An industrial park is an area zoned and planned for the purpose of industrial development. An industrial park can be thought of as a more heavyweight version of a park or office park. Industrial parks are located on the edges of, or outside the main residential area of a city. One such example would be the number of industrial estates located along the River Thames in the Thames Gateway area of London. Industrial parks are located close to transport facilities, especially where more than one transport modes coincide, including highways, railroads. Such infrastructure includes roadways, railroad sidings, high-power electric supplies, high-end communications cables, large-volume water supplies, to be able to attract new business by providing an integrated infrastructure in one location. Eligibility of Industrial Parks for benefits To set aside industrial uses from urban areas to try to reduce the environmental and social impact of the industrial uses, to provide for localized environmental controls that are specific to the needs of an industrial area.
Different industrial parks fulfill these criteria to differing degrees, many small communities have established industrial parks with only access to a nearby highway, and with only the basic utilities and roadways. Public transportation options may be limited or non-existent, there may be few or no special environmental safeguards. An industrial park specializing in biotechnology is called an industrial park. It may be known as a park or eco-industrial cluster. Flatted factories exist in cities like Singapore and Hong Kong, where land is scarce and these are typically similar to flats, but house individual industries instead. Flatted factories have cargo lifts and roads that serve each level, UNIDO Viet Nam has compiled a list of Industrial Parks in the ASEAN Economic Community in a report titled Economic Zones in the ASEAN written by Arnault Morisson
Victoria was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she adopted the title of Empress of India. Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, both the Duke of Kent and King George III died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne aged 18, after her fathers three brothers had all died, leaving no surviving legitimate children. The United Kingdom was already a constitutional monarchy, in which the sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments, Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together, after Alberts death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances.
As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength and her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration. Her reign of 63 years and seven months is known as the Victorian era and it was a period of industrial, political and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover and her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father. Victorias father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, until 1817, Edwards niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a crisis that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent. In 1818 he married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a widowed German princess with two children—Carl and Feodora —by her first marriage to the Prince of Leiningen and her brother Leopold was Princess Charlottes widower.
The Duke and Duchess of Kents only child, was born at 4.15 a. m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London. Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace and she was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria, after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parents—Georgina and Augusta—were dropped on the instructions of the Dukes eldest brother, the Duke of Clarence and the Duke of Kent married on the same day in 1818, but both of Clarences daughters died as infants. Victorias father died in January 1820, when Victoria was less than a year old, a week her grandfather died and was succeeded by his eldest son, George IV. The Duke of York died in 1827, when George IV died in 1830, he was succeeded by his next surviving brother, William IV, and Victoria became heir presumptive
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west, the Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east, the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain in its centre and south, and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly, and the Isle of Wight. England became a state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery. The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the worlds first industrialised nation, Englands terrain mostly comprises low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there are uplands in the north and in the southwest, the capital is London, which is the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland through another Act of Union to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain, the name England is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means land of the Angles. The Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages, the Angles came from the Angeln peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea. The earliest recorded use of the term, as Engla londe, is in the ninth century translation into Old English of Bedes Ecclesiastical History of the English People. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars, it has been suggested that it derives from the shape of the Angeln peninsula, an angular shape. An alternative name for England is Albion, the name Albion originally referred to the entire island of Great Britain.
The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus, specifically the 4th century BC De Mundo, in it are two very large islands called Britannia, these are Albion and Ierne. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, the word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins. Albion is now applied to England in a poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England, the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximately 780,000 years ago. The oldest proto-human bones discovered in England date from 500,000 years ago, Modern humans are known to have inhabited the area during the Upper Paleolithic period, though permanent settlements were only established within the last 6,000 years
McVities is a British snack food brand owned by United Biscuits. The name derives from the original Scottish biscuit maker, McVitie & Price, Ltd. established in 1830 on Rose Street in Edinburgh, Scotland. The company moved to sites in the city before completing the St. Andrews Biscuit Works factory on Robertson Avenue in the Gorgie district in 1888. The company operates two manufacturing plants south of the border in Levenshulme, Manchester / Heaton Chapel and Harlesden. McVitie & Price expanded to a new factory in Harlesden in 1910, the firm acquired Edinburgh bakery Simon Henderson & Sons in 1922. McVitie & Price merged with another Scottish family bakery, Ltd, in 1948 to become United Biscuits Group. McVitie & Prices first major biscuit was the McVities Digestive, the first ever digestive biscuit, the biscuit was given its name because it was thought that its high baking soda content served as an aid to food digestion. Grant was to head of the concern, during which time he was in 1923 the chief benefactor of the then-new National Library of Scotland.
