click links in text for more info


Harlequin is the best-known of the zanni or comic servant characters from the Italian Commedia dell'arte. The role is traditionally believed to have been introduced by Zan Ganassa in the late 16th century, was definitively popularized by the Italian actor Tristano Martinelli in Paris in 1584–1585, became a stock character after Martinelli's death in 1630; the Harlequin is characterized by his chequered costume. His role is that of a light-hearted and astute servant acting to thwart the plans of his master, pursuing his own love interest, with wit and resourcefulness competing with the sterner and melancholic Pierrot, he develops into a prototype of the romantic hero. Harlequin inherits his physical agility and his trickster qualities, as well as his name, from a mischievous "devil" character in medieval passion plays; the Harlequin character first appeared in England early in the 17th century and took centre stage in the derived genre of the Harlequinade, developed in the early 18th century by John Rich.

As the Harlequinade portion of English dramatic genre pantomime developed, Harlequin was paired with the character Clown. As developed by Joseph Grimaldi around 1800, Clown became the mischievous and brutish foil for the more sophisticated Harlequin, who became more of a romantic character; the most influential such in Victorian England were William Payne and his sons the Payne Brothers, the latter active during the 1860s and 1870s. The name Harlequin is taken from that of a mischievous "devil" or "demon" character in popular French passion plays, it originates with an Old French term herlequin, first attested in the 11th century, by the chronicler Orderic Vitalis, who recounts a story of a monk, pursued by a troop of demons when wandering on the coast of Normandy at night. These demons were led by a masked, club-wielding giant and they were known as familia herlequin; this medieval French version of the Germanic Wild Hunt, Mesnée d'Hellequin, has been connected to the English figure of Herla cyning.

Hellequin was depicted as a black-faced emissary of the devil, roaming the countryside with a group of demons chasing the damned souls of evil people to Hell. The physical appearance of Hellequin offers an explanation for the traditional colours of Harlequin's red-and-black mask; the name's origin could be traced to a knight from the 9th century, Hellequin of Boulogne, who died fighting the Normans and originated a legend of devils. Cantos XXI and XXII from Dante's Inferno there is a devil by the name of Alichino; the similarities between the devil in Dante's Inferno and the Arlecchino are more than cosmetic and that the prank like antics of the devils in the aforementioned antics reflect some carnivalesque aspects. The first known appearance on stage of Hellequin is dated to 1262, the character of a masked and hooded devil in Jeu da la Feuillière by Adam de la Halle, it became a stock character in French passion plays; the re-interpretation of the "devil" stock character as a zanni character of the commedia dell'arte took place in the 16th century in France.

Zan Ganassa, whose troupe is first mentioned in Mantua in the late 1560s, is one of the earliest known actors suggested to have performed the part, although there is "little hard evidence to support." Ganassa performed in France in 1571, if he did play the part there, he left the field open for another actor to take up the role, when he took his troupe to Spain permanently in 1574. Among the earliest depictions of the character are a Flemish painting in the Museum of Bayeux and several woodblock prints dating from the 1580s in the Fossard collection, discovered by Agne Beijer in the 1920s among uncatalogued items in the Nationalmuseum Stockholm. Tristano Martinelli is the first actor known to have used the name'Harlequin' from French folklore and adapted it for the comic secondo zanni role, he first performed the part in France in 1584 and only did he bring the character to Italy, where he became known as Arlecchino; the motley costume is sometimes attributed to Martinelli, who wore a linen costume of colourful patches, a hare-tail on his cap to indicate cowardice.

