In other words, compressive strength resists compression, whereas tensile strength resists tension. In the study of strength of materials, tensile strength, compressive strength, some materials fracture at their compressive strength limit, others deform irreversibly, so a given amount of deformation may be considered as the limit for compressive load. Compressive strength is a key value for design of structures, Compressive strength is often measured on a universal testing machine, these range from very small table-top systems to ones with over 53 MN capacity. Measurements of compressive strength are affected by the specific test method, Compressive strengths are usually reported in relationship to a specific technical standard. When a specimen of material is loaded in such a way that it extends it is said to be in tension, on the other hand, if the material compresses and shortens it is said to be in compression. On an atomic level, the molecules or atoms are forced apart when in tension whereas in compression they are forced together.
Since atoms in solids always try to find an equilibrium position, the phenomena prevailing on an atomic level are therefore similar. Tension tends to pull small sideways deflections back into alignment, while compression tends to amplify such deflection into buckling, Compressive strength is measured on materials and structures. By definition, the compressive strength of a material is that value of uniaxial compressive stress reached when the material fails completely. The compressive strength is usually obtained experimentally by means of a compressive test, the apparatus used for this experiment is the same as that used in a tensile test. However, rather than applying a uniaxial tensile load, a uniaxial compressive load is applied, as can be imagined, the specimen is shortened as well as spread laterally. In a compression test, there is a region where the material follows Hookes Law. Hence for this region σ = E ϵ where this time E refers to the Youngs Modulus for compression, in this region, the material deforms elastically and returns to its original length when the stress is removed.
This linear region terminates at what is known as the yield point, above this point the material behaves plastically and will not return to its original length once the load is removed. There is a difference between the stress and the true stress. By its basic definition the uniaxial stress is given by, σ = F A where, F = Load applied, A = Area As stated, in reality therefore the area is some function of the applied load i. e. Indeed, stress is defined as the force divided by the area at the start of the experiment, in engineering design practice, professionals mostly rely on the engineering stress. In reality, the stress is different from the engineering stress
In physics and materials science, plasticity describes the deformation of a material undergoing non-reversible changes of shape in response to applied forces. For example, a piece of metal being bent or pounded into a new shape displays plasticity as permanent changes occur within the material itself. In engineering, the transition from elastic behavior to plastic behavior is called yield, plastic deformation is observed in most materials, particularly metals, rocks, foams and skin. However, the mechanisms that cause plastic deformation can vary widely. At a crystalline scale, plasticity in metals is usually a consequence of dislocations, such defects are relatively rare in most crystalline materials, but are numerous in some and part of their crystal structure, in such cases, plastic crystallinity can result. In brittle materials such as rock and bone, plasticity is caused predominantly by slip at microcracks, for many ductile metals, tensile loading applied to a sample will cause it to behave in an elastic manner.
Each increment of load is accompanied by an increment in extension. When the load is removed, the returns to its original size. However, once the load exceeds a threshold – the yield strength – the extension increases more rapidly than in the region, now when the load is removed. Elastic deformation, however, is an approximation and its quality depends on the time frame considered, if, as indicated in the graph opposite, the deformation includes elastic deformation, it is often referred to as elasto-plastic deformation or elastic-plastic deformation. Perfect plasticity is a property of materials to undergo irreversible deformation without any increase in stresses or loads, plastic materials with hardening necessitate increasingly higher stresses to result in further plastic deformation. Generally, plastic deformation is dependent on the deformation speed. Such materials are said to deform visco-plastically, the plasticity of a material is directly proportional to the ductility and malleability of the material.
Plasticity in a crystal of pure metal is primarily caused by two modes of deformation in the lattice and twinning. Slip is a deformation which moves the atoms through many interatomic distances relative to their initial positions. Twinning is the plastic deformation takes place along two planes due to a set of forces applied to a given metal piece. Most metals show more plasticity when hot than when cold, lead shows sufficient plasticity at room temperature, while cast iron does not possess sufficient plasticity for any forging operation even when hot. This property is of importance in forming and extruding operations on metals, most metals are rendered plastic by heating and hence shaped hot
The term Engineering is derived from the Latin ingenium, meaning cleverness and ingeniare, meaning to contrive, devise. Engineering has existed since ancient times as humans devised fundamental inventions such as the wedge, wheel, each of these inventions is essentially consistent with the modern definition of engineering. The term engineering is derived from the engineer, which itself dates back to 1390 when an engineer originally referred to a constructor of military engines. In this context, now obsolete, a referred to a military machine. Notable examples of the obsolete usage which have survived to the present day are military engineering corps, the word engine itself is of even older origin, ultimately deriving from the Latin ingenium, meaning innate quality, especially mental power, hence a clever invention. The earliest civil engineer known by name is Imhotep, as one of the officials of the Pharaoh, Djosèr, he probably designed and supervised the construction of the Pyramid of Djoser at Saqqara in Egypt around 2630–2611 BC.