Grant donated another substantial sum in 1928 when the National Library was expanded to occupy the Sheriff Court buildings on George IV Bridge, the McVities Chocolate Homewheat Digestive was created in 1925. Over 71 million packets of McVities chocolate digestives are eaten in the United Kingdom each year, hobNobs were launched in 1985 and a milk chocolate variant followed in 1987. Launched in 1927, Jaffa Cakes were ranked the best selling cake or biscuit in the UK in 2012, in 1947 McVitie & Price made the wedding cake for Princess Elizabeth and Sir Philip Mountbatten. Some of the products in the McVities line were rebranded McV in 2002, in 2007, United Biscuits licensed the McVities brand to Meiji Seika Kaisha Ltd for biscuit production in Japan. In March 2011, it was announced that Prince William had chosen a grooms cake for his wedding reception, in June 2014 McVities announced their intention to make 157 shop floor roles redundant at their Manchester manufacturing facility. This redundancy announcement was due to the modernisation agenda of the company and involves a move from an 8-hour 5 day operation.
Digestives Fig Roll Ginger Nuts Hob Nobs Cookies, including Boasters
World War I
World War I, known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. More than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, were mobilised in one of the largest wars in history and it was one of the deadliest conflicts in history, and paved the way for major political changes, including revolutions in many of the nations involved. The war drew in all the worlds great powers, assembled in two opposing alliances, the Allies versus the Central Powers of Germany and Austria-Hungary. These alliances were reorganised and expanded as more nations entered the war, Japan, the trigger for the war was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, by Yugoslav nationalist Gavrilo Princip in Sarajevo on 28 June 1914. This set off a crisis when Austria-Hungary delivered an ultimatum to the Kingdom of Serbia. Within weeks, the powers were at war and the conflict soon spread around the world.
On 25 July Russia began mobilisation and on 28 July, the Austro-Hungarians declared war on Serbia, Germany presented an ultimatum to Russia to demobilise, and when this was refused, declared war on Russia on 1 August. Germany invaded neutral Belgium and Luxembourg before moving towards France, after the German march on Paris was halted, what became known as the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, with a trench line that changed little until 1917. On the Eastern Front, the Russian army was successful against the Austro-Hungarians, in November 1914, the Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai. In 1915, Italy joined the Allies and Bulgaria joined the Central Powers, Romania joined the Allies in 1916, after a stunning German offensive along the Western Front in the spring of 1918, the Allies rallied and drove back the Germans in a series of successful offensives. By the end of the war or soon after, the German Empire, Russian Empire, Austro-Hungarian Empire, national borders were redrawn, with several independent nations restored or created, and Germanys colonies were parceled out among the victors.
During the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, the Big Four imposed their terms in a series of treaties, the League of Nations was formed with the aim of preventing any repetition of such a conflict. This effort failed, and economic depression, renewed nationalism, weakened successor states, and feelings of humiliation eventually contributed to World War II. From the time of its start until the approach of World War II, at the time, it was sometimes called the war to end war or the war to end all wars due to its then-unparalleled scale and devastation. In Canada, Macleans magazine in October 1914 wrote, Some wars name themselves, during the interwar period, the war was most often called the World War and the Great War in English-speaking countries. Will become the first world war in the sense of the word. These began in 1815, with the Holy Alliance between Prussia and Austria, when Germany was united in 1871, Prussia became part of the new German nation. Soon after, in October 1873, German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck negotiated the League of the Three Emperors between the monarchs of Austria-Hungary and Germany
East Africa or Eastern Africa is the easterly region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics. The first five are included in the African Great Lakes region. Burundi and Rwanda are sometimes considered to be part of Central Africa. Djibouti, Eritrea and Somalia – collectively known as the Horn of Africa, Comoros and Seychelles – small island nations in the Indian Ocean. Réunion and Mayotte – French overseas territories in the Indian Ocean and Madagascar – often considered part of Southern Africa, on the eastern side of the sub-continent. Madagascar has close ties to Southeast Asia and the islands of the Indian Ocean. Malawi and Zimbabwe – often included in Southern Africa, Egypt and South Sudan – collectively part of the Nile Valley. Situated in the portion of the continent, and Egypt. Also members of the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa free trade area, the geography of East Africa is often stunning and scenic. Shaped by global plate tectonic forces that have created the East African Rift, East Africa is the site of Mount Kilimanjaro and Mount Kenya and it includes the worlds second largest freshwater lake Lake Victoria, and the worlds second deepest lake Lake Tanganyika.