Martinelli's Harlequin had a black leather half-mask, a moustache and a pointed beard. He was successful playing at court and becoming a favourite of Henry IV of France, to whom he addressed insolent monologues. Martinelli's great success contributed to the perpetuation of his interpretation of the zanni role, along with the name of his character, after his death in 1630, among others, by Nicolò Zecca, active c. 1630 in Bologna as well as Turin and Mantua. The character was performed in Paris at the Comédie-Italienne in Italian by Giovan Battista Andreini and Angelo Costantini and in French as Arlequin in the 1660s by Dominique Biancolelli, who combined the zanni types, "making his Arlecchino witty and fluent in a croaking voice, which became as traditional as the squawk of Punch." The Italians were expelled from France in 1697 for satirizing King Louis XIV's second wife, Madame de Maintenon, but returned in 1716, when Tommaso Antonio Vicentini became famous in the part. The rhombus shape of the patches arose by adaptation to the Paris fashion of the 17th century by Biancolelli.

The primary aspect of Arlecchino was his physical agility. He was nimble and performed the sort of acrobatics the audience expected to see; the character would never perform a simple action when the addition of a cartwheel, somersault, or flip would spic

Newsworld International

Newsworld International was an American news-oriented cable and satellite television network that operated from June 1994 to July 2005. The network carried a mix of newscasts from the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation and other international networks. After several ownership changes, the channel was purchased by former U. S. Vice President Al Gore and other parties in 2005 and became Current TV; the network was launched on June 1, 1994, as a joint venture between the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation and Power Corporation of Canada along with sister channel Trio. It aired much of the same programming as the CBC-owned Canadian cable news channel CBC Newsworld. During the late 1990s, Newsworld International's Sunday evening newscast at 7:00 p.m. Eastern Time aired on CBC-owned CBET in Windsor, Ontario as a replacement for the ABC family movie anthology series The Wonderful World of Disney, which aired on most other CBC stations in that timeslot; the channel reached about 20 million homes and provided news coverage from a variety of global perspectives.

It acted as a news source for Canadians who reside or were visiting the United States, Latin America or the Caribbean. The channel was available across the United States on satellite provider DirecTV. In 2000, Newsworld International was sold to USA Networks for $155 million, subsequently acquired by Vivendi; the CBC maintained day-to-day operation of the channel afterward. The network's main in-house news program was NWI International NewsFirst. In 2004, Newsworld International was purchased by former U. S. Vice President Al Gore and Joel Hyatt, who acquired it for the channel's digital cable and satellite coverage reach, were not interested in maintaining the network's existing format. Programming on Newsworld continued to be provided by the CBC until July 31, 2005. Gore and Hyatt relaunched the channel at midnight on August 1 as Current TV, specializing in a youth perspective on national issues. Gore and Hyatt chose the format after deciding that a liberal-focused news network would be rejected by national advertisers.

The new channel, despite being profitable, underwent a major reorganization in 2010 after a "troubled" history evolving it into a progressive-leaning news and documentary channel. Gore and his partners sold the network to Al Jazeera Media Network in 2013, which like Gore and Hyatt before them, was interested in taking over the channel's existing carriage deals, using Current's channel space to launch the internationally focused news channel Al Jazeera America that August. Al Jazeera America in turn failed in April, 2016 after which the channel space created by NWI in 1994 ceased to exist. After the closure of the channel, the CBC began uploading some of its news programs and reports as clips on for online viewing worldwide. Today, CBC News Network – the former parent channel of Newsworld International – carries many of the CBC programs seen on Newsworld, is available worldwide outside of Canada online through paid subscriptions. Newsworld International produced Special Assignment, a half-hour documentary series hosted by veteran CBC correspondent Bill Cunningham, featuring a different country in each episode.

The format included a segment of historical context on the featured country with archive footage narrated by Cunningham, followed by a recap of recent political developments and current events. The program featured interviews with high-ranking government officials and political insiders. During its run, Special Assignment visited many countries in Europe, East Asia and Latin America as well as countries in Africa and the Caribbean. Reruns of earlier editions included updated narrations to reflect recent developments. CBC Newsworld/News Network Canada – The National and its weekend substitutes CBC News: Saturday Report and CBC News: Sunday Night, CBC News: Correspondent, The Nature of Things, Hot Type, entertainment show >play, most of its international news output, as well as NWI's internal newscasts and newsmagazines Deutsche Welle Germany – the network's English newscast and its English weekend newsmagazine NHK Japan – the network's major English newscast and its English weekend newsmagazine CCTV-9 China – the network's major English newscast ITV United Kingdom – the domestic Evening News Canada – RDI MexicoTV Azteca Russia – NTV, Channel One Washington Outlook with Henry Champ World Business NWI World Sports Newsworld International was anchored by a team of CBC talent which included Al Jazeera America - successor in interest to Newsworld International CBC News Network - Newsworld's parent channel Newsworld International at the Wayback Machine International final signoff and conversion to Current TV