Ancient Greece developed machines in both civilian and military domains, the Antikythera mechanism, the first known mechanical computer, and the mechanical inventions of Archimedes are examples of early mechanical engineering. In the Middle Ages, the trebuchet was developed, the first steam engine was built in 1698 by Thomas Savery. The development of this gave rise to the Industrial Revolution in the coming decades. With the rise of engineering as a profession in the 18th century, similarly, in addition to military and civil engineering, the fields known as the mechanic arts became incorporated into engineering. The inventions of Thomas Newcomen and the Scottish engineer James Watt gave rise to mechanical engineering. The development of specialized machines and machine tools during the revolution led to the rapid growth of mechanical engineering both in its birthplace Britain and abroad. John Smeaton was the first self-proclaimed civil engineer and is regarded as the father of civil engineering.
He was an English civil engineer responsible for the design of bridges, harbours and he was a capable mechanical engineer and an eminent physicist. Smeaton designed the third Eddystone Lighthouse where he pioneered the use of hydraulic lime and his lighthouse remained in use until 1877 and was dismantled and partially rebuilt at Plymouth Hoe where it is known as Smeatons Tower. The United States census of 1850 listed the occupation of engineer for the first time with a count of 2,000, there were fewer than 50 engineering graduates in the U. S. before 1865. In 1870 there were a dozen U. S. mechanical engineering graduates, in 1890 there were 6,000 engineers in civil, mining and electrical. There was no chair of applied mechanism and applied mechanics established at Cambridge until 1875, the theoretical work of James Maxwell and Heinrich Hertz in the late 19th century gave rise to the field of electronics
Ultimate tensile strength
In other words, tensile strength resists tension, whereas compressive strength resists compression. Ultimate tensile strength is measured by the stress that a material can withstand while being stretched or pulled before breaking. In the study of strength of materials, tensile strength, compressive strength, some materials break very sharply, without plastic deformation, in what is called a brittle failure. Others, which are more ductile, including most metals, experience some plastic deformation, the UTS is usually found by performing a tensile test and recording the engineering stress versus strain. The highest point of the curve is the UTS. It is a property, therefore its value does not depend on the size of the test specimen. However, it is dependent on other factors, such as the preparation of the specimen, the presence or otherwise of surface defects, Tensile strengths are rarely used in the design of ductile members, but they are important in brittle members. They are tabulated for common materials such as alloys, composite materials, plastics, Tensile strength can be defined for liquids as well as solids under certain conditions.
Tensile strength is defined as a stress, which is measured as force per unit area, for some non-homogeneous materials it can be reported just as a force or as a force per unit width. In the International System of Units, the unit is the pascal, or, equivalently to pascals, Many materials can display linear elastic behavior, defined by a linear stress–strain relationship, as shown in the left figure up to point 3. Beyond this elastic region, for materials, such as steel. A plastically deformed specimen does not completely return to its original size, for many applications, plastic deformation is unacceptable, and is used as the design limitation. The reversal point is the stress on the engineering stress–strain curve. The UTS is not used in the design of static members because design practices dictate the use of the yield stress. It is, used for quality control, because of the ease of testing and it is used to roughly determine material types for unknown samples. The UTS is a common engineering parameter to design members made of material because such materials have no yield point.
Typically, the testing involves taking a sample with a fixed cross-sectional area. When testing some metals, indentation hardness correlates linearly with tensile strength and this important relation permits economically important nondestructive testing of bulk metal deliveries with lightweight, even portable equipment, such as hand-held Rockwell hardness testers
Mineralogy is a subject of geology specializing in the scientific study of chemistry, crystal structure, and physical properties of minerals and mineralized artifacts. Specific studies within mineralogy include the processes of mineral origin and formation, classification of minerals, their geographical distribution, the German Renaissance specialist Georgius Agricola wrote works such as De re metallica and De Natura Fossilium which began the scientific approach to the subject. Systematic scientific studies of minerals and rocks developed in post-Renaissance Europe, the modern study of mineralogy was founded on the principles of crystallography and to the microscopic study of rock sections with the invention of the microscope in the 17th century. Nicholas Steno first observed the law of constancy of interfacial angles in quartz crystals in 1669 and this was generalized and established experimentally by Jean-Baptiste L. Romé de lIslee in 1783. In 1814, Jöns Jacob Berzelius introduced a classification of minerals based on their chemistry rather than their crystal structure, james D.
