1890 United States Census
The Eleventh United States Census was taken beginning June 2, 1890. It determined the resident population of the United States to be 62,979,766—an increase of 25.5 percent over the 50,189,209 persons enumerated during the 1880 census. The data was tabulated by machine for the first time; the data reported that the distribution of the population had resulted in the disappearance of the American frontier. Most of the 1890 census materials were destroyed in a 1921 fire and fragments of the US census population schedule exist only for the states of Alabama, Illinois, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, the District of Columbia; this was the first census in which a majority of states recorded populations of over one million, as well as the first in which multiple cities – New York as of 1880, Philadelphia – recorded populations of over one million. The census saw Chicago rank as the nation's second-most populous city, a position it would hold until 1990, in which Los Angeles would supplant it.
The 1890 census collected the following information: The 1890 census was the first to be compiled using methods invented by Herman Hollerith and was overseen by Superintendents Robert P. Porter and Carroll D. Wright. Data was entered on a machine readable medium, punched cards, tabulated by machine; the net effect of the many changes from the 1880 census: the larger population, the number of data items to be collected, the Census Bureau headcount, the volume of scheduled publications, the use of Hollerith's electromechanical tabulators, was to reduce the time required to process the census from eight years for the 1880 census to six years for the 1890 census. The total population of 62,947,714, the family, or rough, was announced after only six weeks of processing; the public reaction to this tabulation was disbelief, as it was believed that the "right answer" was at least 75,000,000. The United States census of 1890 showed a total of 248,253 Native Americans living in the United States, down from 400,764 Native Americans identified in the census of 1850.
The 1890 census announced that the frontier region of the United States no longer existed, that the Census Bureau would no longer track the westward migration of the U. S. population. Up to and including the 1880 census, the country had a frontier of settlement. By 1890, isolated bodies of settlement had broken into the unsettled area to the extent that there was hardly a frontier line; this prompted Frederick Jackson Turner to develop his Frontier Thesis. The original data for the 1890 Census is no longer available. All the population schedules were damaged in a fire in the basement of the Commerce Building in Washington, D. C. in 1921. Some 25 % of the materials were presumed another 50 % damaged by smoke and water; the damage to the records led to an outcry for a permanent National Archives. In December 1932, following standard federal record-keeping procedures, the Chief Clerk of the Bureau of the Census sent the Librarian of Congress a list of papers to be destroyed, including the original 1890 census schedules.
The Librarian was asked by the Bureau to identify any records which should be retained for historical purposes, but the Librarian did not accept the census records. Congress authorized destruction of that list of records on February 21, 1933, the surviving original 1890 census records were destroyed by government order by 1934 or 1935; the other censuses for which some information has been lost are the 1810 enumerations. Few sets of microdata from the 1890 census survive, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Mayo-Smith, Richmond, "The Eleventh Census of the United States". In: The Economic Journal, Vol. 1, p. 43 - 58 1891 U. S Census Report Contains 1890 Census results Historical US Census data from the U. S. Census Bureau website Hollerith 1890 Census Tabulator by Columbia University "The Fate of the 1890 Population Census" from the National Archives website
Iowa's 4th congressional district
Iowa's 4th congressional district is a congressional district in the U. S. state of Iowa that covers its northwestern part. The district includes Sioux City, Mason City, Fort Dodge and Carroll. Since the 1880s, there have been major changes in the location or nature of Iowa's 4th Congressional District. From 1886 until 1941, the district was made up of rural counties in northeastern Iowa, including the easternmost five counties in the northernmost two rows. During that era, the district included areas from Mason City east to the Mississippi River. In 1941, Iowa's 5th Congressional District was renumbered as Iowa's 4th Congressional District, counties in the old 4th District were placed in the 3rd District and the 2nd District.. From 1941 until 1960 the 4th Congressional District included the central five counties of each of the two southernmost tiers, plus four counties between Des Moines and Iowa City. 5th District incumbent Republican U. S. Representative Karl M. LeCompte was reelected in the reconfigured 4th District in 1942, was reelected in the next seven races.
In 1958, when LeCompte did not run for reelection, Democrat Steven V. Carter defeated Republican John Kyl. A recurrence of cancer would claim Carter's life before the end of his only term, Kyl won the special election and next general election. In 1961 the 4th Congressional District was expanded to include five central Iowa counties - Warren, Marshall and Benton - but retained its rural character. Kyl held this seat until he was swept out in the massive Democratic landslide of 1964. However, he regained his old seat in 1966, was reelected two more times; the rural character of the district was changed when most of its territory was merged with the Des Moines-based 5th District of Democratic incumbent Neal Smith after the 1970 census. Polk County was added. Smith defeated Kyl in the 1972 congressional election; the district became less rural in 1981, when Story County was added, other rural counties were taken out. The district was altered after the 1990 census, when it was reconfigured to take in the southwest quadrant of the state from Des Moines to Council Bluffs.
