Jacques René Chirac is a French politician who served as President of France and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra from 1995 to 2007. Chirac was Prime Minister of France from 1974 to 1976 and from 1986 to 1988, as well as Mayor of Paris from 1977 to 1995. After completing his degree at Sciences Po, a term at Harvard University, the École nationale d'administration, Chirac began his career as a high-level civil servant, entered politics shortly after. Chirac occupied various senior positions, including Minister of Agriculture and Minister of the Interior. Chirac's internal policies included lower tax rates, the removal of price controls, strong punishment for crime and terrorism, business privatisation. After pursuing these policies in his second term as Prime Minister, he changed his views, he argued for more responsible economic policies, was elected President in the 1995 presidential election with 52.6% of the vote in the second round, beating Socialist Lionel Jospin, after campaigning on a platform of healing the "social rift".
Chirac's economic policies, based on dirigisme, allowing for state-directed investment, stood in opposition to the laissez-faire policies of the United Kingdom under the ministries of Margaret Thatcher and John Major, which Chirac famously described as "Anglo-Saxon ultraliberalism". He is known for his stand against the American-led assault on Iraq, his recognition of the collaborationist French Government's role in deporting Jews, his reduction of the presidential term from 7 years to 5 through a referendum in 2000. At the 2002 French presidential election, he won 82.2% of the vote in the second round against the far-right candidate, Jean-Marie Le Pen. During his second term, however, he had a low approval rating, was considered one of the least popular presidents in modern French history. On 15 December 2011, the Paris court declared Chirac guilty of diverting public funds and abusing public confidence, gave him a two-year suspended prison sentence. Chirac, born in the Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire clinic, is the son of Abel François Marie Chirac, a successful executive for an aircraft company, Marie-Louise Valette, a housewife.
His great grandparents on both sides were peasants, but his two grandfathers were teachers from Sainte-Féréole in Corrèze. According to Chirac, his name "originates from the langue d'oc, that of the troubadours, therefore that of poetry", he is a Roman Catholic. Chirac was an only child, he was educated in Paris at a private school. He attended the Lycée Carnot and the Lycée Louis-le-Grand. After his baccalauréat, he served for three months as a sailor on a coal-transporter. Chirac played rugby union for Brive's youth team, played at university level, he played second row. In 1956, he married Bernadette Chodron de Courcel, with whom he had two daughters: Laurence and Claude. Claude has long worked as a public relations assistant and personal adviser, while Laurence, who suffered from anorexia nervosa in her youth, did not participate in the political activities of her father. Chirac is the grandfather of Martin Rey-Chirac by the relationship of Claude with French judoka Thierry Rey. Jacques and Bernadette Chirac have a foster daughter, Anh Dao Traxel.
Inspired by General Charles de Gaulle, Chirac started to pursue a civil service career in the 1950s. During this period, he joined the French Communist Party, sold copies of L'Humanité, took part in meetings of a communist cell. In 1950, he signed the Soviet-inspired Stockholm Appeal for the abolition of nuclear weapons – which led him to be questioned when he applied for his first visa to the United States. In 1953, after graduating from the Paris Institute of Political Studies, he attended Harvard University's summer school, before entering the ENA, the Grande école National School of Administration, which trains France's top civil servants, in 1957. Chirac trained as a reserve military officer in armoured cavalry at Saumur, where he was ranked first in his year, he volunteered to fight in the Algerian War, using personal connections to be sent despite the reservations of his superiors. His superiors did not want to make him an officer. After leaving the ENA in 1959, he became a civil servant in the Court of Auditors.
In April 1962, Chirac was appointed head of the personal staff of Prime Minister Georges Pompidou. This appointment launched Chirac's political career. Pompidou considered Chirac his protégé, referred to him as "my bulldozer" for his skill at getting things done; the nickname "Le Bulldozer" caught on in French political circles, where it referred to his abrasive manner. As late as the 1988 presidential election, Chirac maintained this reputation. In 1995 an anonymous British diplomat said Chirac "cuts through the crap and comes straight to the point... It's refreshing, although you have to put your seat belt on when you work with him". At Pompidou's suggestion, Chirac ran as a Gaullist for a seat in the National Assembly in 1967, he was elected deputy for a stronghold of the left. This surprising victory in the context of a Gaullist ebb permitted him to enter the government as Minister of Social Affairs. Although Chirac was well-situated in de Gaulle's entourage, being related by marriage to the general's sole companion at the time of the Appeal of 18 June 1940, he was more of a "Pompidolian" than a "Gaullist".
