2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Cimarron County, Oklahoma
Cimarron County is the westernmost county in the U. S. state of Oklahoma. As of the 2010 census, the population was 2,475, its county seat is Boise City. Located in the Oklahoma Panhandle, Cimarron County contains the only community in the state that observes the Mountain Time Zone. Black Rock Mesa, the highest point in the state, is in the northwest corner of the county. Throughout most of its history it has had both the smallest population and the lowest population density of any county in Oklahoma. Cimarron County was created at statehood in 1907. Before the Oklahoma Organic Act was passed in 1890, the area had belonged to what was known as "No Man's Land," referred to as the "Public Land Strip." This was a lawless area, with no organized government, several outlaws sought refuge within its borders. In 1890, the strip became known as Oklahoma Territory. Informally, it was known as the "Oklahoma Panhandle." There were only two communities in the strip. One, had 83 residents in 1890, while the other, Mineral City, had 93 residents.
Otherwise, the land was used by sheepherders from New Mexico. Seven communities vied to become county seat after statehood: Boise City, Doby and Willowbar. A county election in 1908 selected Boise City. Railroads came late to this part of Oklahoma; the Elkhart and Santa Fe Railway built a line from Elkhart, Kansas through Cimarron County in 1925. It completed the link into New Mexico in 1932. Service ended in 1942; the same company built a line from Colorado to Boise City in 1931 and extended it into Texas in 1937. This line still in 2000 was part of the BNSF system. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,841 square miles, of which 1,835 square miles is land and 6.1 square miles is water. It is the fourth-largest county in Oklahoma by area, it has Oklahoma's highest point at 4,973 feet on the Black Mesa. The northern part of the county is drained by the Cimarron River, which flows eastward turns north into Kansas, The southern part is drained by the North Canadian River.
The man-made Lake Carl Etling lies inside Black Mesa park. The Boise City Airport is located four miles north of Boise City. Cimarron County is the only county in the United States that borders four states: Colorado, New Mexico, Texas; as a result, Cimarron County is the only county in the United States to border at least five counties from five different states. Baca County, Colorado Morton County, Kansas Texas County Dallam County, Texas Sherman County, Texas Union County, New Mexico A location 300 yards east of US 287-385 and 1.75 miles south of the Cimarron River is the only place in the US less than 27 miles from five different states: 26.99 miles from Kansas, New Mexico, Texas and 7 miles from Colorado. Rita Blanca National Grassland As of the 2010 census, there were 2,475 people, 1,047 households, 705 families residing in the county; the population density was 2 people per square mile. There were 1,587 housing units at an average density of 1 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 84.7% White, 0.2% Black or African American, 0.8% Native American, 0.3% Asian, 12.1% from other races, 1.8% from two or more races.
20.8% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 1,257 households out of which 31.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.40% were married couples living together, 6.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.90% were non-families. 29.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.47 and the average family size was 3.07. In the county, the population was spread out with 27.60% under the age of 18, 6.40% from 18 to 24, 23.40% from 25 to 44, 24.00% from 45 to 64, 18.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 97.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.30 males. The median income for a household in the county was $30,625, the median income for a family was $36,250. Males had a median income of $24,327 versus $18,110 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,744.
About 13.90% of families and 17.60% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.20% of those under age 18 and 10.10% of those age 65 or over. The county economy has been based on cattle ranching and agriculture throughout its history. Wheat and grain sorghum are the most important crops; the Dust Bowl devastated the county during the 1930s, the deluges of 1942-1945 destroyed what was left. Oil and natural gas production became important in the 1960s, a gas plant near Keyes began producing helium in 1959. In 2000, Cimarron County had the ninth largest per capita income of all Oklahoma counties. Boise City Keyes Felt Kenton Griggs Sturgis Wheeless National Register of Historic Places listings in Cimarron County, Oklahoma Oklahoma Panhandle Egan, Timothy; the Worst Hard Time: The Untold Story of Those Who Survived the Great American Dust Bowl. Boston: Mariner Books. ISBN 0-618-34697-X. OCLC 58788898. Includes much about the history of Cimarron County in the 20th century. NASA Earth Obseratory article about Cimarron County Encyclopedia of
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans, it is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square. Population density is population divided by total land water volume, as appropriate. Low densities may lead to further reduced fertility; this is called the Allee effect after the scientist. Examples of the causes in low population densities include: Increased problems with locating sexual mates Increased inbreeding For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area quoted per square kilometer or square mile; this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory or the entire world. The world's population is around 7,500,000,000 and Earth's total area is 510,000,000 square kilometers. Therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,500,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 14.7 per km2. If only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account human population density is 50 per km2.