Smith defeated in 1994 by Republican Greg Ganske. The 2001 remap made the 4th district a north-central Iowa district, it could not be said to be the successor of any of the previous districts. It was a rural district, though it included Ames and Mason City, it did not include any of the state's nine largest cities, only four of the twenty largest Iowa cities. The plan went into effect in 2003 for the 108th U. S. Congress; the 5th's incumbent congressman, Tom Latham, had his home in Alexander drawn into the 4th, was elected from this district five times. For the 2012 elections, the Iowa Legislature passed a plan that went into effect in 2013 for the 113th U. S. Congress; the district now covers the northwest corner of the state, merged the northern half of the old 5th District with the western third of the old 4th. The new map placed Latham and 5th District incumbent Steve King in the same district. Although the new 4th was geographically more Latham's district, he opted to move to the redrawn 3rd District, leaving King to take the seat.
NOTE: Jim Hennager ran on the Earth Federation Party platform on the ballot. As of May 2015, four former members of the U. S. House of Representatives from Iowa's 4th congressional district are alive. Iowa's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present
Butler County, Iowa
Butler County is a county located in the U. S. state of Iowa. As of the 2010 census, the population was 14,867, its county seat is Allison. The county was named for General William O. Butler. Butler County was formed on January 1851 from open land, it was named after Kentucky native William Orlando Butler, a general and hero of the Mexican–American War, who ran as Vice President of the United States in 1848. Until 1854, the county was governed by other counties. Only at this time did it have enough inhabitants to establish its own local government; the first court proceedings were conducted in a small log cabin of a settler. In 1858, the first courthouse was completed in Clarksville. After it was sold shortly thereafter to the local school district, it was used as a schoolhouse from 1863 until 1903. Clarksville was the first county seat, from 1854 to 1860; because locals became disenchanted with Butler Center, Allison was made the county seat on January 10, 1881. When the tracks of the Dubuque and Dakota Railroad were laid through Allison, the seat was moved there on January 10, 1881.
Allison was named after the Dubuque native Republican politician and senator William B. Allison. Butler County is the only county in Iowa that does not have any stop lights, a hospital, or a movie theatre. There are no national fast food chains in Butler county. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 582 square miles, of which 580 square miles is land and 1.6 square miles is water. Iowa Highway 3 Iowa Highway 14 Iowa Highway 57 Iowa Highway 188 The 2010 census recorded a population of 14,867 in the county, with a population density of 25.63/sq mi. There were 6,682 housing units, of which 6,120 were occupied; as of the census of 2000, there were 15,305 people, 6,175 households, 4,470 families residing in the county. The population density was 26 people per square mile. There were 6,578 housing units at an average density of 11 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 98.95% White, 0.08% Black or African American, 0.05% Native American, 0.20% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.16% from other races, 0.53% from two or more races.
0.58% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 6,175 households out of which 30.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.80% were married couples living together, 6.30% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.60% were non-families. 25.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 2.90. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.40% under the age of 18, 6.40% from 18 to 24, 24.90% from 25 to 44, 24.20% from 45 to 64, 20.10% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females there were 96.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.70 males. The median income for a household in the county was $35,883, the median income for a family was $42,209. Males had a median income of $30,356 versus $20,864 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,036.
About 6.50% of families and 8.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.80% of those under age 18 and 9.40% of those age 65 or over. Austinville Kesley Sinclair Butler County is divided into sixteen townships: The population ranking of the following table is based on the 2010 census of Butler County.† county seat National Register of Historic Places listings in Butler County, Iowa Butler County Tribune-Journal
Iowa is a state in the Midwestern United States, bordered by the Mississippi River to the east and the Missouri River and Big Sioux River to the west. It is bordered by six states. In colonial times, Iowa was a part of Spanish Louisiana. After the Louisiana Purchase, people laid the foundation for an agriculture-based economy in the heart of the Corn Belt. In the latter half of the 20th century, Iowa's agricultural economy made the transition to a diversified economy of advanced manufacturing, financial services, information technology and green energy production. Iowa is the 26th most extensive in land area and the 30th most populous of the 50 U. S states, its capital and largest city by population is Des Moines. Iowa has been listed as one of the safest states in, its nickname is the Hawkeye State. Iowa derives its name from the Ioway people, one of the many Native American tribes that occupied the state at the time of European exploration. Iowa is bordered by the Mississippi River on the east.