When student and worker unrest rocked France in May 1968, Chirac played a central role in negotiating a truce. As state secr
Pied-Noir, plural Pieds-Noirs, is a term referring to people of European ethnic French origin, who were born in Algeria during the period of French rule from 1830 to 1962. More broadly, it can refer to other foreign-origin persons, both Christian and Jewish, from all parts of the Mediterranean whose families had migrated under French occupation in the 19th and 20th centuries to French Algeria, the French protectorate in Morocco, or the French protectorate of Tunisia, where many carried on living for several generations but fled or were expelled at the end of French rule in North Africa between 1956 and 1962; the term sometimes includes the pre-existing North African Jews, living there prior to French colonization, whether Ladino-speaking Sephardi Jews who had arrived after the expulsion from Sepharad several centuries earlier in 1492 or earlier Berber-speaking and/or Arabic-speaking Maghrebi Jews, residing there for over a thousand years, all of which were nonetheless awarded French citizenship by the 1870 Crémieux Decree whilst the rest of the native Muslim population was maintained in a second class status with the "Code de l'Indigénat".
More the term Pied-Noir is used for those of European ancestry who "returned" to mainland France as soon as Algeria gained independence, or in the months following. From the French invasion on 18 June 1830 until its independence, Algeria was administratively part of France, its European population was called Algerians or colons, whereas the Muslim people of Algeria were called Arabs, Muslims or Indigenous; the term "pied-noir" began to be used shortly before the end of the Algerian War in 1962. As of the last census in French-ruled Algeria, taken on 1 June 1960, there were 1,050,000 non-Muslim civilians in Algeria, 10 percent of the total population. During the Algerian War the Pieds-Noirs overwhelmingly supported colonial French rule in Algeria and were opposed to Algerian nationalist groups such as the Front de libération nationale and Mouvement national algérien; the roots of the conflict reside in political and economic inequalities perceived as an "alienation" from the French rule as well as a demand for a leading position for the Berber and Islamic cultures and rules existing before the French conquest.
The conflict contributed to the fall of the French Fourth Republic and the mass exodus of Algerian Europeans and Jews to France. After Algeria became independent in 1962, about 800,000 Pieds-Noirs of French nationality were evacuated to mainland France while about 200,000 chose to remain in Algeria. Of the latter, there were still about 50,000 by the end of the 1960s; those who moved to France suffered ostracism from the Left for their perceived exploitation of native Muslims and some blamed them for the war, thus the political turmoil surrounding the collapse of the French Fourth Republic. In popular culture, the community is represented as feeling removed from French culture while longing for Algeria. Thus, the recent history of the Pieds-Noirs has been imprinted with a theme of double alienation from both their native homeland and their adopted land. Though the term rapatriés d'Algérie implies that they once lived in France, most Pieds-Noirs were born in Algeria. Many families had lived there for generations, the Algerian Jews, who were considered Pieds-Noirs, were as indigenous to Algeria as its Muslim population.
There are competing theories about the origin of the term "pied-noir". According to the Oxford English Dictionary, it refers to "a person of European origin living in Algeria during the period of French rule a French person expatriated after Algeria was granted independence in 1962." The Le Robert dictionary states that in 1901 the word indicated a sailor working barefoot in the coal room of a ship, who would find his feet dirtied by the soot and dust. Since, in the Mediterranean, this was an Algerian native, the term was used pejoratively for Algerians until 1955 when it first began referring to "French born in Algeria" according to some sources; the Oxford English Dictionary claims this usage originated from mainland French as a negative nickname. There is a theory that the term comes from the black boots of French soldiers compared to the barefoot Algerians. Other theories focus on new settlers dirtying their clothing by working in swampy areas, wearing black boots when on horseback, or trampling grapes to make wine.
