-story pavilions on the back. There are three portal arches in the center section of the main façade, several steps above the sidewalk, it is the most intact remaining example of an Italianate public edifice in Baltimore. Under instructions from the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Baltimore, the final mass was held at the Church of St. John the Evangelist, on June 26, 1966, the congregation merged with that of St. James the Less Roman Catholic Church, just two block away; the church became the New Central Social Hall. Most of the interior decorative artwork and accessories associated with church use were removed.
St. John the Evangelist Roman Catholic Church was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1982. Media related to Sweet Prospect Baptist Church at Wikimedia Commons St. John the Evangelist Roman Catholic Church, Baltimore City, including photo from 1980, at Maryland Historical Trust Maryland Historical Society website Sweet Prospect Baptist Church website
In physics, Planck energy, denoted by EP, is the unit of energy in the system of natural units known as Planck units. EP is a derived, as opposed to basic, Planck unit, it is defined by: where c is the speed of light in a vacuum, ћ is the reduced Planck's constant, G is the gravitational constant. Substituting values for the various components in this definition gives the approximate equivalent value of this unit in terms of other units of energy: An equivalent definition is: where tP is the Planck time. Also: where mP is the Planck mass; the ultra-high-energy cosmic ray observed in 1991 had a measured energy of about 50 joules, equivalent to about 2.5×10−8 EP. Theoretically, the highest energy photon carries about 1 EP of energy. Most Planck units are small, as in the case of Planck length or Planck time, or large, as in the case of Planck temperature or Planck acceleration. For comparison, the Planck energy is equal to the energy stored in an automobile gas tank. Planck units are designed to normalize the physical constants G, ћ and c to 1.
Hence given Planck units, the mass-energy equivalence E = mc² simplifies to E = m, so that the Planck energy and mass are numerically identical. In the equations of general relativity, G is multiplied by 4π. Hence writings in particle physics and physical cosmology normalize 8πG to 1; this normalization results in the reduced Planck energy, defined as: Max Planck Planck epoch Planck particle Planck units Quantum gravity Photon energy
Disk First Aid is a free software utility made by Apple Inc., bundled with all computers running the classic Mac OS. This tool verifies and repairs a limited number of directory structure problems on any HFS or HFS Plus hard disk or volume. Disk First Aid is a simple tool, with it only being able to detect and repair directory damage and many books are critical of its sometimes inaccurate reporting of errors, suggest to run the tool more than once to ensure you are receiving a consistent result. Disk First Aid is located in Applications:Utilities:Disk First Aid; the classic Mac OS provides an option to run Disk First Aid on startup, although it has been reported that it provides little gain and sometimes can amplify a problem. Its capabilities were incorporated into Disk Utility in macOS. One source suggests that disk utility should be used when there are: Frequent system crashes Disappearing files Files changing size Problems copying files from one place to another. Problems saving files. Cryptic error messages.as well as for general maintenance every 6 months.
Disk First Aid has built-in capabilities to check for damage to: Partition Map, Device Driver, Boot Blocks, Master Directory Block, Volume Bitmap, Catalog File, Extents File, Finder Attributes, Disk volume, Extent B-tree, Catalog B-tree, Catalog Hierarchy, Volume Info, to search for locked volume name. After analyzing the disk directory, Disk First Aid determines whether it is able to repair any damage, detected; the utility can only fix problems associated with the catalog/extents files and the volume bitmap. The program reports that there is an error, but cannot fix it. List of data recovery software
Nancy Feber is a retired Belgian tennis player. As a junior player, she won four Grand Slam titles -- one in three in doubles. Feber won French Open twice, in 1992 and 1993, both times in doubles with Laurence Courtois. At the 1993 Wimbledon Championships, she doubles. Feber played as a professional tennis player from 1991 to 1998, her best Grand Slam singles result is the third round of the 1994 Wimbledon Championships, the result she achieved in 1995 and 1996. In doubles, Feber reached three WTA Tour finals, one with Alexandra Fusai and two with Laurence Courtois, but won none, she played for Belgium Fed Cup team, with the score of 2–2 in singles and 9–1 in doubles. Feber enjoyed success at the ITF Women's Circuit, winning eight doubles titles, her highest rankings were No. 46 in doubles. During her career, Feber defeated players such as Helena Suková, Irina Spîrlea, Jo Durie, Rita Grande and Meghann Shaughnessy. Nancy Feber at the Women's Tennis Association Nancy Feber at the International Tennis Federation Nancy Feber at the International Tennis Federation Junior Profile Nancy Feber at the Fed Cup