Leuven or Louvain is the capital of the province of Flemish Brabant in Belgium. It is located about 25 kilometres east of Brussels; the municipality itself comprises the historic city and the former neighbouring municipalities of Heverlee, Kessel-Lo, a part of Korbeek-Lo, Wilsele and Wijgmaal. It is the eighth largest city in Belgium and the fourth in Flanders with more than 100,244 inhabitants. Leuven is home to the KU Leuven, the largest and oldest university of the Low Countries and the oldest Catholic university still in existence; the related university hospital of UZ Leuven is one of the largest hospitals in Europe. The city is known for being the headquarters of Anheuser-Busch InBev, the world's largest brewer and one of the five largest consumer-goods companies in the world; the earliest mention of Leuven dates from 891, when a Viking army was defeated by the Frankish king Arnulf of Carinthia. According to a legend, the city's red and white arms depict the blood-stained shores of the river Dyle after this battle to Austria’s Flag.
Situated beside this river, near to the stronghold of the Dukes of Brabant, Leuven became the most important centre of trade in the duchy between the 11th and 14th centuries. A token of its former importance as a centre of cloth manufacture is shown in that ordinary linen cloth was known, in late-14th-century and 15th-century texts, as lewyn. In the 15th century, a new golden era began with the founding of what is now the largest and oldest university in the Low Countries, the Catholic University of Leuven, in 1425. In the 18th century, the brewery Den Horen flourished. In 1708, Sebastien Artois became the master brewer at Den Horen, gave his name to the brewery in 1717, now part of AB InBev, whose flagship beer, Stella Artois, is brewed in Leuven and sold in many countries. Leuven occupied by foreign armies. In the 20th century, both world wars inflicted major damage upon the city. Upon Germany's entry into World War I, the town was damaged by rampaging soldiers. In all, about 300 civilians lost their lives.
The university library was destroyed on 25 August 1914, using petrol and incendiary pastilles. 230,000 volumes were lost in the destruction, including Gothic and Renaissance manuscripts, a collection of 750 medieval manuscripts, more than 1,000 incunabula. The destruction of the library shocked the world, with the Daily Chronicle describing it as war not only against civilians but against "posterity to the utmost generation." It was rebuilt after the war, much of the collection was replaced. Great Britain and the United States were major providers of material for the replenishment of the collection; the new library building was financed by the National Committee of the United States for the Restoration of the University of Louvain and built to the design of architect Whitney Warren. Richard Harding Davis, a war correspondent for the New York Tribune, was in Leuven and wrote a column titled "The Germans Were Like Men After an Orgy" in which he described the organized civilian murders and vandalism committed by the occupying troops.
In World War II, after the start of the German offensive, Leuven formed part of the British Expeditionary Force's front line and was defended by units of the 3rd Division and Belgian troops. From 14 to 16 May 1940, the German Army Group B assaulted the city with heavy air and artillery support; the British withdrew their forces to the River Senne on the night of 16 May and the town was occupied the next day. The new university library building was set on fire by shelling, on 16 May, nearly a million books were lost. Given the presence of the KU Leuven, Europe's most innovative university according to Reuters, much of the local economy is concentrated on spin-offs from academic research. In addition, the Leuven-based research centre, IMEC, is a world class research centre in the field of nano-electronics and digital technologies; as a result, dozens of companies in high technological fields such as biotech, additive manufacturing and IT, are located near these research institutes on the Arenberg Science Park and Haasrode Research-Park.
Quite a few international companies such as Siemens, Nitto Denko, JSR Corporation or Commscope have important research oriented branches, in Leuven. The academic hospital Gasthuisberg is another advanced research institute, it is one of Europe's most advanced hospitals. As a result, large numbers of private service providers are active in the medical and legal fields; because it is the capital of the region of Flemish Brabant, many governmental institutions are located in Leuven, as well as the regional headquarters of transport corporations such as De Lijn. As one of Flanders Art-Cities, with a large range of cafés, cultural institutions and shopping neighbourhoods, Leuven attracts a fair share of tourists. Leuven is the worldwide headquarters of Anheuser-Busch InBev, the largest beer company in the world and is considered one of the largest fast-moving consumer goods companies in the world. InBev's Stella Artois brewery and main offices dominate the entire north-eastern part of the town, between the railway station and the canal to Mechelen.