The southern border is the Des Moines River and a not-quite-straight line along 40 degrees 35 minutes north, as decided by the U. S. Supreme Court in Missouri v. Iowa after a standoff between Missouri and Iowa known as the Honey War. Iowa is the only state whose east and west borders are formed by rivers. Iowa has 99 counties; the state capital, Des Moines, is in Polk County. Iowa's bedrock geology increases in age from west to east. In northwest Iowa, Cretaceous bedrock can be 74 million years old. Iowa is not flat. Iowa can be divided into eight landforms based on glaciation, soils and river drainage. Loess hills lie along the western border of the state. Northeast Iowa along the Upper Mississippi River is part of the Driftless Area, consisting of steep hills and valleys which appear mountainous. Several natural lakes exist, most notably Spirit Lake, West Okoboji Lake, East Okoboji Lake in northwest Iowa. To the east lies Clear Lake. Man-made lakes include Lake Odessa, Saylorville Lake, Lake Red Rock, Coralville Lake, Lake MacBride, Rathbun Lake.
The state's northwest area has many remnants such as Barringer Slough. Iowa's natural vegetation is tallgrass prairie and savanna in upland areas, with dense forest and wetlands in flood plains and protected river valleys, pothole wetlands in northern prairie areas. Most of Iowa is used for agriculture; the Southern part of Iowa is categorised as the Central forest-grasslands transition ecoregion. The Northern, drier part of Iowa is categorised as the Central tall grasslands and is thus considered to be part of the Great Plains. There is a dearth of natural areas in Iowa; as of 2005 Iowa ranked 49th of U. S. states in public land holdings. Threatened or endangered animals in Iowa include the interior least tern, piping plover, Indiana bat, pallid sturgeon, the Iowa Pleistocene land snail, Higgins' eye pearly mussel, the Topeka shiner. Endangered or threatened plants include western prairie fringed orchid, eastern prairie fringed orchid, Mead's milkweed, prairie bush clover, northern wild monkshood.
There is little proof to suggest that the explosion in the number of high-density livestock facilities in Iowa has led to increased rural water contamination and a decline in air quality. In fact, covered manure storage in modern barns prevent that manure from washing away into surface water, as it does in open lots as snow melts and thunderstorms occur. Other factors negatively affecting Iowa's environment include the extensive use of older coal-fired power plants and pesticide runoff from crop production, diminishment of the Jordan Aquifer. Iowa has a humid continental climate throughout the state with extremes of both cold; the average annual temperature at Des Moines is 50 °F. Winters are harsh and snowfall is common. Spring ushers in the beginning of the severe weather season. Iowa averages about 50 days of thunderstorm activity per year; the 30 year annual average Tornadoes in Iowa is 47. In 2008, twelve people were killed by tornadoes in Iowa, making it the deadliest year since 1968 and the second most tornadoes in a year with 105, matching the total from 2001.
Iowa summers are known for heat and humidity, with daytime temperatures sometimes near 90 °F and exceeding 100 °F. Average winters in the state have been known to drop well below freezing dropping below −18 °F. Iowa's all-time hottest temperature of 118 °F was recorded at Keokuk on July 20, 1934. Iowa has a smooth gradient of var
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. The term is used in connection with national population and housing censuses; the United Nations defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory and defined periodicity", recommends that population censuses be taken at least every 10 years. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions and other useful information to co-ordinate international practice; the word is of Latin origin: during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. The modern census is essential to international comparisons of any kind of statistics, censuses collect data on many attributes of a population, not just how many people there are. Censuses began as the only method of collecting national demographic data, are now part of a larger system of different surveys.
Although population estimates remain an important function of a census, including the geographic distribution of the population, statistics can be produced about combinations of attributes e.g. education by age and sex in different regions. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the same level of detail but raise concerns about privacy and the possibility of biasing estimates. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, planning, as a baseline for designing sample surveys by providing a sampling frame such as an address register. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling. Stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations. In some countries, the census provides the official counts used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions.
In many cases, a chosen random sample can provide more accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a population rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a sampling frame to count the population; this is the only way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on and individuals could be missed. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known and a new estimate is to be made by the analysis of primary data; the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is known. However, a census is used to collect attribute data on the individuals in the nation; this process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, a house to house process or the product of an imperial decree, the modern statistical project. The sampling frame used by census is always an address register.