This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded population density rises to over 55 people per km2. However, over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states and dependencies; these territories have a small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation The potential to maintain the agricultural aspects of deserts is limited as there is not enough precipitation to support a sustainable land. The population in these areas are low. Therefore, cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace.
Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo and Lagos in Africa fall into this category. City population and area are, however dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are invariably higher for the central city area than when suburban settlements and the intervening rural areas are included, as in the areas of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter sometimes including neighboring cities. For instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, the surrounding suburbs excluded. In comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet per person, would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area; the Gaza Strip has a population density of 5,046 pop/km.
Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. Arithmetic density: The total number of people / area of land Physiological density: The total population / area of arable land Agricultural density: The total rural population / area of arable land Residential density: The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land Urban density: The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land Ecological optimum: The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources Demography Human geography Idealized population Optimum population Population genetics Population health Population momentum Population pyramid Rural transport problem Small population size Distance sampling List of population concern organizations List of countries by population density List of cities by population density List of city districts by population density List of English districts by population density List of European cities proper by population density List of United States cities by population density List of islands by population density List of U.
S. states by population density List of Australian suburbs by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density Duncan Smith / UCL Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. "World Population Density". Exploratory map shows data from the Global Human Settlement Layer produced by the European Commission JRC and the CIESIN Columbia University
Greer County, Oklahoma
Greer County is a county located along the southwest border of the U. S. state of Oklahoma. As of the 2010 census, the population was 6,239, its county seat is Mangum. From 1860 to 1896, the state of Texas claimed an area known as Greer County, which included present-day Greer County along with neighboring areas. In 1896 it was designated as a county in Oklahoma Territory under a ruling by the US Supreme Court; the rural Greer County is home to Quartz Mountain Nature Park, near the community of Lone Wolf, Oklahoma. It is home to the Oklahoma State Reformatory, located in Granite, its population has declined since 1930 due to changes in agriculture and migration to cities for work. After a dispute over the 1819 Adams-Onís Treaty and the related 1828 Treaty of Limits, the governments of both the United States and the state of Texas claimed ownership of some 1.5 million acres in what was operated as Greer County, Texas. The county was named for John A. Greer. Litigation followed, in the case of United States v. State of Texas 162 U.
S. 1, with a ruling issued on March 16, the Supreme Court, having original jurisdiction over the case, decided in favor of the United States. The county was assigned to the Oklahoma Territory on May 4, 1896; when Oklahoma was admitted as a state, Greer County was established according to its current boundaries. The town of Mangum, designated as the county seat in 1886 when this was part of Texas, continued as the seat of Greer County, Oklahoma. From its establishment until at least 1903, Greer County was a sundown county, prohibiting African Americans from living in the county. Developed for agriculture, the rural county had its peak of population in 1930. Mechanization of agriculture reduced the need for farm labor, the population has declined as people migrated to cities for work. Among the county attractions is Quartz Mountain Nature Park, near the community of Lone Wolf. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 644 square miles, of which 639 square miles is land and 4.3 square miles is water.