Babel (transcompiler)

Babel is a free and open-source JavaScript transcompiler, used to convert ECMAScript 2015+ code into a backwards compatible version of JavaScript that can be run by older JavaScript engines. Babel is a popular tool for using the newest features of the JavaScript programming language. Developers can use new JavaScript language features by using Babel to convert their source code into versions of JavaScript that evolving browsers are able to process; the core version of Babel is downloaded 5 million times a month as of 2016. Babel plugins are used to transform syntax, not supported into a backwards-compatible version. For example, arrow functions, which are specified in ES6, are converted into regular function declarations. Non-standard JavaScript syntax such as JSX can be transformed. Babel provides polyfills to provide support for features that are missing from JavaScript environments. For example, static methods like Array.from and built-ins like Promise are only available in ES6+, but they can be used in older environments if a Babel polyfill is used.

Comparison of web browsers TypeScript Web development tools Webpack JavaScript bundler Official website GitHub project origin story

Lion Philips

Lion Philips was a Dutch tobacco merchant. He is the grandfather of Gerard and Anton Philips of Philips Electronics, was an important financial supporter of Karl Marx. Lion Philips was born in Netherlands, his parents were Benjamin Lea Hartog, who moved there from Veenendaal. He was the eldest of nine children. Among his siblings, only he chose to stay in Zaltbommel. Lion married Sophie Pressburg from Nijmegen. Sophie's sister Henriëtte was the mother of Karl Marx. Sophie and Lion had nine children, including August Philips, a lawyer and dean of the Amsterdam Bar Association. Gerard's younger brother Anton joined the company in 1912. In 1815, Lion and a partner, Gerlacus Ribbius Peletier, started a tobacco company, "The Unicorn"; the successors of this company remained active in the tobacco trade until the second half of the twentieth century. In addition to trading tobacco, the Philips pursued other businesses, including a blanket factory, which burned down. At the time of his death in 1866, his capital was estimated at around NLG 189,000.

The Philips family was of Jewish origin. Lion Philips and his father Benjamin joined the Dutch Reformed Church on 1 February 1826 with their respective families. Full Jewish emancipation had been in place in the Netherlands since 1796, eliminating trade and other obstacles to the faith. Marx and Philips had a close relationship. Seven letters to Marx and seven to Philips are known; these letters cover issues ranging from the American Civil War to the invention of electricity. One of the main reasons for the strong involvement was money. Philips was the business mediator between him and Henriëtte Pressburg; this was necessary, because the relationship between Marx and his mother was poor, Marx writing: "I have fallen out with my family and, as long as my mother lives, I have no right to my inheritance". As a result, Philips granted Marx allowances, first from the legacy of Heinrich Marx as advances on the legacy of Henriëtte. After Henriëtte's death in 1863, named one of her executors, paid what remained after Karl's inheritance: seven thousand guilders, a considerable sum.

In addition, Philips offered extras: "I extorted £160 pounds from my uncle so that we could pay off most of our debts," Marx writes to Friedrich Engels on 7 May 1861. Marx found ` a hospitable home' with his family. In addition, he was able to "conduct intellectual discussions with open-minded, liberal ubiquists". In the Soviet TV series Karl Marks, Molodye gody the role of Lion Philips is played by the Ukrainian actor Leonid Bronevoy. A. Heerding The history of N. V. Philips' gloeilampenfabrieken Volume 1 The origin of the Dutch incandescent lamp industry translated by Derek Jordon A. Heerding The history of N. V. Philips' gloeilampenfabrieken Volume 2: A company of many parts translated by Derek Jordon I. J. Blanken The history of N. V. Philips' gloeilampenfabrieken The development of N. V. Philips' Gloeilampenfabrieken into a major electrical group Volume 3 translated by C. Pettiward I. J. Blanken The history of N. V. Philips' gloeilampenfabrieken Under German rule Volume 4 translated by C. PettiwardWerner Blumenberg: "Ein unbekanntes Kapitel aus Marx'Leben.

