Cave-In-Rock is a village in Hardin County, United States. Its principal feature and tourist attraction is nearby Cave-In-Rock, on the banks of the Ohio River. In 1816, the earliest known permanent white settlers arrived and started building a town near the cave; the town was known as Rock and Cave, with a post office under this name. On October 24, 1849, the town was renamed Cave-In-Rock. Cave-In-Rock was incorporated as a village in 1901; the population was 318 at the 2010 census. Beginning in the 1790s, Cave-in-Rock became a refuge stronghold for frontier outlaws, on the run from the law which included river pirates and highwaymen Samuel Mason and James Ford, tavern owner/highwayman Isaiah L. Potts, serial killers/bandits the Harpe brothers, counterfeiters Philip Alston, Peter Alston, John Duff, Eson Bixby, the Sturdivant Gang, the post-American Civil War bandit, Logan Belt. Cave-In-Rock is located in southeastern Hardin County at 37°28′12″N 88°9′59″W, it is bordered to the south by the Ohio River.
The Cave-In-Rock Ferry crosses the Ohio from Cave-In-Rock village to Crittenden County, Kentucky, at a point 11 miles north of Marion. Cave-In-Rock is the southern terminus of Illinois Route 1, which leads north from the ferry 326 miles to its northern terminus in Chicago. According to the 2010 census, Cave-In-Rock has a total area of 0.422 square miles, of which 0.37 square miles is land and 0.052 square miles is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 346 people, 165 households, 96 families residing in the village; the population density was 874.6 people per square mile. There were 201 housing units at an average density of 508.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 98.27% White, 1.16% other races, 0.58% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.02% of the population. There were 165 households out of which 28.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.8% were married couples living together, 10.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 41.8% were non-families.
41.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 28.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.10 and the average family size was 2.82. In the village, the population was spread out with 23.4% under 18, 7.5% from 18 to 24, 24.9% from 25 to 44, 19.4% from 45 to 64, 24.9% who were 65 or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 81.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 82.8 males. The median income for a household in the village was $20,694, the median income for a family was $28,393. Males had a median income of $35,833 versus $18,125 for females; the per capita income for the village was $12,050. About 20.5% of families and 28.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 43.8% of those under age 18 and 24.1% of those age 65 or over. Cave-in-Rock's primary feature is a striking 55-foot-wide riverside cave formed by wind and water erosion and by cataclysmic effects of the 1811–12 New Madrid earthquakes.
The cave is located at 37°28′07″N 88°09′21″W, just upriver from the village. The first European to come across it was M. de Lery of France, who found it in 1739 and called it "caverne dans Le Roc". Other names for the cave include Rock-In-Cave, Rocking Cave, Rock-and-Cave, House of Nature, The Cave, Big Cave, Murrell's Cave; the cave is the main feature of Illinois' Cave-in-Rock State Park, established in 1929. From the 1790s to the 1870s, the area around Cave-in-Rock was plagued by what historians as early as the 1830s referred to as the "Ancient Colony of Horse-Thieves and Robbers", better known today due to Otto Rothert's history early in the 20th century as the "Outlaws of Cave-in-Rock". In 1790, counterfeiters Philip Alston and John Duff used the cave as some type of rendezvous, though details are scarce. Although folklore printed in 19th century histories failed to establish a prior connection between the two men, both had lived in the area of Natchez, Mississippi, at the start of the Revolutionary War.
Duff was living upriver a few miles, either at Battery Rock or across the Ohio River at what would become Caseyville, when in 1797 Samuel Mason moved his base of operations from Diamond Island and Red Banks to the cave and made it the home of river pirates. Two of Mason's brothers had been business partners of Duff in Illinois, in the 1780s. Mason created a combination tavern, gambling den and criminal refuge, his men lured in gullible river travelers and robbed and killed them. James Wilson known as Bully Wilson, may have been an alias for Samuel Mason, the next leader of the gang after Mason's hasty departure, or the front man for Mason's operation, he may be the Wilson. In 1799, he hung a sign over the cave's entrance saying "Wilson's Liquor Vault and House for Entertainment". By this time and his associates had been making salt in the area around the Illinois Salines along the Saline River in southeastern Illinois. A detachment from the U. S. Army garrison at Fort Massac, down river from Cave-In-Rock, captured him and three of his men, Blakely and Hall.