European settlement of Algeria began during the 1830s, after France had commenced the process of conquest with the military seizure of the city of Algiers in 1830. The invasion was instigated when the Dey of Algiers struck the French consul with a fly-swatter in 1827, although economic reasons are cited. In 1830 the government of King Charles X blockaded Algeria and an armada sailed to Algiers, followed by a land expedition. A troop of 34,000 soldiers landed on 18 June 1830, 27 kilometres west of Algiers. Following a three-week campaign, the Hussein Dey capitulated on 5 July 1830, was exiled. In the 1830s the French controlled only the northern part of the country. Entering the Oran region, they faced resistance from Emir Abd al-Kader, a leader of a Sufi Brotherhood. In 1839 Abd al-Kader began a seven-year war by declaring jihad against the French; the French signed two peace treaties with al-Kader, but they were broken because of a miscommunication between the military and the Parisian government.
In response to the breaking of the second treaty, Abd al-Kader drove the French to the coast. In reply, a force of nearl
French Far East Expeditionary Corps
The French Far East Expeditionary Corps was a colonial expeditionary force of the French Union Army, formed in French Indochina during 1945 during the Pacific War. The CEFEO fought and lost in the First Indochina War against the Viet Minh rebels; the CEFEO was made up of voluntarily-enlisted indigenous tirailleurs from the French Union colonial or protectorate territories, the exception was the French Foreign Legion, which consisted of European volunteers. The use of metropolitan recruits were forbidden by the government during the First Indochina War to prevent the war from becoming more unpopular at home; the CEFEO was made up of voluntarily-enlisted indigenous tirailleurs from the French Union colonial or protectorate territories in the Maghreb, sub-Saharan Africa and South-East Asia. An exception was the French Foreign Legion which consisted of European volunteers. In 1954, CEFEO included 177,000 men, including 59,000 indigenous people. Colonial soldiers made up the bulk of the ground forces.
Between 1947 and 1954, 122,900 North Africans and 60,340 Black Africans landed in Indochina, or 183,240 Africans in total. On February 1, 1954, they represented 43.5% of the 127,785 men of the ground forces. Most of the professional airborne units and the entire Chief of Staff were metropolitan French, as were some artillery and specialist units. From September 1945 to the cease-fire in July 1954, a total of 488,560 men and women served in Indochina: 223,467 French from metropolitan France 122,920 Algerians and Moroccans 72,833 legionaries 60,340 Sub-Saharan AfricansIn early November 1953, the French U. N. volunteers returning from the ended Korean War joined the French Union CEFEO and sailed from Incheon to Vietnam. They would be involved in the battle of Mang Yang Pass of June and July 1954; the CEFEO was created in early 1945 as a replacement for the older Far East French Expeditionary Forces. Its purpose was to support Saigon-based General Gilbert Sabattier, divisional commander of colonial "Indochina French Forces" and Free French Forces resistance small groups C.
L. I. Fighting with the Japanese Southern Expeditionary Army Group during the March coup. After the 1944 Liberation of France and the fall of Nazi Germany in Europe the following year, the French authorities wanted to "free" the last Axis powers occupied territories in Southeast Asia, these included the newly established Empire of Vietnam, a Japanese colony. On June 7, 1945, Leclerc was nominated commander of the CEFEO. On June 22, Leclerc transferred command of the 2nd Armored Division -the famous unit which had liberated Paris in August 1944- to Colonel Dio. Leclerc received command of the Far East French Forces on August 15. In 1946, nationalist communist popular rebellion movement rose up against established colonial rule in the French Indochina federation including Laos, Tonkin, the Annam and Cochinchina, all states being protectorates excluding the latter, a colony with Saigon as its capital. In 1946, they would become associated states within the French Union and by 1949 Tonkin and the Republic of Cochin China would merge as the State of Vietnam.
The communist Viet Minh led by Ho Chi Minh overwhelmed its rival nationalist movements and organized itself as a guerilla army using guerrilla warfare in the 1950s support—using conventional warfare. The First Indochina War lasted from November 20, 1946 until July 20, 1954 and was settled by the Geneva Agreements. After withdrawal of the last CEFEO troops from the independent Vietnam and Cambodia in 1956, the corps was disbanded by General Pierre Jacquot. Philippe Leclerc de Hauteclocque Jean Etienne Valluy Roger Blaizot Marcel Carpentier Jean de Lattre de Tassigny Raoul Salan Henri Navarre Paul Ély Pierre Jacquot Commander: General Christian de Castries Commander: General René Cogny Among the French ground forces in the Far East was the 6th Engineers Regiment. Commanders: Georges Thierry d'Argenlieu Emile Bollaert Vice-Admiral Auboyneau Commander: Contre-Admiral Bosvieux Among the aircraft supplied to the French in Indochina in 1950-51 were B-26 Marauders that went to Bomber Group 1/25 Tunisie, B-26 Invaders, P-63 Kingcobras, C-47 Dakotas that went to Transport Group 1/64, 2/64, 2/63 which had both C-47s and C-119 Packets, former U.