The climate of East Africa is rather atypical of equatorial regions, in fact, on the coast of Somaliland and Puntland, many years can go by without any rain whatsoever. Unusually, most of the falls in two distinct wet seasons, one centred on April and the other in October or November. Annual rainfall here ranges from over 1,600 millimetres on the slopes to around 1,250 millimetres at Addis Ababa and 550 millimetres at Asmara. In the high rainfall can be over 2,500 millimetres. Temperatures in East Africa, except on the hot and generally humid coastal belt, are moderate, with maxima of around 25 °C, at altitudes of above 2,500 metres, frosts are common during the dry season and maxima typically about 21 °C or less. The unique geography and apparent suitability for farming made East Africa a target for European exploration and colonialization in the nineteenth century, tourism is an important part of the economies of Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. The easternmost point of the continent, that is Ras Hafun in Somalia, is of archaeological and economical importance, there are differing theories on whether there was a single exodus or several, a multiple dispersal model involves the Southern Dispersal theory.
A growing number of researchers suspect that North Africa was instead the home of the modern humans who first trekked out of the continent
Grand Junction Canal
The Grand Junction Canal is a canal in England from Braunston in Northamptonshire to the River Thames at Brentford, with a number of branches. The mainline was built between 1793 and 1805, to improve the route from the Midlands to London, by-passing the upper reaches of the River Thames near Oxford, thus shortening the journey. In 1927 the canal was bought by the Regents Canal Company and, the canal is now much used by leisure traffic. Isambard Kingdom Brunels last major undertaking was the unique Three Bridges, work began in 1856, and was completed in 1859. The three bridges in question are an arrangement allowing the routes of the Grand Junction Canal, Great Western and Brentford Railway. By 1790, a network of canals was in place, or under construction. However, the route to London was via the Oxford Canal to the River Thames at Oxford. The river, particularly the upper reaches, was in a condition for navigation compared with the modern canals. The river suffered from shallow sections and shortage of water leading to delays at locks, in 1791–1792, two surveys of a route from Brentford on the Thames to Braunston on the Oxford Canal were carried out, first by James Barnes and by William Jessop.
There were other proposals for a direct route to London. It authorised branches to Daventry, the River Nene at Northampton, to the road at Old Stratford, and to Watford. William Jessop was appointed to charge of construction which started almost immediately from both ends. On 3 June 1793 an engineer, James Barnes, was appointed at the rate of two guineas per day plus half a guinea expenses. At the north end, there were problems with the construction of Blisworth Tunnel, quicksand was encountered, with the opening of Braunston Tunnel, the line was open from the Oxford Canal through to Weedon Bec in June 1796. However, Blisworth Tunnel continued to cause problems, collapsing in January 1796, the canal was opened from Braunston to Blisworth in 1797. Thus, with the exception of Blisworth Tunnel, the line was fully open in 1800. James Barnes proposed that work begin again on the tunnel on a new line, robert Whitworth and John Rennie were called in for advice, and supported this proposal. However, construction on the new line did not start until June 1802, nine locks were used in a temporary arrangement to lower and raise the canal for the crossing of the River Great Ouse at Wolverton at the rivers water level
Battersea Power Station
Battersea Power Station is a decommissioned coal-fired power station located on the south bank of the River Thames, in Nine Elms, Battersea, an inner-city district of South West London. It comprises two individual stations, built in two stages in the form of a single building. Battersea A Power Station was built in the 1930s, with Battersea B Power Station to the east in the 1950s, the two stations were built to a nearly identical design, providing the long-recognized four-chimney layout. The station ceased generating electricity in 1983, but over the past 50 years it has one of the best known landmarks in London and is Grade II* listed. The stations celebrity owes much to numerous popular culture references, which include the art of Pink Floyds 1977 album Animals. The station is one of the largest brick buildings in the world and is notable for its original, lavish Art Deco interior fittings and decor. The building has remained unused since its closure, and the condition of the structure has been described as very bad by English Heritage.