The soldiers took their prisoners by boat down the Saline River to the Ohio River, intending to return to the fort. Old histories do not explain. Subsequent events suggest it took place during the spring of 1799, when Wilson was in business, making it a stop for entertainment. Duff and his men overpowered the soldiers, they tied th
Fluorite is the mineral form of calcium fluoride, CaF2. It belongs to the halide minerals, it crystallizes in isometric cubic habit, although octahedral and more complex isometric forms are not uncommon. The Mohs scale of mineral hardness, based on scratch hardness comparison, defines value 4 as Fluorite. Fluorite is a colorful mineral, both in visible and ultraviolet light, the stone has ornamental and lapidary uses. Industrially, fluorite is used as a flux for smelting, in the production of certain glasses and enamels; the purest grades of fluorite are a source of fluoride for hydrofluoric acid manufacture, the intermediate source of most fluorine-containing fine chemicals. Optically clear transparent fluorite lenses have low dispersion, so lenses made from it exhibit less chromatic aberration, making them valuable in microscopes and telescopes. Fluorite optics are usable in the far-ultraviolet and mid-infrared ranges, where conventional glasses are too absorbent for use; the word fluorite is derived from the Latin verb fluere, meaning to flow.
The mineral is used as a flux in iron smelting to decrease the viscosity of slags. The term flux comes from the Latin adjective fluxus, meaning flowing, slack; the mineral fluorite was termed fluorospar and was first discussed in print in a 1530 work Bermannvs sive de re metallica dialogus, by Georgius Agricola, as a mineral noted for its usefulness as a flux. Agricola, a German scientist with expertise in philology and metallurgy, named fluorspar as a neo-Latinization of the German Flussspat from Fluß and Spat. In 1852, fluorite gave its name to the phenomenon of fluorescence, prominent in fluorites from certain locations, due to certain impurities in the crystal. Fluorite gave the name to its constitutive element fluorine. Presently, the word "fluorspar" is most used for fluorite as the industrial and chemical commodity, while "fluorite" is used mineralogically and in most other senses. In the context of archeology, classical studies, egyptology, the Latin terms murrina and myrrhina refer to fluorite.
In book 37 of his Naturalis Historia, Pliny the Elder describes it as a precious stone with purple and white mottling, whose objects carved from it, the Romans prize. Fluorite crystallises in a cubic motif. Crystal twinning adds complexity to the observed crystal habits. Fluorite has four perfect cleavage planes. Element substitution for the calcium cation includes certain rare earth elements, such as yttrium and cerium. Iron and barium are common impurities; some fluorine may be replaced by the chloride anion. Fluorite is a occurring mineral that occurs globally with significant deposits in over 9,000 areas, it may occur as a vein deposit with metallic minerals, where it forms a part of the gangue and may be associated with galena, barite and calcite. It is a common mineral in deposits of hydrothermal origin and has been noted as a primary mineral in granites and other igneous rocks and as a common minor constituent of dolostone and limestone; the world reserves of fluorite are estimated at 230 million tonnes with the largest deposits being in South Africa and China.
China is leading the world production with about 3 Mt annually, followed by Mexico, Russia, South Africa and Namibia. One of the largest deposits of fluorspar in North America is located in the Burin Peninsula, Canada; the first official recognition of fluorspar in the area was recorded by geologist J. B. Jukes in 1843, he noted an occurrence of "galena" or lead ore and fluoride of lime on the west side of St. Lawrence harbour, it is recorded that interest in the commercial mining of fluorspar began in 1928 with the first ore being extracted in 1933. At Iron Springs Mine, the shafts reached depths of 970 feet. In the St. Lawrence area, the veins are persistent for great lengths and several of them have wide lenses; the area with veins of known workable size comprises about 60 square miles. Cubic crystals up to 20 cm across have been found at Russia; the largest documented single crystal of fluorite was a cube weighing ~ 16 tonnes. Fluorite may be found in mines in Caldoveiro Peak, in Asturias, Spain.
One of the most famous of the older-known localities of fluorite is Castleton in Derbyshire, where, under the name of Derbyshire Blue John, purple-blue fluorite was extracted from several mines or caves. During the 19th century, this attractive fluorite was mined for its ornamental value; the mineral Blue John is now scarce, only a few hundred kilograms are mined each year for ornamental and lapidary use. Mining still takes place in Treak Cliff Cavern. Discovered deposits in China have produced fluorite with coloring and banding similar to the classic Blue John stone. George Gabriel Stokes named the phenomenon of fluorescence from fluorite, in 1852. Many samples of fluorite exhibit fluorescence under ultraviolet light, a property that takes its name from fluorite. Many minerals, as well as other substances, fluoresce. Fluorescence involves the elevation of electron energy levels by quanta of ultraviolet light, followed by the progressive falling back of the electrons into their previous energy state, releasing quanta of visible light in the process.