Dana published his first edition of A System of Mineralogy in 1837, and in a edition introduced a chemical classification that is still the standard. It, retains a focus on the structures commonly encountered in rock-forming minerals. An initial step in identifying a mineral is to examine its physical properties and these can be classified into density, measures of mechanical cohesion, macroscopic visual properties and electric properties and solubility in hydrogen chloride. If the mineral is crystallized, it will have a distinctive crystal habit that reflects the crystal structure or internal arrangement of atoms. It is affected by crystal defects and twinning. Many crystals are polymorphic, having more than one crystal structure depending on factors such as pressure and temperature. ”Examples of polymorphs are calcite and aragonite - two minerals with identical chemical composition, distinguished by their crystallography, calcite is rhombohedral and aragonite is orthorhombic. The crystal structure is the arrangement of atoms in a crystal and it is represented by a lattice of points which repeats a basic pattern, called a unit cell, in three dimensions.
The lattice can be characterized by its symmetries and by the dimensions of the unit cell and these dimensions are represented by three Miller indices. The lattice remains unchanged by certain symmetry operations about any point in the lattice, rotation and rotary inversion. Together, they make up an object called a crystallographic point group or crystal class. There are 32 possible crystal classes, in addition, there are operations that displace all the points, screw axis, and glide plane. In combination with the point symmetries, they form 230 possible space groups, most geology departments have X-ray powder diffraction equipment to analyze the crystal structures of minerals. X-rays have wavelengths that are the order of magnitude as the distances between atoms. In a sample that is ground to a powder, the X-rays sample a random distribution of all crystal orientations, powder diffraction can distinguish between minerals that may appear the same in a hand sample, for example quartz and its polymorphs tridymite and cristobalite
A superhard material is a material with a hardness value exceeding 40 gigapascals when measured by the Vickers hardness test. They are highly incompressible solids with high density and high bond covalency. Diamond is the hardest known material to date, with a Vickers hardness in the range of 70–150 GPa, diamond demonstrates both high thermal conductivity and electrically insulating properties and much attention has been put into finding practical applications of this material. However, diamond has several limitations for mass industrial application, including its high cost, in addition, diamond dissolves in iron and forms iron carbides at high temperatures and therefore is inefficient in cutting ferrous materials including steel. Therefore, recent research of superhard materials has been focusing on compounds which would be thermally and chemically stable than pure diamond. Superhard materials can be classified into two categories, intrinsic compounds and extrinsic compounds. The intrinsic group includes diamond, cubic boron nitride, carbon nitrides and ternary compounds such as B-N-C, extrinsic materials are those that have superhardness and other mechanical properties that are determined by their microstructure rather than composition.
An example of extrinsic superhard material is nanocrystalline diamond known as aggregated diamond nanorods, the hardness of a material is directly related to its incompressibility and resistance to change in shape. A superhard material has high shear modulus, high bulk modulus, ideally superhard materials should have a defect-free, isotropic lattice. This greatly reduces structural deformations that can lower the strength of the material, defects can actually strengthen some covalent structures. Historically, hardness was first defined as the ability of one material to scratch another and this scale was however quickly found too discrete and non-linear. Measuring the mechanical hardness of materials changed to using a nanoindenter and evaluating bulk moduli, whereas the Vickers scale is widely accepted as a most common test, there remain controversies on the weight load to be applied during the test. Bulk moduli, shear moduli, and elasticity are the key factors in the classification process.
