Haredi Judaism

Haredi Judaism consists of groups within Orthodox Judaism characterized by a strict adherence to their interpretation of Jewish law and values as opposed to modern values and practices. Its members are referred to as Orthodox or ultra-Orthodox in English. While the term "ultra-Orthodox" is considered pejorative by many of its adherents, others do not care how outsiders refer to them. Haredi Jews regard themselves as the most religiously authentic group of Jews, although this claim is contested by other streams. Haredi Judaism is a reaction to societal changes, including emancipation, the Haskalah movement derived from the Enlightenment, secularization, religious reform in all its forms from mild to extreme, the rise of the Jewish national movements, etc. In contrast to Modern Orthodox Judaism, which accepted modernity, followers of Haredi Judaism maintain their adherence to Jewish Law and custom by segregating themselves from modern society. However, many Haredi communities encourage their young people to get a professional degree or establish a business, contact takes place between Haredi and non-Haredi Jews, as well as between Haredi Jews and non-Jews.

Haredi communities are found in Israel, North America, Western Europe. Their estimated global population numbers over 1.8 million, due to a virtual absence of interfaith marriage and a high birth rate, the Haredi population is growing rapidly. Their numbers have been boosted by a substantial number of secular Jews adopting a Haredi lifestyle as part of the Baal teshuva movement; the term most used by outsiders, including most American news organizations, is ultra-Orthodox Judaism. Hillel Halkin suggests the origins of the term may date to the 1950s, a period in which Haredi survivors of the Holocaust first began arriving in America. However, Isaac Leeser was described in 1916 as "ultra-Orthodox". Haredi is a Modern Hebrew adjective derived from the Biblical verb hared, which appears in the Book of Isaiah and is translated as " trembles" at the word of God; the word connotes an awe-inspired anxiety to perform the will of God. The word Haredi is used in the Jewish diaspora in place of the term ultra-Orthodox, which many view as inaccurate or offensive, it being seen as a derogatory term suggesting extremism.

Others, dispute the characterization of the term as pejorative. Ari L. Goldman, a professor at Columbia University, notes that the term serves a practical purpose to distinguish a specific part of the Orthodox community, is not meant as pejorative. Others, such as Samuel Heilman, criticized terms such as ultra-Orthodox and traditional Orthodox, arguing that they misidentify Haredi Jews as more authentically Orthodox than others, as opposed to adopting customs and practises that reflect their desire to separate from the outside world; the community has sometimes been characterized as traditional Orthodox, in contradistinction to the Modern Orthodox, the other major branch of Orthodox Judaism, not to be confused with the movement represented by the Union for Traditional Judaism, which originated in Conservative Judaism. Haredi Jews use other terms to refer to themselves. Common Yiddish words include Yidn, erlekhe Yidn, ben Torah and heimish. In Israel, Haredi Jews are sometimes called by the derogatory slang words dos, that mimics the traditional Ashkenazi Hebrew pronunciation of the Hebrew word datim, more sh'chorim, a reference to the black clothes they wear.

According to its adherents, the forebears of the contemporary Haredi Jews were the traditionalists of Eastern Europe who fought against modernization. Indeed, adherents see their beliefs as part of an unbroken tradition dating from the revelation at Sinai. However, most historians of Orthodoxy consider Haredi Judaism, in its modern incarnation, to date back no earlier than the start of the 20th century. For centuries, before Jewish emancipation, European Jews were forced to live in ghettos where Jewish culture and religious observance were preserved. Change began in the wake of the Age of Enlightenment when some European liberals sought to include the Jewish population in the emerging empires and nation states; the influence of the Haskalah movement was evidence. Supporters of the Haskalah held that Judaism must change in keeping with the social changes around them. Other Jews insisted on strict adherence to halakha. In Germany, the opponents of Reform rallied to Samson Raphael Hirsch, who led a secession from German Jewish communal organizations to form a Orthodox movement with its own network of synagogues and schools.