In fluorite, the visible
Time in the United States
Time in the United States, by law, is divided into nine standard time zones covering the states and its possessions, with most of the United States observing daylight saving time for the spring and fall months. The time zone boundaries and DST observance are regulated by the Department of Transportation. Official and precise timekeeping services are provided by two federal agencies: the National Institute of Standards and Technology; the clocks run by these services are kept synchronized with each other as well as with those of other international timekeeping organizations. It is the combination of the time zone and daylight saving rules, along with the timekeeping services, which determines the legal civil time for any U. S. location at any moment. Before the adoption of four standard time zones for the continental United States, many towns and cities set their clocks to noon when the sun passed their local meridian, pre-corrected for the equation of time on the date of observation, to form local mean solar time.
Noon occurred at different times but time differences between distant locations were noticeable prior to the 19th century because of long travel times and the lack of long-distance instant communications prior to the development of the telegraph. The use of local solar time became awkward as railways and telecommunications improved. American railroads maintained many different time zones during the late 1800s; each train station set its own clock making it difficult to coordinate train schedules and confusing passengers. Time calculation became a serious problem for people traveling by train, according to the Library of Congress; every city in the United States used a different time standard so there were more than 300 local sun times to choose from. Time zones were therefore a compromise, relaxing the complex geographic dependence while still allowing local time to be approximate with mean solar time. Railroad managers tried to address the problem by establishing 100 railroad time zones, but this was only a partial solution to the problem.
Weather service chief Cleveland Abbe had needed to introduce four standard time zones for his weather stations, an idea which he offered to the railroads. Operators of the new railroad lines needed a new time plan that would offer a uniform train schedule for departures and arrivals. Four standard time zones for the continental United States were introduced at noon on November 18, 1883, when the telegraph lines transmitted time signals to all major cities. In October 1884, the International Meridian Conference at Washington DC adopted a proposal which stated that the prime meridian for longitude and timekeeping should be one that passes through the centre of the transit instrument at the Greenwich Observatory in the United Kingdom; the conference therefore established the Greenwich Meridian as the prime meridian and Greenwich Mean Time as the world's time standard. The US time-zone system grew from this, in which all zones referred back to GMT on the prime meridian. In 1960, the International Radio Consultative Committee formalized the concept of Coordinated Universal Time, which became the new international civil time standard.
UTC is, within about 1 second, mean solar time at 0°. UTC does not observe daylight saving time. For most purposes, UTC is considered interchangeable with GMT, but GMT is no longer defined by the scientific community. UTC is one of several related successors to GMT. Standard time zones in the United States are defined at the federal level by law 15 USC §260; the federal law establishes the transition dates and times at which daylight saving time occurs, if observed. It is the authority of the Secretary of Transportation, in coordination with the states, to determine which regions will observe which of the standard time zones and if they will observe daylight saving time; as of August 9, 2007, the standard time zones are defined in terms of hourly offsets from UTC. Prior to this they were based upon the mean solar time at several meridians 15° apart west of Greenwich. Only the full-time zone names listed below are official. View the standard time zone boundaries here; the United States uses nine standard time zones.
As defined by US law they are: From east to west, the four time zones of the contiguous United States are: Eastern Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Atlantic coast and the eastern two thirds of the Ohio Valley. Central Time Zone, which comprises the Gulf Coast, Mississippi Valley, most of the Great Plains. Mountain Time Zone, which comprises the states and portions of states that include the Rocky Mountains and the western quarter of the Great Plains. Pacific Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Pacific coast, plus Nevada and the Idaho panhandle. Alaska Time Zone, which comprises most of the state of Alaska. Hawaii-Aleutian Time Zone, which includes Hawaii and most of the length of the Aleutian Islands chain. Samoa Time Zone, which comprises American Samoa. Chamorro Time Zone, which comprises Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Atlantic Time Zone, which comprises Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands; some United States Minor Outlying Islands are outside the time zones defined by 15 U.
