In music, harmony is the process by which the composition of individual sounds, or superpositions of sounds, is analysed by hearing. This means occurring frequencies, pitches, or chords; the study of harmony involves chords and their construction and chord progressions and the principles of connection that govern them. Harmony is said to refer to the "vertical" aspect of music, as distinguished from melodic line, or the "horizontal" aspect. Counterpoint, which refers to the relationship between melodic lines, polyphony, which refers to the simultaneous sounding of separate independent voices, are therefore sometimes distinguished from harmony. In popular and jazz harmony, chords are named by their root plus various terms and characters indicating their qualities. In many types of music, notably baroque, romantic and jazz, chords are augmented with "tensions". A tension is an additional chord member that creates a dissonant interval in relation to the bass. In the classical common practice period a dissonant chord "resolves" to a consonant chord.
Harmonization sounds pleasant to the ear when there is a balance between the consonant and dissonant sounds. In simple words, that occurs; the term harmony derives from the Greek ἁρμονία harmonia, meaning "joint, concord", from the verb ἁρμόζω harmozō, " fit together, join". In the past, harmony referred to the whole field of music, while music referred to the arts in general. In Ancient Greece, the term defined the combination of contrasted elements: a lower note, it is unclear whether the simultaneous sounding of notes was part of ancient Greek musical practice. In the Middle Ages the term was used to describe two pitches sounding in combination, in the Renaissance the concept was expanded to denote three pitches sounding together. Aristoxenus wrote a work entitled Harmonika Stoicheia, thought the first work in European history written on the subject of harmony, it was not until the publication of Rameau's Traité de l'harmonie in 1722 that any text discussing musical practice made use of the term in the title, although that work is not the earliest record of theoretical discussion of the topic.
The underlying principle behind these texts is that harmony sanctions harmoniousness by conforming to certain pre-established compositional principles. Current dictionary definitions, while attempting to give concise descriptions highlight the ambiguity of the term in modern use. Ambiguities tend to arise from either aesthetic considerations or from the point of view of musical texture (distinguishing between harmonic and "contrapuntal". In the words of Arnold Whittall: While the entire history of music theory appears to depend on just such a distinction between harmony and counterpoint, it is no less evident that developments in the nature of musical composition down the centuries have presumed the interdependence—at times amounting to integration, at other times a source of sustained tension—between the vertical and horizontal dimensions of musical space; the view that modern tonal harmony in Western music began in about 1600 is commonplace in music theory. This is accounted for by the replacement of horizontal composition, common in the music of the Renaissance, with a new emphasis on the vertical element of composed music.
Modern theorists, tend to see this as an unsatisfactory generalisation. According to Carl Dahlhaus: It was not that counterpoint was supplanted by harmony but that an older type both of counterpoint and of vertical technique was succeeded by a newer type, and harmony comprises not only the structure of chords but their movement. Like music as a whole, harmony is a process. Descriptions and definitions of harmony and harmonic practice may show bias towards European musical traditions. For example, South Asian art music is cited as placing little emphasis on what is perceived in western practice as conventional harmony. Pitch simultaneity in particular is a major consideration. Many other considerations of pitch are relevant to the music, its theory and its structure, such as the complex system of Rāgas, which combines both melodic and modal considerations and codifications within it. So, intricate pitch combinations that sound do occur in Indian classical music—but they are studied as teleological harmonic or contrapuntal progressions—as with notated Western music.
This contrasting emphasis manifests itself in the different methods of performance adopted: in Indian Music improvisation takes a major role in the structural framework of a piece, whereas in Western Music improvisation has been uncommon since the end of the 19th century. Where it does occur in Western music, the improvisation either embellishes pre-notated music or draws from musical models established in notated compositions, therefore uses familiar harmonic schemes. Emphasis on the precomposed in European art music and the
Yuri Gurevich is an American computer scientist and mathematician and the inventor of abstract state machines. He is Principal Researcher at Microsoft Research, where he founded the Foundations of Software Engineering group, he is professor emeritus at the University of Michigan. Gurevich was educated in the Soviet Union, taught in Israel before coming to the United States; the best known work of his Soviet period is on the classical decision problem. In Israel, Gurevich worked with Saharon Shelah on monadic second-order theories; the Forgetful Determinacy Theorem of Gurevich–Harrington is of that period as well. As far as his American period is concerned, Gurevich is best known for his work on finite model theory and the theory of abstract state machines, he has contributed to average-case complexity theory. Gurevich is an ACM Fellow, a Guggenheim Fellow, a member of Academia Europaea, Dr. Honoris Causa of Hasselt University in Belgium and of Ural State University in Russia. In 2014 he became one of ten inaugural fellows of the European Association for Theoretical Computer Science.