Western Greer County lies in the Gypsum Hills, while the eastern one-third is in the Red Bed Plains physiographic region. The county is drained by the North Fork Red River, Elm Fork Red River, Salt Fork Red River. U. S. Highway 283 State Highway 6 State Highway 9 State Highway 34 Beckham County Kiowa County Jackson County Harmon County As of the census of 2000, there were 6,061 people, 2,237 households, 1,442 families residing in the county; the population density was 10 people per square mile. There were 2,788 housing units at an average density of 4 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 81.46% White, 8.78% Black or African American, 2.47% Native American, 0.26% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 3.99% from other races, 3.02% from two or more races. 7.44% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 2,237 households out of which 25.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.00% were married couples living together, 9.60% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.50% were non-families.
33.40% of all households were made up of individuals and 19.80% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.27 and the average family size was 2.87. In the county, the population was spread out with 20.00% under the age of 18, 9.10% from 18 to 24, 28.40% from 25 to 44, 22.40% from 45 to 64, 20.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 123.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 129.60 males. The median income for a household in the county was $25,793, the median income for a family was $30,702. Males had a median income of $24,318 versus $18,641 for females; the per capita income for the county was $14,053. About 15.00% of families and 19.60% of the population were below the poverty line, including 28.40% of those under age 18 and 14.80% of those age 65 or over. The county's economy has been based on raising livestock. In 1907, the main crops were cotton, oats and alfalfa. Livestock raised includes cattle, mules, swine and goats.
The Oklahoma State Reformatory provides some jobs. Mangum Granite Willow Brinkman Reed Edward Everett Dale, historian. S. politician. S. House of Representatives National Register of Historic Places listings in Greer County, Oklahoma USS Greer County Mangum Main Street Greer County Chamber of Commerce Old Greer County Museum & Hall of Fame Greer County Extension Service Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture - Greer County Oklahoma Digital Maps: Digital Collections of Oklahoma and Indian Territory
The Missouri–Kansas–Texas Railway is a former Class I railroad company in the United States, with its last headquarters in Dallas. Established in 1865 under the name Union Pacific Railway, Southern Branch, it came to serve an extensive rail network in Texas, Oklahoma and Missouri. In 1989, it merged with the Missouri Pacific Railroad. In its earliest days, the MKT was referred to as "the K-T", its stock exchange symbol; the Katy was the first railroad to enter Texas from the north. The Katy's core system would link Parsons, Fort Scott, Junction City and Kansas City, Kansas. An additional mainline between Fort Worth and Salina, was added in the 1980s after the collapse of the Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railroad. At the end of 1970, MKT operated 3,765 miles of track; the Missouri, Kansas & Texas Railway was incorporated in May 1870 in Kansas. The company received government land grants to build a supply railroad connecting the frontier military bases of Fort Riley, Fort Gibson and Fort Scott.
Upon its incorporation, the MK&T acquired the Union Pacific Railway, Southern Branch and its 182 miles of track in Kansas. At the time of its 1870 incorporation, consolidations were made with the Labette & Sedalia Railway Co. and the Neosho Valley & Holden Railway Co.. Combined with the UP Southern Branch, these small, newly built railroads formed the foundation on which the Katy would build. In the late 1890s, a subsidiary once called the Missouri-Kansas-Eastern railroad was established to run from existing MKT rails approaching Kansas City into St Louis via the Missouri River basin. Congress had passed acts promising land grants to the first railroad to reach the Kansas border via the Neosho Valley; the Katy portion of the former UP Southern Branch, which had begun building from Fort Riley just north of Junction City, was in a heated competition for the prize. On June 6, 1870, Katy workers laid the first rails across the Kansas border. Congress' promised land grants were never made, as the courts overturned the grants because the land was in Indian Territory and was the property of the Indian tribes.