The incompressibility of a material is quantified by the bulk modulus B, Here V is the volume, p is pressure, and dp/dV is the partial derivative of pressure with respect to the volume. The bulk modulus test uses a tool to form a permanent deformation in a material. The size of the deformation depends on the resistance to the volume compression made by the tool. Elements with small volumes and strong interatomic forces usually have high bulk moduli. For example, some alkali and noble metals have high ratio of the bulk modulus to the Vickers of Brinell hardness
Mohs scale of mineral hardness
The Mohs scale of mineral hardness is a qualitative ordinal scale characterizing scratch resistance of various minerals through the ability of harder material to scratch softer material. Created in 1812 by German geologist and mineralogist Friedrich Mohs, it is one of several definitions of hardness in materials science, while greatly facilitating the identification of minerals in the field, the Mohs scale does not show how well hard materials perform in an industrial setting. Despite its lack of precision, the Mohs scale is highly relevant for field geologists, the Mohs scale hardness of minerals can be commonly found in reference sheets. Reference materials may be expected to have a uniform Mohs hardness, the Mohs scale of mineral hardness is based on the ability of one natural sample of mineral to scratch another mineral visibly. The samples of matter used by Mohs are all different minerals, Minerals are pure substances found in nature. Rocks are made up of one or more minerals, as the hardest known naturally occurring substance when the scale was designed, diamonds are at the top of the scale.
The hardness of a material is measured against the scale by finding the hardest material that the material can scratch. For example, if material is scratched by apatite but not by fluorite. Scratching a material for the purposes of the Mohs scale means creating non-elastic dislocations visible to the naked eye, materials that are lower on the Mohs scale can create microscopic, non-elastic dislocations on materials that have a higher Mohs number. The Mohs scale is an ordinal scale. For example, corundum is twice as hard as topaz, the table below shows the comparison with the absolute hardness measured by a sclerometer, with pictorial examples. On the Mohs scale, a streak plate has a hardness of 7.0, using these ordinary materials of known hardness can be a simple way to approximate the position of a mineral on the scale. The table below incorporates additional substances that may fall between levels, Comparison between Hardness and Hardness, Mohs hardness of elements is taken from G. V, samsonov in Handbook of the physicochemical properties of the elements, IFI-Plenum, New York, USA,1968.
The Hardness of Minerals and Rocks
In physics, a force is any interaction that, when unopposed, will change the motion of an object. In other words, a force can cause an object with mass to change its velocity, force can be described intuitively as a push or a pull. A force has both magnitude and direction, making it a vector quantity and it is measured in the SI unit of newtons and represented by the symbol F. The original form of Newtons second law states that the net force acting upon an object is equal to the rate at which its momentum changes with time. In an extended body, each part usually applies forces on the adjacent parts, such internal mechanical stresses cause no accelation of that body as the forces balance one another. Pressure, the distribution of small forces applied over an area of a body, is a simple type of stress that if unbalanced can cause the body to accelerate. Stress usually causes deformation of materials, or flow in fluids. In part this was due to an understanding of the sometimes non-obvious force of friction.
A fundamental error was the belief that a force is required to maintain motion, most of the previous misunderstandings about motion and force were eventually corrected by Galileo Galilei and Sir Isaac Newton. With his mathematical insight, Sir Isaac Newton formulated laws of motion that were not improved-on for nearly three hundred years, the Standard Model predicts that exchanged particles called gauge bosons are the fundamental means by which forces are emitted and absorbed. Only four main interactions are known, in order of decreasing strength, they are, electromagnetic, high-energy particle physics observations made during the 1970s and 1980s confirmed that the weak and electromagnetic forces are expressions of a more fundamental electroweak interaction. Since antiquity the concept of force has been recognized as integral to the functioning of each of the simple machines. The mechanical advantage given by a machine allowed for less force to be used in exchange for that force acting over a greater distance for the same amount of work.
Analysis of the characteristics of forces ultimately culminated in the work of Archimedes who was famous for formulating a treatment of buoyant forces inherent in fluids. Aristotle provided a discussion of the concept of a force as an integral part of Aristotelian cosmology. In Aristotles view, the sphere contained four elements that come to rest at different natural places therein. Aristotle believed that objects on Earth, those composed mostly of the elements earth and water, to be in their natural place on the ground. He distinguished between the tendency of objects to find their natural place, which led to natural motion, and unnatural or forced motion
A material is brittle if, when subjected to stress, it breaks without significant plastic deformation. Brittle materials absorb relatively little energy prior to fracture, even those of high strength, breaking is often accompanied by a snapping sound. Brittle materials include most ceramics and glasses and some polymers, such as PMMA, many steels become brittle at low temperatures, depending on their composition and processing. When used in science, it is generally applied to materials that fail when there is little or no evidence of plastic deformation before failure. One proof is to match the broken halves, which should fit exactly since no plastic deformation has occurred, when a material has reached the limit of its strength, it usually has the option of either deformation or fracture. Improving material toughness is therefore a balancing act and this principle generalizes to other classes of material. Naturally brittle materials, such as glass, are not difficult to toughen effectively, the first principle is used in laminated glass where two sheets of glass are separated by an interlayer of polyvinyl butyral, which as a viscoelastic polymer absorbs the growing crack.