S. Navy F6F Hellcats that went to 11th Carrier Assault Flotilla, SB-2C Helldivers that went to 3rd Carrier Assault Flotilla, F8F-1B Bearcats that went to Groupe de Chasse 1/22 Saintonge and Group de Chasse 2/22 Languedoc, PB4Y2 Privateers that went to the 28th Bomber Flotilla, F4U Corsairs that went to 14th Carrier Fighter Flotilla. At the beginning of April 1954, Lt. General Earle E. Partridge, Commander of the U. S. Far East Air Force, had arrived in Saigon and begun talks with his French counterpart, Gen. Lauzin, as well as with Gen. Navarre, he had brought with him Brigadier General Joseph D. Caldara the chief of the FEAF Bomber Command—the man who would fly and command the "Vulture" missions (bombing the area around Dien Bien Phu with 9
The Algerian War known as the Algerian War of Independence or the Algerian Revolution was fought between France and the Algerian National Liberation Front from 1954 to 1962, which led to Algeria gaining its independence from France. An important decolonization war, it was a complex conflict characterized by guerrilla warfare, maquis fighting, the use of torture; the conflict became a civil war between the different communities and within the communities. The war took place on the territory of Algeria, with repercussions in metropolitan France. Started by members of the National Liberation Front on November 1, 1954, during the Toussaint Rouge, the conflict led to serious political crises in France, causing the fall of the Fourth French Republic replaced by the Fifth Republic with a strengthened Presidency; the brutality of the methods employed by the French forces failed to win hearts and minds in Algeria, alienated support in metropolitan France and discredited French prestige abroad. After major demonstrations in Algiers and several other cities in favor of independence and a United Nations resolution recognizing the right to independence, De Gaulle decided to open a series of negotiations with the FLN.
These concluded with the signing of the Évian Accords in March 1962. A referendum took place on 8 April 1962 and the French electorate approved the Évian Accords; the final result was 91% in favor of the ratification of this agreement and on 1 July, the Accords were subject to a second referendum in Algeria, where 99.72% voted for independence and just 0.28% against. The planned French withdrawal led to a state crisis; this included various assassination attempts on de Gaulle as well as some attempts at military coups. Most of the former were carried out by the Organisation armée secrète, an underground organization formed from French military personnel supporting a French Algeria, which committed a large number of bombings and murders both in Algeria and in the homeland to stop the planned independence. Upon independence in 1962, 900,000 European-Algerians fled to France within a few months in fear of the FLN's revenge; the French government was unprepared for the vast number of refugees, which caused turmoil in France.
The majority of Algerian Muslims who had worked for the French were disarmed and left behind as the treaty between French and Algerian authorities declared that no actions could be taken against them. However, the Harkis in particular, having served as auxiliaries with the French army, were regarded as traitors and many were murdered by the FLN or by lynch-mobs after being abducted and tortured. About 90,000 managed to flee to France, some with help from their French officers acting against orders, as of 2016 they and their descendants form a significant part of the Algerian-French population. On the pretext of a slight to their consul, the French invaded Algeria in 1830. Directed by Marshall Bugeaud, who became the first Governor-General of Algeria, the conquest was violent, marked by a "scorched earth" policy designed to reduce the power of the native rulers, the Dey, including massacres, mass rapes, other atrocities. Between 500,000 and 1,000,000, from 3 million Algerians, were killed within the first three decades of the conquest.
French losses from 1830–51 were 3,336 killed in action and 92,329 dead in the hospital. In 1834, Algeria became a French military colony and was subsequently declared by the constitution of 1848 to be an integral part of France and divided into three departments: Alger and Constantine. Many French and other Europeans settled in Algeria. Under the Second Empire, the Code de l'indigénat was implemented by the Sénatus-consulte of July 14, 1865, it allowed Muslims to apply for full French citizenship, a measure that few took, since it involved renouncing the right to be governed by sharia law in personal matters and was considered a kind of apostasy. Its first article stipulated: The indigenous Muslim is French, he may be admitted to serve in the navy. He may be called to civil employment in Algeria, he may, on his demand, be admitted to enjoy the rights of a French citizen. Prior to 1870, fewer than 200 demands were registered by 152 by Jewish Algerians; the 1865 decree was modified by the 1870 Crémieux decrees, which granted French nationality to Jews living in one of the three Algerian departments.