Gurevich's Homepage Yuri Gurevich, Mathematics Genealogy Project
Sean Ryan is an American football coach and former player. He is the quarterbacks coach for the Detroit Lions of the National Football League. Ryan is considered by many NFL insiders to be one of the best up-and-coming offensive coaches in the league and is cited for his development of young players. A native of Hudson Falls, New York, Ryan was a standout football and baseball player at Hudson Falls High School. Ryan played safety and outside linebacker at Hamilton College, where he graduated in 1994 with a degree in American studies, he earned a master's degree in higher education administration from University at Albany. Ryan began his coaching career in 1997 as a Quarterbacks coach at Siena College in Loudonville, NY, he moved on to become a Graduate Assistant at the University of Albany from 1998-1999. Ryan was the running backs coach at Colgate University in 2000 Ryan spent two years as a graduate assistant at Boston College, where he worked with the wide receivers; the Eagles won bowl games in each of those seasons, beating Georgia in the 2001 Music City Bowl and Toledo in the 2002 Motor City Bowl.
Ryan was as an assistant coach at Columbia University for three seasons. In 2003 and 2004, Ryan was special teams coordinator; the following season, Ryan coached was promoted to quarterbacks coach. In 2006, Ryan was the recruiting coordinator, running backs coach and head coach of the junior varsity squad at Harvard University. After his time at Harvard, Ryan joined Tom Coughlin's staff as an offensive quality control coach. In Ryan's first year with the Giants, the team secured the third Super Bowl victory in team history when the Giant's upset the unbeaten 2007 New England Patriots 17-14 in Super Bowl XLII, earning his first Super Bowl Ring. In 2010, Ryan was promoted to a position he held for two seasons. During his first stint as wide receiver's coach, Ryan is credited with the development of star players such as Hakeem Nicks, Mario Manningham and undrafted free agent Victor Cruz. In 2011, the unit helped the Giants set a franchise record with 4,734 net passing yards en route to the team's second Super Bowl in four years when the Giants defeated the Patriots in Super Bowl XLVI.
In 2012, he was promoted to Giants' quarterback coach and was put in charge of 2002 first overall pick David Carr and two-time Super Bowl MVP and 2004 first overall pick, Eli Manning. In Ryan's first year as Quarterback coach, Giant's Quarterback Eli Manning finished the season with 26 touchdown passes, 15 interceptions, 3,948 passing yards and made the 2012 Pro Bowl. In 2014, Ryan was reassigned to coach the wide receivers when Ben McAdoo was named the offensive coordinator after Kevin Gilbride's retirement; the Giants drafted Odell Beckham Jr twelfth overall in the 2014 out of LSU. Ryan was instrumental in the rapid development of Beckham Jr. who shattered all franchise rookie records with 91 passes for 1,305 yards and 12 touchdowns. Under Ryan's tutelage, Beckham was selected to the 2015 Pro Bowl, the Associated Press’ Offensive Rookie of the Year and was awarded the 2014 Pro Football Writers NFL Offensive Rookie of the Year Award. On January 15, 2016, Ryan was hired to be the Houston Texans Wide Receiver Coach.
Michael Devine is a footballer. Devine began playing football with Springfield FC in Cobh, County Cork, where he was capped at U15 and U16 levels, thereafter signed for English team Middlesbrough. Devine spent four years at Ayresome Park learning his trade before he moved on to Newcastle United and non-league Northallerton, he returned to Ireland to link up with Cobh Wanderers and subsequently joined League of Ireland First Division club Cobh Ramblers. Devine made his Cobh debut in August 1993 as a substitute against Cork City in a League Cup tie, he joined League of Ireland Premier Division club Waterford United in 1998 and impressed earning a club record £30,000 transfer to Cork City. The transfer came as City and manager Derek Mountfield were in need of a keeper following a training ground injury to first choice'keeper Noel Mooney, Devine's form saw him retain the goalkeeper's jersey after Mooney returned to full fitness. Noted for excellent shot stopping and spectacular saves, Devine became the "closed door" behind City's defence winning the League of Ireland championship in 2005 with many critics speculating on a senior Ireland call-up.