The second method is used in toughened glass and pre-stressed concrete, a demonstration of glass toughening is provided by Prince Ruperts Drop. Brittle polymers can be toughened by using metal particles to initiate crazes when a sample is stressed, the least brittle structural ceramics are silicon carbide and transformation-toughened zirconia. A different philosophy is used in materials, where brittle glass fibres. When strained, cracks are formed at the interface, but so many are formed that much energy is absorbed. The same principle is used in creating metal matrix composites, the brittle strength of a material can be increased by pressure. Supersonic fracture is crack motion faster than the speed of sound in a brittle material and this phenomenon was first discovered by scientists from the Max Planck Institute for Metals Research in Stuttgart and IBM Almaden Research Center in San Jose, California. Izod impact strength test Charpy impact test Fractography Forensic engineering Ductility Strengthening mechanisms of materials Lewis, Peter Rhys, Reynolds, K, Gagg, rösler, Harders, Harald, Bäker, Martin.
Mechanical behaviour of engineering materials, ceramics and composites
A ceramic is an inorganic, non-metallic, solid material comprising metal, non-metal or metalloid atoms primarily held in ionic and covalent bonds. This article gives an overview of ceramic materials from the point of view of materials science, the crystallinity of ceramic materials ranges from highly oriented to semi-crystalline and often completely amorphous. Most often, fired ceramics are either vitrified or semi-vitrified as is the case with earthenware, varying crystallinity and electron consumption in the ionic and covalent bonds cause most ceramic materials to be good thermal and electrical insulators. With such a range of possible options for the composition/structure of a ceramic, the breadth of the subject is vast. Many composites, such as fiberglass and carbon fiber, while containing ceramic materials, are not considered to be part of the ceramic family. The earliest ceramics made by humans were pottery objects or figurines made from clay, either by itself or mixed with materials like silica, sintered.
Later ceramics were glazed and fired to create smooth, colored surfaces, decreasing porosity through the use of glassy, ceramics now include domestic and building products, as well as a wide range of ceramic art. In the 20th century, new materials were developed for use in advanced ceramic engineering. The word ceramic comes from the Greek word κεραμικός, of pottery or for pottery, from κέραμος, potters clay, the earliest known mention of the root ceram- is the Mycenaean Greek ke-ra-me-we, workers of ceramics, written in Linear B syllabic script. The word ceramic may be used as an adjective to describe a material, product or process, or it may be used as a noun, either singular, or, more commonly, as the plural noun ceramics. A ceramic material is an inorganic, non-metallic, often crystalline oxide, nitride or carbide material, some elements, such as carbon or silicon, may be considered ceramics. Ceramic materials are brittle, strong in compression, weak in shearing and they withstand chemical erosion that occurs in other materials subjected to acidic or caustic environments.
Ceramics generally can withstand high temperatures, such as temperatures that range from 1,000 °C to 1,600 °C. Glass is often not considered a ceramic because of its amorphous character. However, glassmaking involves several steps of the process and its mechanical properties are similar to ceramic materials. Traditional ceramic raw materials include minerals such as kaolinite, whereas more recent materials include aluminium oxide. The modern ceramic materials, which are classified as advanced ceramics, include silicon carbide, both are valued for their abrasion resistance, and hence find use in applications such as the wear plates of crushing equipment in mining operations. Advanced ceramics are used in the medicine, electronics industries. Crystalline ceramic materials are not amenable to a range of processing
Dureza is a dark-skinned French wine grape variety from the Ardèche department of south central France in the Rhône-Alpes region. There were only 11 hectares planted to Dureza in the late 1970s, the Dureza vine is a member of the Vitis vinifera family of grape vines. It is believed to be native to the northern Ardèche region of south-central France, mondeuse Blanche is native to the Savoie region, though it has been found in the Ain, Haute-Savoie and Isère departments. Carole Meredith speculates that the northern Isère region was the likely birthplace, Dureza is known as a vigorous vine, capable of producing high yields. The variety tends to ripen late in the season, which linguist Jacques André, both synonyms, which are now more closely related to Durezas similarly late-ripening offspring Syrah, are connected to the root of the Latin term serus, late. Dureza is known under the synonyms Duré, Durezza, historically it has been known as Serène and Serine which are more widely recognized as synonyms for its offspring Syrah used in the Côte-Rôtie AOC.
Dureza has sometimes confused with Durif and Syrah