Thus it is not known how many people there are in each household. Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, an enumerator calls, or administrative records for the dwelling are accessed; as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, this can be out of date and some dwellings may contain a number of independent households. A particular problem is what are termed'communal establishments' which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc; as these are not enumerated by a single householder, they are treated differently and visited by special teams of census workers to ensure they are classified appropriately. Individuals are counted within households and information is collected about the household structure and the housing. For this reason international documents refer to censuses of housing.
The census response is made by a household, indicating details of individuals resident there. An important aspect of census enumerations is determining which individuals can be counted from which cannot be counted. Broadly, three definitions can be used: de facto residence; this is important to consider individuals who have temporary addresses. Every person should be identified uniquely as resident in one place but where they happen to be on Census Day, their de facto residence, may not be the best place to count them. Where an individual uses services may be more useful and this is at their usual, or de jure, residence. An individual may be represented at a permanent address a family home for students or long term migrants, it is necessary to have a precise definition of residence to decide whether visitors to a country should be included in the population count. This is becoming more important as students travel abroad for education for a period of several years. Other groups causing problems of enumeration are new born babies, people away on holiday, people moving home around census day, people without a fixed address.
People having second homes because of working in another part of the country or retaining a holiday cottage are dif
Iowa Highway 175
Iowa Highway 175 is a main east–west route in the northern portion of the state. The highway has a length of 221 miles. Iowa Highway 175 enters the state by a Missouri River crossing between Decatur and Onawa; the highway continues westward as Nebraska Highway 51. Iowa 175's eastern terminus is at a T intersection with U. S. Route 63 in southwestern Black Hawk County. Despite Iowa 175's length, it only passes through small communities; the largest city on the route is Onawa, whose 2000 population was 3,091. Iowa Highway 175 begins at the east end of the Burt County Missouri River Bridge west of Onawa. At Onawa, it intersects Interstate 29. At Turin, it meets Iowa Highway 37 and turns northeast to follow an alignment which lies next to the Maple River, it meets Iowa Highway 141 in Mapleton. At Mapleton, Iowa 175 overlaps Iowa Highway 141 through town; this is a wrong-way concurrency, with eastbound Iowa 175 and westbound Iowa 141 routed on one side of the road, vice versa. It continues northeast from Mapleton through Danbury and Battle Creek and meets U.
S. Highway 59 west of Ida Grove. After passing through Ida Grove together with U. S. 59, they separate east of Ida Grove. Iowa 175 passes east through Arthur and at Odebolt, meets Iowa Highway 39. Further east, Iowa 175 meets U. S. Highway 71. Iowa 175 and U. S. 71 run east south east again concurrently through Lake View and Ulmer before separating at Auburn. Iowa 175 leaves Auburn going east passes through Lake City. After Lake City, Iowa 175 meets Iowa Highway 4; the two highways run concurrently through Lohrville before separating. Iowa 175 passes through Farnhamville and Gowrie and intersects Iowa Highway 144 before intersecting U. S. Highway 169 at Harcourt, they continue east together before separating before Dayton. After passing through Stratford, Iowa 175 meets Iowa Highway 17 at Stanhope, it leaves Stanhope going east and meets U. S. Highway 69 south of Jewell, they run together going north into Jewell before Iowa 175 turns east. After passing through Ellsworth, Iowa 175 intersects Interstate 35.
Iowa Highway 175 continues east of I-35 by passing through Radcliffe before meeting U. S. Highway 65 in Hubbard. Iowa 175 and U. S. 65 go north east, together before separating. Iowa 175 goes east through Eldora and meets Iowa Highway 14 west of Grundy Center. Iowa 175 continues east with Iowa 14 before separating in Grundy Center, it turns southeasterly while passing through Morrison and Reinbeck turns east and ends at U. S. Highway 63 south of Hudson. Iowa Highway 175 was nothing more than a short spur from U. S. grew to absorb other routes. By 1955 it had extended westward to Nebraska; the final segment of Highway 175 was commissioned in 1969, extending the highway eastward from Hubbard to its present eastern terminus. The Iowa Highways Page: Highway 175 End of Iowa 175 at Iowa Highway Ends
U.S. Route 20
U. S. Highway 20 is an east–west United States highway that stretches from the Pacific Northwest all the way to New England; the "0" in its route number indicates. Spanning 3,365 miles, it is the longest road in the United States, from Newport, Oregon to Boston, the route is parallel to that of the newer Interstate 90, in turn the longest Interstate Highway in the U. S. There is a discontinuity in the official designation of US 20 through Yellowstone National Park, with unnumbered roads used to traverse the park, it and US 30 break the general U. S. Route numbering rules in Oregon, since US 30 starts north of US 20 and runs parallel to the north throughout the state; the two run continue in the correct positioning near Caldwell, Idaho. This is. US 20 ended at the eastern entrance of Yellowstone Park; the highway's eastern terminus is in Boston, Massachusetts, at Kenmore Square, where it meets Route 2. Its western terminus is in Newport, Oregon, at an intersection with US 101, within a mile of the Pacific Ocean.