S. C. § exist in waters defined by Nautical time. In practice, military crews may
Hardin County, Illinois
Hardin County is a county located in the U. S. state of Illinois. According to the 2010 census, it has a population of 4,320, making it the least populous county in Illinois, its county seat is Elizabethtown. Hardin County is located in the part of the state known as Little Egypt. Hardin County was named for Hardin County, named in honor of Colonel John Hardin, an officer in the American Revolutionary War and the Northwest Indian War. Hardin County was formed in 1839 from Pope County. Additional area was added from Gallatin County. Hardin County was named for Hardin County, named in honor of Colonel John Hardin, an officer in the American Revolutionary War and the Northwest Indian War. Hardin was murdered by Shawnee Indians while he was on a peace mission in 1792 for President George Washington, in what is now Shelby County, Ohio. In the 1790s and early 1800s, the Hardin County area Cave-In-Rock, was notorious as a stronghold used by outlaws, river pirates, counterfeiters. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 182 square miles, of which 178 square miles is land and 4.1 square miles is water.
It is the second-smallest county in Illinois by area. Hicks Dome is a geological feature in Hardin County; the Hicks Dome is underlain by ultramafic igneous igneous diatremes or breccia pipes. Most geologists accept the theory that the older rocks at the center of the uplift are a result of this deep seated igneous activity; this activity may have provided the fluorine in the fluorspar deposits in the region. Fluorspar, or calcium fluoride, was mined in Hardin County until the early 1990s. In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Elizabethtown have ranged from a low of 21 °F in January to a high of 87 °F in July, although a record low of −22 °F was recorded in January 1994 and a record high of 104 °F was recorded in August 2007. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 3.22 inches in October to 5.02 inches in May. Gallatin County - north Union County, Kentucky - east Crittenden County, Kentucky - south Livingston County, Kentucky - southwest Pope County - west Saline County - northwest Illinois Route 1 Illinois Route 34 Illinois Route 146 Shawnee National Forest As of the 2010 census, there were 4,320 people, 1,915 households, 1,234 families residing in the county.
The population density was 24.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 2,488 housing units at an average density of 14.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 97.3% white, 0.6% American Indian, 0.5% Asian, 0.3% black or African American, 0.1% Pacific islander, 0.3% from other races, 0.8% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.3% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 26.5% were Irish, 23.8% were German, 10.4% were English, 4.3% were American. Of the 1,915 households, 26.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.9% were married couples living together, 9.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.6% were non-families, 31.7% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.25 and the average family size was 2.78. The median age was 46.3 years. The median income for a household in the county was $27,578 and the median income for a family was $38,576. Males had a median income of $42,955 versus $26,683 for females.
The per capita income for the county was $18,515. About 17.4% of families and 22.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 37.4% of those under age 18 and 14.6% of those age 65 or over. Rosiclare Cave-In-Rock Elizabethtown Cadiz Eichorn Finneyville Gross Hicks Karbers Ridge Lamb Peters Creek Rock Creek Shetlerville Sparks Hill Battery Rock Precinct Cave-In-Rock Precinct East Monroe Precinct East Rosiclare Precinct McFarlan Precinct Monroe Precinct Peters Creek Precinct Rock Precinct Rock Creek Precinct Rosiclare Precinct Sellers Precinct Stone Church Precinct West Monroe Precinct West Rosiclare Precinct Battery Rock Chambers Creek Fairview Landing Grosville Hall Ridge Hester Illinois Furnace Lambtown Martha Furnace McFarlan Parkinson's Landing Robin's Ferry Sellers Sellers Landing Twitchell's Mills Wolrab Mills Tyler Carter, outlaw leader of the Gamers Unite Gang from Peters Creek James Ford, civic leader and secret criminal leader of a gang of Ohio River pirates and highwaymen Isaiah L. Potts, tavern keeper of the notorious Potts Tavern who ran a gang of pirates and highwaymen Jennifer Rhodes and film actress from Rosiclare Sturdivant Gang, 19th century counterfeiters in Rosiclare In its early history, Hardin County was opposed to the “Yankee” Republican Party and its Civil War against the South – with whom it was allied both culturally and economically.