As of 1 November 2016, the population of Leuven was 100,244. The arrondissement of Leuven
Brussels the Brussels-Capital Region, is a region of Belgium comprising 19 municipalities, including the City of Brussels, the capital of Belgium. The Brussels-Capital Region is located in the central portion of the country and is a part of both the French Community of Belgium and the Flemish Community, but is separate from the Flemish Region and the Walloon Region. Brussels is the most densely populated and the richest region in Belgium in terms of GDP per capita, it covers 161 km2, a small area compared to the two other regions, has a population of 1.2 million. The metropolitan area of Brussels counts over 2.1 million people, which makes it the largest in Belgium. It is part of a large conurbation extending towards Ghent, Antwerp and Walloon Brabant, home to over 5 million people. Brussels grew from a small rural settlement on the river Senne to become an important city-region in Europe. Since the end of the Second World War, it has been a major centre for international politics and the home of numerous international organisations, politicians and civil servants.
Brussels is the de facto capital of the European Union, as it hosts a number of principal EU institutions, including its administrative-legislative, executive-political, legislative branches and its name is sometimes used metonymically to describe the EU and its institutions. The secretariat of the Benelux and headquarters of NATO are located in Brussels; as the economic capital of Belgium and one of the top financial centres of Western Europe with Euronext Brussels, it is classified as an Alpha global city. Brussels is a hub for rail and air traffic, sometimes earning the moniker "Crossroads of Europe"; the Brussels Metro is the only rapid transit system in Belgium. In addition, both its airport and railway stations are the busiest in the country. Dutch-speaking, Brussels saw a language shift to French from the late 19th century; the Brussels-Capital Region is bilingual in French and Dutch though French is now the de facto main language with over 90% of the population speaking it. Brussels is increasingly becoming multilingual.
English is spoken as a second language by nearly a third of the population and a large number of migrants and expatriates speak other languages. Brussels is known for its cuisine and gastronomy, as well as its historical and architectural landmarks. Main attractions include its historic Grand Place, Manneken Pis and cultural institutions such as La Monnaie and the Museums of Art and History; because of its long tradition of Belgian comics, Brussels is hailed as a capital of the comic strip. The most common theory of the origin of the name Brussels is that it derives from the Old Dutch Bruocsella, Broekzele or Broeksel, meaning "marsh" and "home" or "home in the marsh". Saint Vindicianus, the bishop of Cambrai, made the first recorded reference to the place Brosella in 695, when it was still a hamlet; the names of all the municipalities in the Brussels-Capital Region are of Dutch origin, except for Evere, Celtic. In French, Bruxelles is pronounced and in Dutch, Brussel is pronounced. Inhabitants of Brussels are known in French in Dutch as Brusselaars.
In the Brabantian dialect of Brussels, they are called Brusseleirs. The written x noted the group. In the Belgian French pronunciation as well as in Dutch, the k disappeared and z became s, as reflected in the current Dutch spelling, whereas in the more conservative French form, the spelling remained; the pronunciation in French only dates from the 18th century, but this modification did not affect the traditional Brussels' usage. In France, the pronunciations and are heard, but are rather rare in Belgium. See also: History of Brussels The history of Brussels is linked to that of Western Europe. Traces of human settlement go back to the Stone Age, with vestiges and place-names related to the civilisation of megaliths and standing stones. During late antiquity, the region was home to Roman occupation, as attested by archaeological evidence discovered near the centre. Following the decline of the Western Roman Empire, it was incorporated into the Frankish Empire; the origin of the settlement, to become Brussels lies in Saint Gaugericus' construction of a chapel on an island in the river Senne around 580.
The official founding of Brussels is situated around 979, when Duke Charles of Lower Lotharingia transferred the relics of Saint Gudula from Moorsel to the Saint Gaugericus chapel. Charles would construct the first permanent fortification in the city, doing so on that same island. Lambert I of Leuven, Count of Leuven, gained the County of Brussels around 1000, by marrying Charles' daughter; because of its location on the shores of the Senne, on an important trade route between Bruges and Ghent, Cologne, Brussels became a commercial centre specialised in the textile trade. The town grew quite and extended towards the upper town, where there was a smaller risk of floods; as it grew to a population of around 30,000, the surrounding marshes were drained to allow for further expansion. Around
The Renault 4 known as the 4L, is a hatchback economy car produced by the French automaker Renault between 1961 and 1994. It was the first front-wheel drive family car produced by Renault; the car was launched at a time when several decades of economic stagnation were giving way to growing prosperity and surging car ownership in France. The first million cars were produced by 1 February 1966, less than four and a half years after launch. Although marketed as a small estate car, it is now regarded as the first mass production hatchback car; the Renault 4 was Renault's response to the 1948 Citroën 2CV. Renault was able to review the advantages and disadvantages of the 2CV design and come up with a larger, more urban vehicle. In early 1956, Renault Chairman Pierre Dreyfus launched this new project: designing a new model to replace the rear engined 4CV that would become an everyman's car, capable of satisfying the needs of most consumers, it would be a woman's car, a farmer's car, or a city car. Renault launched the Renault 3 and the Renault 4 in July 1961.