The site was listed on the 2004 World Monuments Watch by the World Monuments Fund. Since the stations closure, numerous redevelopment plans were drawn up from successive site owners and this plan fell through due to REOs debt being called in by the state-owned banks of the UK and Ireland. The site was put up for sale in December 2011 through commercial estate agent Knight Frank and it has received interest from a variety of overseas consortia, most seeking to demolish or partly demolish the structure. In 2012, administrators Ernst & Young entered into an exclusivity agreement with Malaysias SP Setia, the £400 million sale was completed in September 2012, and the redevelopment intends to implement the Rafael Vinoly design, which had gained planning consent from Wandsworth Council in 2011. In January 2013, the first residential apartments went on sale, construction on Phase 1 was due to commence in 2013, with completion due in 2016/17. Apple will locate its new London headquarters at Battersea Power Station, until the late 1930s electricity was supplied by municipal undertakings.
These were small companies that built power stations dedicated to a single industry or group of factories. These companies used widely differing standards of voltage and frequency, in 1925 Parliament decided that the power grid should be a single system with uniform standards and under public ownership. Several of the power companies reacted to the proposal by forming the London Power Company. They planned to heed parliaments recommendations and build a number of very large stations. The London Power Companys first of these power stations was planned for the Battersea area
Park Royal is an area in northwest London, England. It is the site of the largest business park in London, Park Royal Business Park is promoted commercially by the Park Royal Business Group which is part of West London Business. Park Royal is partly in the London Borough of Brent and partly the London Borough of Ealing, Park Royal business park has over 1,200 businesses, employing an estimated 35,000 workers. Approximately 500 food companies operate at Park Royal, employing more than 14,000 people, one third of all the food consumed in London is supplied by businesses in Park Royal. Park Royal has areas of housing and amenities serving them. On the eastern side, Park Royal is bounded by Acton Lane, the Central Middlesex Hospital is located here. There is a B&Q superstore and Nissan Car Dealerships, Park Royal Underground station, on the Piccadilly line, is located just off Western Avenue. To the west of Park Royal is Hanger Hill and the North Circular Road, as well as many small industrial firms, Park Royal is the location of some large company buildings, including McVities and Heinz.
The first building erected adjacent to the new roundabout and bridge link to Western Avenue is occupied by international drinks company Diageo, owner of the Guinness brand, the Female Health Company, which manufactures Femidoms, has one of its two manufacturing plants here, too. The Grand Union Canal runs through the middle of the Park Royal industrial estate, the name Park Royal derives from the short-lived showgrounds opened in 1903 by the Royal Agricultural Society as a permanent exhibition site for the societys annual show. After only three years the society sold the site, and returned to a format for its shows. With its road and canal links, Park Royal was subsequently developed for industrial use, for many years it was a centre of engineering, with firms including Park Royal Vehicles, GKN and Landis and Gyr. Queens Park Rangers F. C. played on two grounds in Park Royal, the first was the Horse Ring, the site of the Guinness brewery, which had a capacity of 40,000. When the Royal Agricultural Society sold the grounds in 1907, QPR moved to the Park Royal Ground,400 yards south, the club was forced to move out in February 1915 as the ground was taken over by the Army.
On 12 December 1908, the first ever rugby league test match between Great Britain and Australia took place at the Park Royal Ground in front of 2,000 fans, the match ended in a 22-all draw and was played as part of the first ever Kangaroo Tour. The Guinness Sports Club hosted some of the hockey events for the 1948 Summer Olympics. It is public policy to maintain Park Royal as predominantly a business area, the framework does not preclude use of parts of the site for housing. Park Royal is served by the A40 and A406 roads, and is situated close to an interchange called the Hanger Lane gyratory
Ireland is an island in the North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel, the Irish Sea, Ireland is the second-largest island of the British Isles, the third-largest in Europe, and the twentieth-largest on Earth. Politically, Ireland is divided between the Republic of Ireland, which covers five-sixths of the island, and Northern Ireland, in 2011, the population of Ireland was about 6.4 million, ranking it the second-most populous island in Europe after Great Britain. Just under 4.6 million live in the Republic of Ireland, the islands geography comprises relatively low-lying mountains surrounding a central plain, with several navigable rivers extending inland. The island has lush vegetation, a product of its mild, thick woodlands covered the island until the Middle Ages. As of 2013, the amount of land that is wooded in Ireland is about 11% of the total, there are twenty-six extant mammal species native to Ireland. The Irish climate is moderate and classified as oceanic.