His approach was to apply them in defence of Orthodoxy. In the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Jews true to traditional values gathered under the banner of Agudas Shlumei Emunei Yisroel. Moses Sofer was opposed to any philosophical, social, or practical change to customary Orthodox practice. Thus, he did not allow any secular studies to be added to the curriculum of his Pressburg Yeshiva. Sofer's student Moshe Schick, together with Sofer's sons Shimon and Samuel Benjamin, took an activ

Secretary of State for Wales

Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for Wales is the principal minister of Her Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom with responsibilities for Wales. He or she is the head of the Wales Office, he or she is responsible for ensuring Welsh interests are taken into account by Her Majesty's Government, representing the government within Wales and overseeing the passing of legislation, only for Wales. The post is held by Simon Hart since 2019. In the first half of the 20th century, a number of politicians had supported the creation of the post of Secretary of State for Wales as a step towards home rule for Wales. A post of Minister of Welsh Affairs was created in 1951 under the home secretary and was upgraded to minister of state level in 1954; the Labour Party proposed the creation of a Welsh Office run by a Secretary of State for Wales in their manifesto for the 1959 general election. When they came to power in 1964 this was soon put into effect; the post of secretary of state for Wales came into existence on 17 October 1964.

The position entailed responsibility for Wales, expenditure on certain public services was delegated from Westminster. In April 1965 administration of Welsh affairs, divided between a number of government departments, was united in a newly created Welsh Office with the secretary of state for Wales at its head, the Welsh Secretary became responsible for education and training, health and industry, environment and agriculture within Wales. During the 1980s and 1990s, as the number of Conservative MPs for Welsh constituencies dwindled to zero, the office fell into disrepute. Nicholas Edwards, MP for Pembrokeshire, held the post for eight years. On his departure, the government ceased to look within Wales for the secretary of state, the post was used as a way of getting junior high-fliers into the Cabinet. John Redwood in particular caused embarrassment when he publicly demonstrated his inability to sing Hen Wlad Fy Nhadau, the Welsh national anthem, at a conference; the introduction of the National Assembly for Wales and the Welsh Government, after the devolution referendum of 1997, was the beginning of a new era.

On 1 July 1999 the majority of the functions of the Welsh Office transferred to the new assembly. The Welsh Office was disbanded, but the post of secretary of state for Wales was retained, as the head of the newly created Wales Office. Since 1999 there have been calls for the office of Welsh secretary to be scrapped or merged with the posts of secretary of state for Scotland and secretary of state for Northern Ireland, to reflect the lesser powers of the role since devolution. Colour key Conservative National Liberal Labour Note First Minister for Wales Secretary of State for Northern Ireland Secretary of State for Scotland Labour Party in Wales – covers the history of the post Hain promoted in Brown's cabinet, BBC News Online, 28 June 2007 Hain takes work and pensions job, BBC News Online, 28 June 2007

James Logie Robertson

James Logie Robertson was a literary scholar and author, who wrote under the pen name Hugh Haliburton. His poems, published in The Scotsman newspaper, were affectionately known as "The Hughies", he was born in Milnathort, Kinross-shire on 18 September 1846 and educated at Orwell Parish School and the University of Edinburgh. He began his teaching career as assistant master at George Heriot’s School and moved to George Watson’s College, he joined the staff at Edinburgh Ladies’ College in 1876 and stayed there until 1913. His writings include English text-books and poetry. Much of his poetry was written in Scots under the pen-name Hugh Haliburton, he died in Edinburgh, in June 1922. He is buried on the south side of Morningside Cemetery, near the southern access gate, he was married to Janet Simpson. Poems Orellana and Other Poems New songs of innocence Our Holiday Among The Hills together with Janet Logie Robertson Ochil Idylls and Other Poems, Horace in Homespun The Complete Poetical Works of James Thomson Petition to the Deil: And Other War Verses Scottish Poetry Library biography with links to poem textsEnglish Poetry Full-Text Database - R