The highway passes through the following states: US 20 begins at an intersection with US 101 in Newport and runs eastward towards Idaho. On the way it goes over the Central Oregon Coast Range, through several Willamette Valley cities including Corvallis and Albany, climbs the Cascade Mountains over Santiam Pass, goes through Bend, traverses the Oregon High Desert passing through Burns, it overlaps with US 26 in Vale, the two roads continue concurrently to the Idaho border. US 20 crosses into Idaho from Oregon northwest of Parma, it joins US 95 through Parma. US 20/US 26 leaves US 95 southeast of Parma and runs to Caldwell where US 20/US 26 joins with I-84 and US 30 for a short time; these four highways parallel each other to Boise where US 20/US 26 runs through downtown before joining with I-84 and US 30 again to Mountain Home, where it departs at exit 95 to head east, past Rattlesnake Station, Anderson Ranch Dam road, cresting at Cat Creek summit at 5,527 feet above mean sea level. It continues into and across Camas County through Fairfield to Timmerman Junction, the intersection in Blaine County with State Highway 75, the route to Sun Valley, Galena Summit, Stanley.
US 20 continues east through Picabo and Carey, joined with US 26 and US 93, to Craters of the Moon and Arco, where US 93 splits off and turns north-northwest to climb the Big Lost River valley. US 20/US 26 continues on through the Idaho National Laboratory, where the highways split just west of Atomic City. US 20 climbs through the communities of St. Anthony and Island Park, crosses the Continental Divide at Targhee Pass at 7,072 feet, entering Montana west of West Yellowstone. In the state of Montana, US 20 runs for less than 10 miles, it runs from the Idaho state line to West Yellowstone, the western entrance to Yellowstone National Park. US 20 is known as the Targhee Pass Highway in Montana. In the state of Wyoming, the eastern segment of US 20 starts at the eastern entrance to Yellowstone National Park along with the western termini of US 14 and US 16; these three routes run east to Greybull, where US 14 continues US 16/US 20 turns south. US 20 joins US 26 in Shoshoni. In Casper it joins I-25 and US 87.
These four routes stay combined to Orin. At its intersection with I-25, US 18 begins. US 18 and US 20 are concurrent from Orin to Lusk. US 18 separates US 20 runs east into Nebraska. In the state of Nebraska, US 20 runs from west of Harrison to South Sioux City on the Missouri River. Portions overlap US 385, US 83, US 183, US 275, I-129, US 75. US 20 enters Iowa at Sioux City via the Missouri River crossing with I-129 and US 75. After skirting the southeast side of Sioux City as a freeway with US 75, US 20 continues east as an expressway to Moville. From Moville through north of Early at the junction with U. S. Route 71 and Iowa Highway 471, US 20 was reconstructed from a rural two-lane highway to a four-lane road; this segment re-opened October 19, 2018 and made it so that US 20 is a continuous four-lane highway during its entire time in Iowa. Passing north of Early and Sac City, where it has another interchange with the realigned U. S. Route 71 passing to the south of Fort Dodge and Webster City before intersecting I-35 near Williams.
A new segment of freeway between US 65 south of Iowa Falls and Iowa Highway 14 opened in 2003 creating a continuous four-lane route from Moorland to Dubuque. The new segment shaved 16 miles off US 20's length in Iowa. In the Waterloo/Cedar Falls area, the segment of US 20 overlapped by the Avenue of the Saints, designated as Iowa Highway 27. US 20 passes Independence and Dyersville before reaching Dubuque. At Dubuque, US 20 crosses into Illinois over the Julien Dubuque Bridge. In the state of Illinois, US 20 begins in East Dubuque, following southeastward along the Mississippi River, continues into the hilly Driftless Area of northwest Illinois through Galena and Elizabeth; the highway transitions eastward from the Driftless Area to the Interior Plains near Stockton. The road continues as a bypass north of Freeport, runs as a freeway along the southern fringe of Rockford. From Rockford to Chicago, Illinois, US 20 is a mixture of four-lan