The Katy continued its push southward, laying track through the territory and reaching Texas in 1872, acquiring other small railroads while extending its reach to Dallas in 1886, Waco in 1888, Houston in April 1893 and to San Antonio in 1901. When the Katy railroad reached Houston, its joint ownership of the Galveston and Henderson Railroad gave it immediate access to the Port of Galveston and its ocean-going shipping on the Gulf of Mexico. In 1896, as a publicity stunt set up by William Crush, the Katy crashed two locomotives head-on, pulling loaded trains, at a site that came to be known thereafter as Crush, Texas; the collision occurred before more than 40,000 spectators, three of whom died by debris from the exploding boilers. The ragtime composer and pianist Scott Joplin, performing in the area at the time, commemorated the event in his song "The Great Crush Collision March". In 1911, the MKT purchased railroad lines held by the industrialist Joseph A. Kemp of Wichita Falls, Texas; these included the Wichita Falls Railway, an 18-mile line between Wichita Falls and Henrietta in Clay County.
Kemp's brother-in-law, Frank Kell, was a partner in some of these lines, including the Wichita Falls and Southern Railroad, which remained a Kemp-Kell property until it was abandoned in 1954. In 1923, the Katy acquired another Kemp/Kell property, the Wichita Falls and Northwestern Railway, which extended from Wichita Falls to Forgan in the Oklahoma Panhandle; the route to Forgan, the Northwestern District of the MKT Railway, was abandoned in January 1973, Altus, became the northern terminus of the branch. The remaining 77-mile link between Wichita Falls and Altus was absorbed in 1991 by the Wichita and Jackson Railway; the Katy acquired the Beaver and Englewood Railroad in 1931. This trackage, like the length between Altus and Forgan, was abandoned in January 1973. From 1915 until January 4, 1959, the Katy, in a joint venture with the St. Louis – San Francisco Railway, operated the Texas Special from St. Louis to Dallas, Ft. Worth, San Antonio, it sported rail cars with names including Sam Houston, Stephen F. Austin, David Crockett, James Bowie after prominent men of the state.
On August 12, 1988 the Missouri Pacific Railroad and its owner, Union Pacific Corporation, purchased the Katy with approval from the Interstate Commerce Commission. The merging and restructuring of railroads during the 1980s had cost the Katy much overhead traffic, it had been seeking a merger partner. On December 1, 1989 the Katy was merged into the MoPac, now part of the Union Pacific Railroad system. In the "rails to trails" program, much of the
Oklahoma's 3rd congressional district
Oklahoma's Third Congressional District is the largest congressional district in the state, covering an area of 34,088.49 square miles, over 48 percent the state's land mass. The district is bordered by New Mexico, Colorado and the Texas panhandle. Altogether, the district includes a total of 32 counties, covers more territory than the state's other four districts combined, it is one of the largest districts in the nation. As of 2015, the district is represented by Republican Frank Lucas. Prior to 2003, most of the territory now in the 3rd district was in the 6th district. Meanwhile, from 1915 to 2003, the 3rd district was located in southeastern Oklahoma, an area known as Little Dixie, it had a different voting history from the current 3rd. It was the district of Carl Albert, Speaker of the House from 1971 to 1977; the district borders New Mexico to the west and Kansas to the north, the Texas panhandle to the south. To the far west, the district includes the three counties of the Oklahoma Panhandle, Harper, Woodward, Major, Grant, Kay, Osage, Creek, Lincoln, Kingfisher, Canadian, Custer, Rogers Mills, Washita, Kiowa, Greer and Jackson.
Some of the principal cities in the district include Guymon, Ponca City, Enid, Yukon, Guthrie and Altus. It includes portions of Oklahoma City and Tulsa. Half of the district's inhabitants are urban and 3 percent of adults working in the district use public transportation, ride a bike, or walk; the district's population is 3 percent foreign-born. The political success of the Republican party in the region is tied to the state's settlement patterns. Northwest Oklahoma was settled out of Kansas while southeast was settled by Southerners that brought with them Democratic traditions; the Great Depression hurt the GOP, but it has since regained its place in the state, the growing social conservative bent in the state has allowed it to overtake the Democrats. It is now one of the most Republican districts in the nation. George W. Bush received 72 percent of the district's vote in 2004. Oklahoma's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress.
New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present