It did not vote for a Republican presidential candidate until Theodore Roosevelt’s 1904 landslide. Since 1904, Hardin County has turned powerfully Republican. Like the nearby counties of Johnson and Pope, it managed to remain loyal to William Howard Taft during the 1912 election when the Republican Party was mortally divided. Hardin County would next be carried by a Democratic Presidential candidate in Franklin D. Roosevelt’s 1932 landslide victory, not after that until Lyndon Johnson in 1964; the county did trend Democratic in the following three decades voting more Democratic than the nation at-large between 1972 and 1996. Nonetheless, since 2000 Hardin County has followed the same political trajectory as Tennessee, Kentucky, West Virginia and Appalachian regions of adjacent states, whereby the Democratic Party’s liberal views o
Breccia is a rock composed of broken fragments of minerals or rock cemented together by a fine-grained matrix that can be similar to or different from the composition of the fragments. The word has its origins in the Italian language, in which it means either "loose gravel" or "stone made by cemented gravel". A breccia may have a variety of different origins, as indicated by the named types including sedimentary breccia, tectonic breccia, igneous breccia, impact breccia, hydrothermal breccia. Sedimentary breccia is a type of clastic sedimentary rock, made of angular to subangular, randomly oriented clasts of other sedimentary rocks. A conglomerate, by contrast, is a sedimentary rock composed of rounded fragments or clasts of pre-existing rocks. Both breccia and conglomerate are composed of fragments averaging greater than 2 millimetres in size; the angular shape of the fragments indicates that the material has not been transported far from its source. Sedimentary breccia consists of angular, poorly sorted, immature fragments of rocks in a finer grained groundmass which are produced by mass wasting.
It is lithified scree. Thick sequences of sedimentary breccia are formed next to fault scarps in grabens. Breccia may occur along a buried stream channel where it indicates accumulation along a juvenile or flowing stream. Sedimentary breccia may be formed by submarine debris flows. Turbidites occur as fine-grained peripheral deposits to sedimentary breccia flows. In a karst terrain, a collapse breccia may form due to collapse of rock into a sinkhole or in cave development. Fault breccia results from the grinding action of two fault blocks. Subsequent cementation of these broken fragments may occur by means of the introduction of mineral matter in groundwater. Igneous clastic rocks can be divided into two classes: Broken, fragmental rocks associated with volcanic eruptions, both of the lava and pyroclastic type. Volcanic pyroclastic rocks are formed by explosive eruption of lava and any rocks which are entrained within the eruptive column; this may include rocks plucked off the wall of the magma conduit, or physically picked up by the ensuing pyroclastic surge.
Lavas rhyolite and dacite flows, tend to form clastic volcanic rocks by a process known as autobrecciation. This occurs when the thick, nearly solid lava breaks up into blocks and these blocks are reincorporated into the lava flow again and mixed in with the remaining liquid magma; the resulting breccia is uniform in rock chemical composition. Lavas may pick up rock fragments if flowing over unconsolidated rubble on the flanks of a volcano, these form volcanic breccias called pillow breccias. Within the volcanic conduits of explosive volcanoes the volcanic breccia environment merges into the intrusive breccia environment. There the upwelling lava tends to solidify during quiescent intervals only to be shattered by ensuing eruptions. Clastic rocks are commonly found in shallow subvolcanic intrusions such as porphyry stocks and kimberlite pipes, where they are transitional with volcanic breccias. Intrusive rocks can become brecciated in appearance by multiple stages of intrusion if fresh magma is intruded into consolidated or solidified magma.
This may be seen in many granite intrusions where aplite veins form a late-stage stockwork through earlier phases of the granite mass. When intense, the rock may appear as a chaotic breccia. Clastic rocks in mafic and ultramafic intrusions have been found and form via several processes: Consumption and melt-mingling with wall rocks, where the felsic wall rocks are softened and invaded by the hotter ultramafic intrusion. Impact breccias are thought to be diagnostic of an impact event such as an asteroid or comet striking the Earth and are found at impact craters. Impact breccia, a type of impactite, forms during the process of impact cratering when large meteorites or comets impact with the Earth or other rocky planets or asteroids. Breccia of this type may be present on or beneath the floor of the crater, in the rim, or in the ejecta expelled beyond the crater. Impact breccia may be identified by its occurrence in or around a known impact crater, and/or an association with other products of impact cratering such as shatter cones, impact glass, shocked minerals, chemical and isotopic evidence of contamination with extraterrestrial material.