In 1881, the Code de l'Indigénat made the discrimination official by creating specific penalties for indigènes and organizing the seizure or appropriation of their lands. After World War II, equality of rights was proclaimed by the Ordonnance of March 7, 1944, confirmed by the Loi Lamine Guèye of May 7, 1946, which granted French citizenship to all the subjects of France's territories and overseas departments, by the 1946 Constitution; the Law of September 20, 1947 granted French citizenship to all Algerian subjects, who were not required to renounce their Muslim personal status. Algeria was unique to France because, unlike all other overseas possessions acquired by France during the 19th century, only Algeria was considered and classified an integral part of France. Both Muslim and European Algerians took part in World War II. Algerian Muslims served as tirailleurs (such regiments were created as
Nicolas Paul Stéphane Sarközy de Nagy-Bocsa KOGF, GCB is a retired French politician who served as President of France and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra from 16 May 2007 until 15 May 2012. Born in Paris, he is of 1/4 Greek Jewish and 1/4 French Catholic origin. Mayor of Neuilly-sur-Seine from 1983 to 2002, he was Minister of the Budget under Prime Minister Édouard Balladur during François Mitterrand's second term. During Jacques Chirac's second presidential term he served as Minister of the Interior and as Minister of Finances, he was the leader of the Union for a Popular Movement party from 2004 to 2007. He won the French presidential election, 2007 by a 53.1% to 46.9% margin to Socialist Ségolène Royal. During his term, he faced the Arab Spring, he initiated the reform of the pension reform. He married Italian-French singer-songwriter Carla Bruni in 2008 at the Élysée Palace in Paris. In the 2012 election, François Hollande, candidate of the Socialist Party, defeated Sarkozy by a 3.2% margin.
After leaving the presidential office, Sarkozy vowed to retire from public life before coming back in 2014, being subsequently reelected as UMP leader. Being defeated at the Republican presidential primary in 2016, he retired from public life, he is charged with corruption by French prosecutors in two cases, notably concerning the alleged Libyan interference in the 2007 French elections. Sarkozy was born in Paris, is the son of Pál István Ernő Sárközy de Nagy-Bócsa, a Protestant Hungarian aristocrat, Andrée Jeanne "Dadu" Mallah, whose Greek Jewish father converted to Catholicism to marry Sarkozy's French Catholic maternal grandmother, they were married in the Saint-François-de-Sales church, 17th arrondissement of Paris, on 8 February 1950, divorced in 1959. During Sarkozy's childhood, his father became wealthy; the family lived in a mansion owned by Sarkozy's maternal grandfather, Benedict Mallah, in the 17th Arrondissement of Paris. The family moved to Neuilly-sur-Seine, one of the wealthiest communes of the Île-de-France région west of Paris.
According to Sarkozy, his staunchly Gaullist grandfather was more of an influence on him than his father, whom he saw. Sarkozy was raised Catholic. Sarkozy said that being abandoned by his father shaped much of who he is today, he has said that, in his early years, he felt inferior in relation to his wealthier and taller classmates. "What made me who I am now is the sum of all the humiliations suffered during childhood", he said later. Sarkozy was enrolled in the Lycée Chaptal, a well regarded public middle and high school in Paris' 8th arrondissement, where he failed his sixième, his family sent him to the Cours Saint-Louis de Monceau, a private Catholic school in the 17th arrondissement, where he was a mediocre student, but where he nonetheless obtained his baccalauréat in 1973. Sarkozy enrolled at the Université Paris X Nanterre, where he graduated with an M. A. in private law and with a D. E. A. degree in business law. Paris X Nanterre had been the starting place for the May'68 student movement and was still a stronghold of leftist students.