The cars shared the same body and most mechanical components, but the R3 was powered by a 603 cc version of the engine while the R4 featured a 747 cc engine. This placed the R3 in the 3CV taxation class. Actual maximum power output was claimed by Renault as 22.5 hp for the R3, 26.5 or 32 hp for the R4, depending on price level and the type of carburettor fitted. The base versions of the R3 and R4 came with a thick C-pillar behind each of the rear doors. Quarter glass was a 400 francs option for the basic R4; the extra visibility increased the weight of the vehicle, but these windows soon became standard for all R4s. The R3 and R4 were targeted at the Citroen 2CV that employed soft springs and long wheel travel to absorb bumps on poorly maintained roads; the Renault 3 & 4 applied the same approach and two models appeared at the Paris Motor Show in 1961 on a specialized demonstration display that incorporated an irregular rolling road. Visitors could sit inside a car, which remained undisturbed while the suspension absorbed the erratic bumps of the rolling road.
In 1962 Renault employed the same display at the Turin Motor Show. The basic version of the R3 was priced 40 francs below the lowest priced version of the Citroen 2CV in 1961 and featured painted bumpers and grill, a simplified instrument panel, a single sun visor, no windshield washer, no interior door panels; this trim was offered in the more powerful R4. The R4L with six side windows, chrome coloured bumper and grill, as well as a less spartan interior cost 400 francs more than the R4 with its four side windows. However, as with the Renault 4CV “Service” in 1953, customers shunned the basic model and in October 1962, the Renault R3 was discontinued, along with the most basic version of the Renault 4. A "super" version with opening rear quarter-light windows and extra trim was offered; the de luxe and super versions of the R4L received a version of the engine from the Renault Dauphine giving them a four-cylinder engine capacity of 845 cc. After the withdrawal of the 603 cc engined R3, the 747 cc R4 model continued to be listed with an entry level recommended retail price, but the larger-engined L versions were more popular.
By 1965, Renault had removed the extra "R" from their model names: the Renault R4L had become the Renault 4L. Early versions of the Renault R4 used engines and transmissions from the Renault 4CV; the original design brief called for an engine size between 600 cc and 700 cc, but there was no consensus as to whether to use a four-cylinder unit or to follow Citroen with a two-cylinder unit. With Volkswagen growing market share across Europe and North America, Renault gave serious consideration to an air-cooled boxer motor option for the forthcoming R3/R4. However, using the existing water-cooled unit from the 4CV was a solution in view of the extended period of teething troubles encountered by the Renault Fregate, Renault's most recent attempt to develop an innovative powerplant; the existing engines were larger than that specified by management for the new 4CV, but the automaker addressed this by reducing the bore so that the overall capacity of the base engine for the new R3 worked out to be 603 cc, comfortably at the lower end of the required 600–700 cc range.
However, since Renault produced the 747 cc version of the engine, well proven in the 4CV, it made sense to use this as well in what would in many respects be the older car's successor. Therefore, in 1961, the R3 had a 49 mm bore and 80 mm stroke, while the R4 received the 54.5 mm × 80 mm existing engine. Moving the engine from the rear of the 4CV to the front of the new model involved significant planning: design changes to the unit were introduced as part of the process; the inlet manifold was now a steel casting whereas on the 4CV it had been constructed of a light-weight alloy: this was driven by cost considerations now that aluminium was not so inexpensive as it had been fifteen years earlier. Renault took the opportunity to introduce a feature which subsequently became mainstream. Renault designed a “sealed-for-life” cooling system, supported by a small expansion tank on the right side of the engine bay; the cooling system contained antifreeze intended to enable operation without topping up or other intervention throughout a car's life provided ambient temperatures below minus 40 degrees were avoided.
The engines were larger than the small 425 cc, engines in the 2CV. T
Belgian railway line 26
The Belgian railway line 26 is a railway line connecting Brussels to Halle in Belgium. It first opened on July 1926, between Schaarbeek and Watermael railway stations; the line was completed on January 3, 1930. It was conceived as a circumvention of Brussels before the North–South connection existed, which opened only in 1952. Today all passenger trains using the line travel from Vilvoorde on a branch line called 26/1 and not from Schaarbeek, to various destinations South of Brussels; the line carries several services of the GEN/RER: S4, S5, S7, S9. Some of these use the Schuman-Josaphat tunnel; the line serves the following stations: Schaerbeek Haren Bordet Evere Schaarbeek-Josaphat Meiser Merode Delta Boondael Vivier d’Oie / Diesdelle Saint-Job Moensberg Beersel Huizingen HalleSchaarbeek-Josaphat is no longer an operational station, it was a cargo yard near the present Evere railway station
Halle is a city and municipality of Belgium, in the district Halle-Vilvoorde of the province Flemish Brabant. It is located on the Brussels-Charleroi Canal and on the Flemish side of the language border that separates Flanders and Wallonia. Halle lies on the border between the Flemish plains to the North and the undulating Brabant lands to the South; the city borders on the Pajottenland to the west. The official language of Halle is Dutch; the municipality Halle comprises the towns of Buizingen and Lembeek. The neighboring towns are: Pepingen, Sint-Pieters-Leeuw, Braine-l'Alleud, Braine-le-Château, Tubize; the population of Halle has increased from 32,758 inhabitants in 1991 to 39,536 on January 1, 2019. The mayor is Marc Snoeck of the sp.a. Borders have always played an important role in the history of Halle. In the prehistoric era, before the Roman conquests, a tribe of Nervii – either a Germanized Celtic people or a celticized Germanic people – lived in this region. In the 7th century, Saint Waltrude, the daughter of an important Merovingian personality, gave some of her inherited land around Halle to the chapter of the abbey which she had just founded in Mons.