An example of an impact breccia is the Neugrund breccia, formed in the Neugrund impact. Hydrothermal breccias form at shallow crustal levels between 150 and 350 °C, when seismic or volcanic activity causes a void to open along a fault deep underground; the void draws in hot water, as pressure in the cavity drops, the water violently boils. In addition, the sudden opening of a cavity causes rock at the sides of the fault to destabilise and implode inwards, the broken rock gets caught up in a churning mixture of rock and boiling water. Rock fragments collide with each other and the sides of the void, the angular fragments become more rounded. Volatile gases are lost to the steam phase in particular carbon dioxide; as a result, the chemistry of the fluids changes an
Southern Illinois is the southern third of the state of Illinois. The southern part of Illinois has a unique regional history. Part of downstate Illinois, the Southern Illinois region is bordered by the two most voluminous rivers in the United States: the Mississippi River and its connecting Missouri River to the west, the Ohio River to the east and south with the Wabash as tributary. Southern Illinois' most populated city is Belleville at 44,478. Other principal cities include Alton, Collinsville, Effingham, O'Fallon, Herrin, Mt. Vernon and Carbondale, where the main campus of Southern Illinois University is located. Residents may travel to amenities in St. Louis and Cape Girardeau, Missouri; the region is home to a major military installation. The area has a population of 1.2 million people, who live in rural towns and cities separated by extensive farmland and the Shawnee National Forest. The two higher density areas of population are Metro-East, the industrialized Illinois portion of the St. Louis Metropolitan Area, the Carbondale-Marion-Herrin, Illinois Combined Statistical Area, centered on Carbondale and Marion, a two-county area, home to 123,272 residents.
The first European settlers were French colonists in the part of their North American empire called Illinois Country. Settlers migrated from the Upland South of the United States, traveling by the Ohio River; the region was affiliated with the southern agricultural economy, based on enslaved African Americans as workers on major plantations, rural culture. Some settlers owned slaves before the territory was organized and slavery was prohibited. Many areas developed an economy based on coal mining. Except for the counties in the St. Louis MSA, much of Southern Illinois is still culturally affiliated with the Mid-South: Western Kentucky, Southwestern Indiana, West Tennessee, the Missouri Bootheel; the people speak with similar accents throughout this area. Southern Illinois, the earliest settled and once the wealthiest part of Illinois, is known for its rich history and the abundance of antebellum architecture remaining in its small towns and cities; the earliest inhabitants of Illinois are thought to have arrived about 12,000 BC.
They were indigenous hunter-gatherers, but they developed a primitive system of agriculture. After AD 1000, the production of agricultural surpluses resulted in the development of complex, hierarchical societies. With the rise of the Mississippian culture in the Mississippi and Ohio River valleys, tribal leaders organized thousands of workers to build complex urban areas featuring numerous large earthworks – pyramidal and conical mounds used for religious and ceremonial purposes. Cahokia, located within the boundaries of present-day Collinsville, was the major regional center of this culture, it contains the largest prehistoric earthworks in the Americas, has been designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The mound builders' culture seems to have collapsed between AD 1400–1500; the Mississippians had abandoned Cahokia long. The Illinois tribes, for whom the state is named, other historic tribes migrated to Southern Illinois around AD 1500. Archeologists say, they had migrated from eastern areas, where Algonquian-language tribes emerged along the Atlantic Coast and waterways.
The Illini left numerous artifacts, including burial sites, burned-out campfires along the bases of bluffs, flint implements, weapons. Structures built by them include stone forts or "pounds". Visitors can see a stone fort in Giant City State Park near Makanda. At least eight other such structures are known in the region. In about 1673, French explorers from Quebec became the first Europeans to reach Illinois; the French named the area Illinois after the Indians. The French explored the Mississippi River, establishing outposts and seeking a route to the Pacific Ocean and the Far East; as increasing Indian unrest and warfare began in Northern Illinois over the lucrative fur trade along the Great Lakes, the French concentrated on building outposts in Southern Illinois. The earliest European settlers were concentrated along the Mississippi and Wabash rivers, which provided easy routes for travel and trade; the settlements including Cahokia town and Chartres became important market villages and supply depots between Canada and the French ports on the lower Mississippi River.