As a result, winters are milder than expected for such a northerly area, summers are cooler than those in Continental Europe. Rainfall and cloud cover are abundant, the earliest evidence of human presence in Ireland is dated at 10,500 BC. Gaelic Ireland had emerged by the 1st century CE, the island was Christianised from the 5th century onward. Following the Norman invasion in the 12th century, England claimed sovereignty over Ireland, English rule did not extend over the whole island until the 16th–17th century Tudor conquest, which led to colonisation by settlers from Britain. In the 1690s, a system of Protestant English rule was designed to materially disadvantage the Catholic majority and Protestant dissenters, with the Acts of Union in 1801, Ireland became a part of the United Kingdom. Northern Ireland saw much civil unrest from the late 1960s until the 1990s and this subsided following a political agreement in 1998. In 1973 the Republic of Ireland joined the European Economic Community while the United Kingdom, Irish culture has had a significant influence on other cultures, especially in the fields of literature.
Alongside mainstream Western culture, an indigenous culture exists, as expressed through Gaelic games, Irish music. The culture of the island shares many features with that of Great Britain, including the English language, and sports such as association football, horse racing. The name Ireland derives from Old Irish Eriu and this in turn derives from Proto-Celtic *Iveriu, which is the source of Latin Hibernia. Iveriu derives from a root meaning fat, during the last glacial period, and up until about 9000 years ago, most of Ireland was covered with ice, most of the time
Stonebridge is an area of northwest London, England in the London Borough of Brent, and forms the western part of Harlesden. It is the name of the largest electoral ward in the borough, which includes Stonebridge itself as well as Park Royal, Brent Park and it is the most populated ward in Brent with a population over 17,000 with the majority of Afro-Caribbean heritage. The area was named after a bridge built over the River Brent to the north. However, the service on the line closed for a second and final time in 1902. Some parts of Stonebridge have always been in ownership. In April 1994, The Independent newspaper highlighted an unemployment rate of around 25%, as well as drug abuse, burglaries. Most improvements, came after 2000, when comprehensive redevelopment of the 1960s and 1970s housing started and this is mainly complete by 2010, although some empty high-rise buildings were still being demolished. A traditional street layout has been introduced, largely of two- and three-storey houses, tenants were given a choice about which ownership they preferred.
New development on Hillside, part of the A404 Harrow Road through the area, includes private ownership of flats above offices, redevelopment has gone hand-in-hand with training and sports initiatives for local people. A tree preservation order has been adopted by Brent Council on Winchelsea Road nearby, to protect the street scene, the Stonebridge Estate had historically been known for its high crime rate. Neighbouring Harlesden witnessed an increase in shootings and gun crime starting 1999. Press comment has generally changed from being negative, which demoralised the local residents, in 2010 former Millwall footballer Gavin Grant was found guilty of shooting and murdering Leon Labastide. Stephen Batten QC, said the case was linked to shootings, in 2015 Stonebridge had more guncrime any other ward in London, despite decreasing over the last decade. Stonebridge has a black population. The 1991 census showed that 41. 9% of the population was black and this increased to 49. 1% in 2001. The black groups are diverse, with Caribbeans forming 22.
1%, Africans 19. 9%, London Buses serving Stonebridge are, The North and West London Light Railway has been proposed for the area. Brent Park Harlesden station Park Royal Stonebridge Park station St Raphaels Estate Trainspots photographs The nearby Dudding Hill Line in Craven Park Stonebridge ward profile
Kensal Green station
Kensal Green is a Network Rail station served by London Underground Bakerloo line and London Overground trains. It is located in College Road, London NW10 close to the junction with Harrow Road and it is about 0.5 mile route distance from the older Kensal Rise station located to the north east on the North London Line, which was itself named Kensal Green until 1890. The station opened on 1 October 1916 on the new electrified Watford DC Line which runs parallel on the side of the existing London. The original station was replaced in 1980, Bakerloo line services had been running between Queens Park and Willesden Junction since 10 May 1915. The station was in the early in 2006, as it was the last station visited by Thomas ap Rhys-Price before he was murdered in a robbery in Kensal Green. The two main suspects had visited the station that night, a short time before the murder. A suspect tried to use ap Rhys-Pryces Oyster Card a day after the incident at the station and this incident sparked a major public discussion on station safety and security, mainly because the station was un-staffed when the passenger was mugged.
The only security present was CCTV cameras, and the barriers were left open allowing the suspects to enter the station freely. Many high-profile politicians spoke on the issue of safety and called on train companies to provide security or staff the station until the last train had left the station. He stated that any company that wanted to bid for the subsidy to run the line would have commit to staffing the station until the last train had left. London Buses route 18 and night route N18 serve the station