From that time on and until the French Revolution, the region around Halle would depend to various degrees on the County of Hainaut. In the 8th century, archbishop of Tongeren, founded a church dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary, which may have been the start of the devotion that still continues today; the town must have grown since Jeanne, Countess of Flanders and Hainaut granted it its freedom charters in 1225. The miraculous statue of the Virgin arrived in Halle in 1267 as a wedding gift to John II, Count of Holland and of Hainaut; the cult of Mary attracted important visitors such as Edward I of England and Ludwig the Bavarian, making Halle an important frontier town between Hainaut and Brabant. A much bigger church was now needed, completed in the 15th century; the death of Philip the Bold, Duke of Burgundy in Halle in 1404 was a benefit to the city as all subsequent ruling Dukes of Burgundy were to pay a visit here. Louis XI of France decided to bury his stillborn son in the Halle church in 1460.
After the death of Mary of Burgundy and Brabant revolted against her husband Maximilian, while Hainaut, therefore Halle, remained loyal to the emperor. Two attempts by a Brussels army to conquer Halle in 1489 failed. In the 16th century and Halle were fighting again, this time over religion, as Calvinistic Brabant tried to overtake Catholic Hainaut. Again, two attempts failed. In 1621, with the support of the archdukes Albert and Isabella, the Jesuits brought educational institutions and their religious influence to the city. Halle and the surrounding area were used by Philip IV of Spain as a warrant against a loan, leading to the cessation of the city to the Duke of Arenberg in 1648. Louis XIV's wars at the end of the century resulted in heavy losses, but the 18th century saw a resurgence in devotional and economic prosperity; the French Revolution brought the usual religious curtailments to religious life. The religious services were restored under Napoleon, the tradition of princely visits to the church of Halle continues until this day.
Today, Halle is a regional services and care center, offering trade, educational establishments, general hospital, public services. The February 2010 train collision in Buizingen killed around 18 people; the flag of Halle is quartered as saltire. Its proportions are 2:3. If you cut the flag in two vertically and flip both sides, you get a blue lozenge, hinting at Bavaria. On the municipal coat of arms, the first quarter shows an argent-coloured virgin with child on an azure background; the fourth quarter is the coat of arms of the Wittelsbach family. The second and third quarters are the coat of arms of Hainaut, accentuating Halle's position right on the language border; the Sint-Martinusbasiliek known as the Gothic Church of Our Lady, is a basilica in High Gothic style, a popular pilgrimage site since the 14th–15th century. The church contains a celebrated miraculous image of that of a Black Madonna; the former city hall on the main market square dates from the Renaissance (City Hall: The former college of the Jesuits houses a music and dance academy and the South-West Brabant Museum, housed in Den Ast since 2014.
Every year, in the middle of Lent, Carnival is celebrated during three days. This is a colourful event, where various groups perform dances; the Halle carnival has been organized since 1905 and has grown to be one of the biggest carnivals in Belgium. On Easter Monday, the Sint-Veroonprocessie takes place; this is a religious procession where the relics of the saint are being carried around the village of Lembeek. Halle is the site of a popular pilgrimage to the Blessed Virgin Mary; the present format of this devotion is at least seven centuries old. The Hallerbos, the nearby forest named after the town, is known for the prolific bluebell carpet which covers the forest floor for a few weeks each spring, attracting many visitors. On February 15, 2010, 18 people died when two trains collided in Buizingen, near Halle's train station. Jan Boon, one of the pioneers of Belgian television, former chief edit
Haren railway station (Brussels)
Haren is a railway station on line 26 of the Belgian railway network, situated in Haren, part of the City of Brussels in the Brussels Capital Region. Close to the station, in Haren, is Haren-South railway station, on line 36; the station is served by the following services: Brussels RER services Mechelen - Brussels-Luxembourg - Etterbeek - Halle - Enghien Brussels RER services Mechelen - Merode - Halle