Other important early outposts in Southern Illinois were at Old Shawneetown and Fort Massac on the Ohio River. After defeating the French in the French and Indian War and signing the Treaty of Paris in 1763, the English ruled the Great Lakes region. At the time, many French settlers moved from towns on the eastern side of the Mississippi to the western side, ruled by Spain after the war, it took over all the Louisiana Territory west of the river. During the American Revolutionary War, the Southern Illinois area was the scene of the best known campaign in what was the American west, when Virginians sought to occupy it against the British. European-American settlers were slow to arrive in Illinois after the United States victory in the American Revolutionary War. By 1800, fewer than 2,000 European Americans lived in Illinois. Soon more settlers came from the backwoods areas of Kentucky, Virginia and the Carolinas; these early settlers w
Crittenden County, Kentucky
Crittenden County is a county in the U. S. state of Kentucky. At the 2010 census, the population was 9,315, its county seat is Marion. The county was formed in 1842 and named for John J. Crittenden and future Governor of Kentucky, it is dry county. Crittenden County, located on the Ohio and Tradewater Rivers in the Pennyroyal region of Kentucky, was created by the state legislature on April 1, 1842, from a portion of Livingston County, it became the state's 91st county, was named for John J. Crittenden, a U. S. senator, attorney general, governor of Kentucky. The first county seat was in Crooked Creek. Crittenden County was once crossed by the Chickasaw Road, a part of the Old Saline Trace; this footpath was used by Native Americans when hunting game that crossed the Ohio River to the salt licks in Illinois. The first settler in the area was James Armstrong, who arrived from South Carolina in 1786 and built a log cabin, his family joined him five years along with other families that came to settle in the area.
Early in the nineteenth century, Flynn's Ferry was established. Pro-Confederate during the American Civil War, the county saw little fighting, although both armies passed through it repeatedly. Several skimishes did place there, the county courthouse was burned by Confederate Brigadier General Hylan B. Lyon during his raid across western Kentucky in December 1864. Lyon's men, all Kentuckians, burned a total of seven courthouses, since the Union Army was using them for barracks; the Confederates allowed the locals to remove the records before setting fire to the courthouses. Crittenden County has valuable deposits of fluorspar, porcelain, coal and sand for making glass. Marion was an industrial town in the 1840s associated with the large fluorspar mining industry; this industry has been in slow decline since. Iron production was a prominent industry in the mid-19th century, with several furnaces being built in the county, one owned by Andrew Jackson. Other products produced in the county include lumber, modular homes, blue crystal, made famous by Ball canning jars.
Today the county has a strong agricultural economy. In 1992, 66 percent of the population lived on farms, with 45 percent of the population reporting farming as their primary occupation. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 371 square miles, of which 360 square miles is land and 11 square miles is water, its northwestern border with Illinois is formed by the Ohio River. U. S. Route 60 U. S. Route 641 Kentucky Route 70 Kentucky Route 91 Kentucky Route 120 Kentucky Route 295 Union County Webster County Caldwell County Lyon County Livingston County Hardin County, Illinois As of the census of 2000, there were 9,384 people, 3,829 households, 2,707 families residing in the county; the population density was 26 per square mile. There were 4,410 housing units at an average density of 12 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 98.24% White, 0.65% Black or African American, 0.15% Native American, 0.09% Asian, 0.14% from other races, 0.74% from two or more races.
0.51% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 3,829 households out of which 29.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.80% were married couples living together, 8.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.30% were non-families. 27.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.80% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.42 and the average family size was 2.93. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.20% under the age of 18, 8.00% from 18 to 24, 26.10% from 25 to 44, 26.40% from 45 to 64, 16.30% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 93.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.50 males. The median income for a household in the county was $29,060, the median income for a family was $36,462. Males had a median income of $30,509 versus $18,961 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,262.
About 14.70% of families and 19.10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 30.80% of those under age 18 and 15.70% of those age 65 or over. Dycusburg Marion Crayne Tolu Frances Mattoon Mexico Midway Shady Grove Sheridan Fords Ferry Although Crittenden County was by no means pro-Union during the Civil War – only 4.02 percent of its white male population served in the Union Army vis-à-vis over six percent for Kentucky as a whole – the county became Republican in years due to its deep ties to Illinois areas which came to support that party as a result of the war. Since 1884, the solitary Democrat to gain a majority in Crittenden County has been Jimmy Carter in 1976, although William Jennings Bryan won by two votes in 1896 and Bill Clinton obtained a plurality of 164 votes in 1992. In gubernatorial elections, Crittenden was during the twentieth century frequently the only county west of the Western Coalfield to support the Republican candidate – a scenario observed in 1979, with one exception in 1995.
Students in Crittenden County attend Crittenden County Schools located in Marion. Lee Cruce, second Governor of Oklahoma, Crittenden County native, Democratic Party. William J. Deboe, a Republican, was a U. S. Senator representing Kentucky from 1897 to 1903. Ollie M. James, a Democrat, represented Kentucky in the United S