Briefe an die holländischen Verwandten. In: International Review of Social History, 1, 1956, No. 1, S. 54-111 The Netherlands Patriciaat. Bd. 50, The Hague 1964, S. 330-343 Heinz Monz: Der Erbteilungsvertraag Henriette Marx. In: De Antiquaar, Hilversum 1971, II. Jg. S. 6 ff Heinz Monz: Karl Marx. Ground layers zu Leben und Werk. NCO-Verlag, Trier 1973 Manfred Schöncke: Karl and Heinrich Marx and ihre Geschwister. Köln 1993 ISBN 3-89144-185-1 Jan Gielkens: " If only I were in Bommel again": Karl Marx and his Dutch relatives: a family history in documents / delivered and collected.. Amsterdam 1997 ISBN 90-6861-099-6 Jan Gielkens: Karl Marx und seine niederländischen Verwandten. Eine kommentierte Quellenedition. Trier 1999 ISBN 3-86077-845-5 Izumi Omura ua: Marx privat family - Die Foto- und Fragebogen-Alben von Marx'Laura and Jenny - Eine kommentierte Faksimileausgabe. Akademie Verlag, Berlin 2005. ISBN 3-05-004118-8

Robert T. Curran

Robert T. Curran was an American college baseball and basketball coach, he was head basketball coach at the University of Massachusetts from 1952 to 1959 and head baseball coach at the College of the Holy Cross from 1967 to 1970. Curran was a multi-sport star from Worcester, Massachusetts who enrolled at the College of the Holy Cross in 1940. After spending a few years in the United States military during World War II, he re-enrolled at Holy Cross and was the starting center on the Crusaders' 1946–47 national championship team, he was a key contributor for the team, most notably by defending Oklahoma All-American Gerry Tucker in the NCAA championship game. Curran played baseball for the Crusaders. Curran became head coach at the University of Massachusetts in 1952, he coached the Redmen for seven seasons, compiling a record of 81–80. He became an assistant men's basketball and baseball coach at his alma mater and was served head baseball coach for four seasons, from 1967 to 1970, going 37–41–2.

Curran died in 1977. Curran was named to the Holy Cross athletic hall of fame as well as the New England basketball hall of fame. In 2011, Holy Cross established the Robert T. Curran Leadership Award for the baseball program to honor the leadership displayed by Curran as head coach

Chiwata Station

Chiwata Station is the railway station in Higashisonogi, Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan. It is on the Ōmura Line; the station is served by the Ōmura Line and is located 24.0 km from the starting point of the line at Haiki. Besides the local services on the line, some trains of the Rapid Seaside Liner stop at the station; the station consists of a side platform serving a single track by the coast of Ōmura Bay. The station building was built in 1928 and is a timber building with a tiled roof of traditional Japanese design. A ramp leads up from the station forecourt to the building but another short flight of steps is needed to access the platform. Parking and a bike shed; the ticket window is not staffed by JR Kyushu but a kan'i itaku agent has converted the station waiting room into a cafe and sells some kinds of tickets on site. Japanese Government Railways opened the station on 20 April 1928 as an additional station on what was the Nagasaki Main Line. On 1 December 1934, another route was given the designation Nagasaki Main Line and the track from Haiki, through Chiwata to Isahaya was designated the Ōmura Line.

With the privatization of Japanese National Railways, the successor of JGR, on 1 April 1987, control of the station passed to JR Kyushu. In fiscal 2014, there were a total of 29,848 boarding passengers, giving a daily average of 82 passengers. List of railway stations in Japan Chiwata Station