He returned to the Blues in January 2009. He signed for Cork City in March 2010. "Mick Devine signs for Cork City".. He left the club that year. Cork CityLeague of Ireland: 2005 FAI Cup: 2007 Setanta Sports Cup: 2008 SWAI Goalkeeper of the Year: 2005 Extratime.ie: Devine rejects new Cork City contract Extratime.ie Devine and Duggan link up with Cork
"Feeling Pulled Apart by Horses" and "The Hollow Earth" are songs by Thom Yorke of the English alternative rock band Radiohead, produced by longtime Radiohead producer Nigel Godrich. They were self-released as a double A-side 12-inch single on 21 September 2009 and as a download on 6 October 2009; the vinyl was limited to 8000 copies worldwide."Feeling Pulled Apart by Horses" began as a Radiohead song, first performed in 2001. Yorke described "The Hollow Earth" as a "bass menace" that came from the recording sessions for his first solo album, The Eraser. Radiohead performed an early version of "Feeling Pulled Apart by Horses" with the title "Reckoner" in 2001, which Yorke likened to heavy metal. Pitchfork described this version as a "droning rocker", Rolling Stone wrote that it featured "one of the loudest and most sinister riffs in Radiohead's catalog". In 2005, Yorke performed the song solo on acoustic guitar at a Trade Justice Movement show. Working on the song for their 2007 album In Rainbows, Radiohead added a coda that became a different song with the same name, "Reckoner".
In 2009, Yorke and Radiohead guitarist Jonny Greenwood reworked the original song as "Feeling Pulled Apart by Horses", with bass, "glitchy" drums, "disembodied" vocals, an extended synthesiser coda. Pitchfork gave "Feeling Pulled Apart By Horses" a positive review, writing: "Quartering, in medieval times, meant being pulled apart by horses. DEAD AIR SPACE - Radiohead's blog with Yorke's announcement
Saad Natiq Naji is an Iraqi footballer who plays for Al-Shorta in the Iraqi Premier League as a defender and defensive midfielder. Born in Najaf Saad went through the Al-Najaf FC youth system and made his senior debut with his home club under Hatif Shamran in 2009 and was part of the club’s first team for two seasons; however it was in the Iraqi capital that Saad made his name, when he joined Doura-based oil refinery club Al-Masafi in the south of Baghdad where he played for three seasons – earning his selection to the Iraqi U-19s. It was under Hakim Shaker that Saad Natiq or Suad Natiq – the English spelling in his passport became one of the nation’s recognised defenders. Saad Natiq was born in 1990 according to the identification card issued by the Ministry of Youth this year however his passport states March 19, 1994 – allowing him to play for the Iraqi Under 19s at the FIFA World U-20 Cup in Turkey, it was his spell at Al-Masafi under the command of trainers Hassan Ahmed and Nadhim Shaker that he developed as a player and was transformed into a strong tackling centre half after used in several positions at the club including at right back having first started out as a midfield anchor in his early days atAl-Najaf.
In the summer of 2014, the defender was signed by his former Al-Masafi club coach Nadhim Shaker to play for Al-Quwa Al-Jawiya after his club were relegated to the first division. Saad Natiq signed for Al Arabi for the 2017/18 season, he made his debut on September 17 against Al Sailiya. He scored his first goal in the Qatar Stars League against Al Rayyan on November 19, with his second coming in the same match. On August 26, 2015, Natiq made his first international appearance for Iraq against Lebanon in a friendly match. Al-Quwa Al-JawiyaAFC Cup 2016 Winner 2018 Winner Iraq FA Cup 2015–16 Winner Iraqi Premier League: 16-17 WinnerAl-ShortaIraqi Super Cup 2019 Winner Iraq U-20FIFA U-20 World Cup 4th-place: 2013Iraq U-23Asian Games bronze-medal: 2014 Saad Natiq – FIFA competition record Saad Natiq at Soccerway