Described as a quiet student, Sarkozy soon joined the right-wing student organization, in which he was active. He completed his military service as a part-time Air Force cleaner. After graduating from university, Sarkozy entered Sciences Po, where he studied between 1979 and 1981, but failed to graduate due to an insufficient command of the English language. After passing the bar, Sarkozy became a lawyer specializing in business and family law and was one of Silvio Berlusconi's French lawyers. Sarkozy married his first wife, Marie-Dominique Culioli, on 23 September 1982, they had two sons, now a hip-hop producer, Jean now a local politician in the city of Neuilly-sur-Seine where Sarkozy started his own political career. Sarkozy's best man was the prominent right-wing politician Charles Pasqua to become a political opponent. Sarkozy divorced Culioli in 1996; as mayor of Neuilly-sur-Seine, Sarkozy met former fashion model and public relations executive Cécilia Ciganer-Albéniz, when he officiated at her wedding to television host Jacques Martin.
In 1988, she left her husband for Sarkozy, divorced one year later. She and Sarkozy married with witnesses Martin Bouygues and Bernard Arnault, they have one son, born 23 April 1997. Between 2002 and 2005, the couple appeared together on public occasions, with Cécilia Sarkozy acting as the chief aide for her husband. On 25 May 2005, the Swiss newspaper Le Matin revealed that she had left Sarkozy for French-Moroccan national Richard Attias, head of Publicis in New York. There were other accusations of a private nature in Le Matin. In the meantime, he was said to have had an affair with a journalist of Anne Fulda. Sarkozy and Cécilia divorced on 15 October 2007, soon after his election as president. Less than a mont
Évolué is a French label used during the colonial era to refer to a native African or Asian who had "evolved" by becoming Europeanised through education or assimilation and had accepted European values and patterns of behavior. It is most used to refer to individuals within the Belgian and French colonial empires. Évolués spoke French, followed European laws held white-collar jobs, lived in urban areas of the colony. The term was used to describe the growing native middle class in the Belgian Congo between the latter part of World War II and the independence of the colony in 1960. Most évolués emerged from the Congolese who filled skilled positions made available by the economic boom in the country following the war. Colonial administrators defined an évolué as "a man having broken social ties with his group, having entered another system of motivations, another system of values." While there were no universal criteria for determining évolué status, it was accepted that one would have "a good knowledge of French, adhere to Christianity, have some form of post-primary education."
Early on in their history, most évolués sought to use their unique status to earn special privileges in the Congo. They asked that the colonial administration recognize their role as mediators between the Belgians and the native "savages." Since opportunities for upward mobility through the colonial structure were limited, the évolué class institutionally manifested itself through clubs and associations. Through these groups they could enjoy trivial privileges that made them feel distinct from the Congolese "masses". In 1947, there were 110 social clubs consisting of 5,609 members throughout the Congo's cities. From 1952 to 1956, the number of clubs rose from 131 to 317, with their membership increasing from 7,661 to 15,345. Most of these associations were rather small, but some grew in size to encompass entire regions and ethnic groups, such as the Alliance des Bakongo. By 1958, colonial officials estimated that there were 175,000 people who could be classed as évolués in the colony. In the final years leading up to independence, évolués played a major role in colonial propaganda as they were felt to exemplify the success of the Belgian civilizing mission begun under King Leopold II.
In particular, it was felt that after independence, the assimilation of European values by the évolués meant that Belgian civilian inhabitants of the Congo could continue to live in the Congo as part of a culturally European multiracial state. In 1954, the colonial government opened Lovanium University in Léopoldville in order to provide university education to Congolese évolués. Many of the leaders of the African nationalist parties in the Belgian Congo were members of the évolué class. In the 1970s, President of Zaire Mobutu Sese Seko launched a policy known as Authenticité in which he called for Zairian people to renounce all the cultural legacies of the colonial period by dressing and speaking in an "authentic" Zairian manner. In the French colonial empire, évolués were seen as individuals who were the desired end product of France's assimilation policy. Évolués were treated as a privileged group by the colonial administrators. Colon statue Assimilados Ilustrados Ladino people Affranchis Emancipados Gibbs, David N..
The Political Economy of Third World Intervention: Mines, U. S. Policy in the Congo Crisis. American Politics and Political Economy. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 9780226290713. Gillet, Florence. Congo-Belgique 1955-1965: Entre Propagande et Réalité. Brussels: Renaissance du livre. ISBN 9782507003302. DeLancey, Mark W. and DeLancey, Mark Dike: Historical Dictionary of the Republic of Cameroon. Lanham, Maryland: The Scarecrow Press. Willame, Jean-Claude. Patrimonialism and Political Change in the Congo. Stanford University Press. ISBN 9780804707930
German military administration in occupied France during World War II
The Military Administration in France was an interim occupation authority established by Nazi Germany during World War II to administer the occupied zone in areas of northern and western France. This so-called zone occupée was renamed zone nord in November 1942, when the unoccupied zone in the south known as zone libre was occupied and renamed zone sud, its role in France was governed by the conditions set by the Second Armistice at Compiègne after the blitzkrieg success of the Wehrmacht leading to the Fall of France. For instance, France agreed that its soldiers would remain prisoners of war until the cessation of all hostilities. Replacing the French Third Republic that had dissolved during France's defeat was the "French State", with its sovereignty and authority limited to the free zone; as Paris was located in the occupied zone, its government was seated in the spa town of Vichy in Auvergne, therefore it was more known as Vichy France. While the Vichy government was nominally in charge of all of France, the military administration in the occupied zone was a de facto Nazi dictatorship.
Its rule was extended to the free zone when it was invaded by Germany and Italy during Case Anton on 11 November 1942 in response to Operation Torch, the Allied landings in French North Africa on 8 November 1942. The Vichy government remained in existence though its authority was now curtailed; the military administration in France ended with the Liberation of France after the Normandy and Provence landings. It formally existed from May 1940 to December 1944, though most of its territory had been liberated by the Allies by the end of summer 1944. Alsace-Lorraine, annexed after the Franco-Prussian war in 1871 by the German Empire and returned to France after the First World War, was re-annexed by the Third Reich The departments of Nord and Pas-de-Calais were attached to the military administration in Belgium and Northern France, responsible for civilian affairs in the 20-kilometre wide zone interdite along the Atlantic coast. Another "forbidden zone" were areas in north-eastern France, corresponding to Lorraine and about half each of Franche-Comté, Champagne and Picardie.
War refugees were prohibited from returning to their homes, it was intended for German settlers and annexation in the coming Nazi New Order. The occupied zone consisted of the rest of northern and western France, including the two forbidden zones; the southern part of France, except for the western half of Aquitaine along the Atlantic coast, became the zone libre, where the Vichy regime remained sovereign as an independent state, though under heavy German influence due to the restrictions of the Armistice and economical dependency on Germany. It constituted a land area of 246,618 square kilometres 45 percent of France, included 33 percent of the total French labor force; the demarcation line between the free zone and the occupied zone was a de facto border, necessitating special authorisation and a laissez-passer from the German authorities to cross. These restrictions remained in place after Vichy was occupied and the zone renamed zone sud, placed under military administration in November 1942.
The Italian occupation zone consisted of small areas along the Alps border, a 50-kilometre demilitarised zone along the same. It was expanded to all territory on the left bank of the Rhône river after its invasion together with Germany of Vichy France on 11 November 1942, except for areas around Lyon and Marseille, which were added to Germany's zone sud, Corsica; the Italian occupation zone was occupied by Germany and added to the zone sud after Italy's surrender in September 1943, except for Corsica, liberated by the landings of Free French forces and local Italian troops that had switched sides to the Allies. After Germany and France agreed on an armistice following the defeats of May and June, Marshal Wilhelm Keitel and General Charles Huntzinger, representatives of the Third Reich and of the French government of Marshal Philippe Pétain signed it on 22 June 1940 at the Rethondes clearing in Compiègne Forest; as it was done at the same place and in the same railroad carriage where the armistice ending the First World War when Germany surrendered, it is known as the Second Compiègne armistice.
France was divided into an occupied northern zone and an unoccupied southern zone, according to the armistice convention "in order to protect the interests of the German Reich". The French colonial empire remained under the authority of Marshall Pétain's Vichy regime. French sovereignty was to be exercised over the whole of French territory, including the occupied zone and Moselle, but the third article of the armistice stipulated that French authorities in the occupied zone would have to obey the military administration and that Germany would exercise rights of an occupying power within it: In the occupied region of France, the German Reich exercises all of the rights of an occupying power; the French government undertakes to facilitate in every way possible the implementation of these rights, to provide the assistance of the French administrative services to that end. The French government will direct all off